01 June 2012

TOCHTA ~ various meanings

NOTE this post has been revised 29.8.2019

Posted on UM-forum 12 April 2012 - 04:42 PM

No slave of another, nor of his ...?

The following is one of the key fragments of the OLB. However, I think the existing translations do not make enough sense:

[011/15]
THÉRA ALLÉNA MÉI IK AS FRY KÀNNA
THÉR NÉN SLÁF IS FON ÉN ÔTHER
NI FON SINE TOCHTA


[Ottema 1876, p.19]
hem alleen mag ik als vrij erkennen
die geen slaaf is van een ander
noch van zijne driften
[this one is best so far, actually]

[Jensma 2006, p.93]
die alleen kan ik als Fries [!] kennen
die geen slaaf is van een ander
noch van zijn hartstochten
['hartstocht' (i.e. passion) is usually interpreted as positive in Dutch]

[Sandbach 1876, p.19]
him only can I recognise as free
who is neither a slave to another
nor to himself [i.e. his ...?]

[Sandbach avoided the issue]

[Raubenheimer 2011, p.330]
him only can I recognise as free
who is neither a slave to another
nor to his own passions

['passions' like 'hartstocht' can be intertpreted as positive: 'passionate']

[Wirth 1933, p.17]
nur den allein mag ich als freien anerkennen,
der kein Sklave ist eines anderen,
noch seiner eigenen Leidenschaften (=> passions)

[Ott, 2019]
only those can I consider as free 
whom is neither the slave of another, 
nor of an addiction.*

* The Dutch word for 'addiction' is 'verslaving' (i.e. 'enslavement') and the German word is 'Sucht'.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This is what the pre-OLB Oldfrisian dictionaries say:

Wiarda (1786) under "thinzia" (to think):
Tocht = der Gedanke.
'Ende openberia da tochten der Herten' = und offenbare die Gedanken der Herzen
=> Thought (english)




=> According to Wiarda "tocht" is "thought", and "hartstocht" (passion) is actually "hearts-thought"!

Hettema (1832)

Tocht = gedachte => thought



Richthofen (1840)

tocht = zucht, tuchte => passion, discipline (dutch: tocht, tucht, zucht)
tochta = gedanke => thought (dutch: gedachte)



~ ~ ~

In modern Dutch, the word "tocht" can have different meanings:

- journey, trek, trip
- draught, draft, breeze
- lust to mate (copulate), mostly used for cows (Westfrisian dictionary)

As we saw, in Oldfrisian it could also mean:

- thought (noun; in the Westfrisian dialect the past tense of the verb 'to think' is "docht")
- passion (lust in general, still commonly used in "hartstocht")
- discipline ("tucht" in modern Dutch)

In the OLB, the word-root TOCHT appears 34 times, and varieties: THOCHT 2x, THOGT 1x => total 37 times.

In 8 of these 37 fragments, the meaning is obviously: journey, trek, trip

[004/32] MÀN MOT TÁLA HJAM [...] WRA FÀRA SÉ.TOCHTA

[028/16] SIN THÉR VPPA TOCHT VMKUME SA MOTON HJARA NÉSTUN. HJARA DÉL ERVA

[053/12] UT THESSE TOCHTE IS THJU SKÉDNESE FON WODIN BERN

[073/32] HJU MACHTE FRYA UTTOCHTE

[085/23] THA GRÁTE FLÁTE WÉRE VPPEN FÉRE TOCHT ÚT

[121/31] THI TOCHT HLIP SVNDER FARDÉL TO.N.ENDE

[122/25] HI NE THVRADE SIN TOCHT NAVT VRFATA

[123/23] I SKILE JET.EN LITHGE TOCHT TO SINRA WILLE DVAN

~ ~ ~

In seven cases, it is used in the combination LIF-TOCHTA, meaning: victuals, provisions, food for during travelling. In these seven as well as the above eight, "tocht" would be derived from a word that we discussed recently; "tijgen" (past: toog, perfect: getogen).

[029/02] SAHWERSA EN MÉNTE EN FLÀTE TO RÉTH. MOTON THA RÉDAR NJVDA FÁRA BESTE LIF.TOCHTUN

[057/09] HIR SELLADON HJA ALLERHANNE LIF.TOCHTA

[080/06] BROCHTON HJA HJARA AJNE WÉPNE ÀND LIFTOCHTA WÉI

[080/13] THATET FORMA SKIP MITH LIFTOCHTA FONA KÁD FÁREN WAS

[125/03] FORTH GVNGON WI SALT-ÁTHA LIFTOCHTA ÀND WÉPNE FÁRA

[125/26] THÉR HINNE BROCHTON WI SINA SALT.ÁTHA ÁND LIFTOCHTA VVR

~ ~ ~

Furthermore, there are eleven fragments in which TOCHT, THOCHT, THOGT are obviously related to thinking (past tense).

Specially note VN.ÀFTER.TOCHTLIKA => 'un-after-thouht-like' (unsuspicious).

[039/28] THA HÉRA BILÉVON WELDA NÉI THAT IR GOD THOCHTE

[066/06] JAHWEDER TOCHTE THÀT HJU INNA LOGHA OMKVMA MOSTE

[071/01] TILTHJU HJA TOCHTON THAT EN FORSTENE WÉRE

[079/23] VPPA MÉNA ACHT TOCHTE MÀN AL ÉN

[102/17] ÁK NE MÉI NÉN MÀNNISKA NAVT NE SEDSA IK THÀNK. MEN BLÁT IK THOCHTE

[105/03] THISSA WROCHTON ÀND TOCHTON TO SÉMINE

[126/09] HI THOGTE THÀT.IM ELLA FRY STVNDE

[144/28] HWAND TOCHT IK NV WI NÉNE MODER LÔNGER NAVT NÀVE [...]

[153/02] THES DÉIS VRSKALKTH.I THÉR SINA VN.ÀFTER.TOCHTLIKA FRJUNDA IN

[206/05] THÀ IK THÉR ÀFTERNÉI VR NÉI TOCHTE

[207/31] MÀN TOCHTE THÀT.ET ÉTA ÀND DRINKA VRJYVEN WÉRE

~ ~ ~

Dualism (philosophy of mind)
In philosophy of mind, dualism is the assumption that mental phenomena are, in some respects non-physical, or that the mind and body are distinct. Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism, in the mind–body problem.
[...]
Dualism is closely associated with the philosophy of René Descartes (1641), which holds that the mind is a nonphysical substance. Descartes clearly identified the mind with consciousness and self-awareness and distinguished this from the brain as the seat of intelligence. Hence, he was the first to formulate the mind–body problem in the form in which it exists today.
(Wiki)

In the OLB, it seems as if no distinction is made between (conscious) thoughts and (subconscious or instinctive) passions. In other words, no distinction between thoughts of the brain and those of the rest of the body.

In a healthy, whole person (mens sana in corpore sano), conscious mind and subconscious feelings are not in conflict. In other words, thoughts of the brain and thoughts of the heart (or genitals) agree.


Here are the last eleven fragments, with the Ottema and Sandbach translations, as well as the current [August 2019] one by me (in blue).

[007/16]
HJRA DÉDA WRDON THRVCH HJRA TOCHTA STJVRAT
[Ottema/Sandbach p.15]
hare daden werden door hare driften bestuurd
her actions were governed by her passions


Her deeds were driven by her passions

[011/15]
THÉRA ALLÉNA MÉI IK AS FRY KÀNNA THÉR NÉN SLÁF IS FON ÉN ÔTHER NI FON SINE TOCHTA
[Ottema/Sandbach p.19]
hem alleen mag ik als vrij erkennen die geen slaaf is van een ander noch van zijne driften
him only can I recognise as free who is neither a slave to another nor to himself

only those can I consider as free whom is neither the slave of another, nor of an addiction

[015/25]
ÉR HJU MITH HIRA TOCHTIGE ÁDAMA THÀT LJUCHT BIWLATH
[Ottema/Sandbach p.25]
eer zij met haar tochtige adem het licht verontreinigt
before her passion shall have polluted the light

before she pollutes the light with her covetous breath

[017/16]
THÉNE HÉLENER. THÉR MOT SJA JEF ER ÁK BISÉTEN IS FON KVADA TOCHTUM [Ottema/Sandbach p.27]
den heelmeester, die moet zien of hij ook bezocht is van kwade tochten
a surgeon to see if he is in good health

the healer — who must determine if he is possessed by evil passions


[063/11]
THRVCH SIN VNTOCHT ÀND HÁCH.FÁRENHÉD. IS ER VAKEN THENE BÁNA SINRA NÉISTA SIBBA WRDEN
[Ottema/Sandbach p.89]
door zijn ontucht en zijne hoovaardigheid is hij vaak de moordenaar zijner naaste bloedverwanten geworden
in his lewdness and his pride is only fit to murder his nearest relations

his lechery and cockiness has often made him kill his nearest relatives.

[081/30]
HWAND SKELET HALDA SÁ MOT ALLERA MANNALIK WÁKA OVIR SIN AJNA TOCHTA. ÀND FORIT MÉNA HELD.
[Ottema/Sandbach p.113]
want zal het stand houden, dan moet iedereen waken over zijn eigene hartstochten en voor het algemeene welzijn.
but if you wish to keep things straight, everybody must watch over his own passions, as well as the general welfare.

rephrased: because we are all responsible for upholding ourselves and the common good.


[102/20]
HY HETH ORA GÉRTNE. TOCHTA ÀND THÀNKWISA
[Ottema/Sandbach p.141]
Hij heeft andere begeerten, neigingen en denkwijze
he has different desires, inclinations, and thoughts

He has other desires, passions and ways of thinking.


[139/22] 2x
THAHWILA HJA WISTON THÀT JES-US LÉRAD HÉDE THÀT MÀN SINA TOCHTA WELDA ÀND BISTJURA MOSTE.
SÁ LÉRDON HJA THÀT MÀN ALLE SINA TOCHTA DÉJA MOSTE

[Ottema/Sandbach p.189]
Ofschoon zij wisten, dat Jessos geleerd had, dat men zijne hartstochten overmeesteren en besturen moest, zoo leerden zij dat men alle zijne hartstochten dooden moest
Although they knew that Jessos had taught that men should regulate and control their passions, they taught that men should stifle their passions

While they knew that Yesus had taught that one should control and direct his passions, they preached that one should kill all his passions

[140/01]
VMB FORTH TO BIWISANE THÀT HIA AL HJARA TOCHTA DÁD HÉDE NAMON HJA NÉNE WIWA
[Ottema/Sandbach p.189]
om voorts te bewijzen, dat zij al hunne zinnelijke lusten gedood hadden, namen zij geene vrouwen
that they had overcome all sensual feelings, they took no wives

to prove furthermore that they had killed all their passions, they took no wives

[160/09]
NV STEMLÉTH NER GELÁT HJARA BOSA TOCHTA NAVT LONGER MAR VRRÉDON.
NV IS DÜGED FON UT HJARA MIDDEN WÉKEN

[Ottema/Sandbach p.217]
Nu het stamelen en de gelaatskleur hunne booze driften niet meer verrieden,
is de deugd van uit haar midden geweken
Now that stammering and blushing no longer betrayed their evil doings;
—virtue passed away


Now that stammering or the face no longer give away their evil thoughts
virtue has vanished from their midst

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