28 July 2017

Word List of Key Terms

Orphan girls with books (1900-1930) by Nicolaas van der Waay

The first draft of the new English translation is now ready. Below I will create a list of key words and names, some of which will be left (almost or in most cases) unchanged, others are interpretations of the original word that need some extra explanation. A list of personal, tribal and geographical names will also be made.

This glossary will grow and evolve in time, until it is published in the coming book. It will also be put in alphabetical order.

Listed first is the word, name or term as it will appear in the translation, then the most common transliteration and eventual spelling varieties.

Frya ~ FRYA (sometimes FRÍA or FRIA)
Name of the (possibly in part) historic, and/or (at least in part) mythic primal Mother of the people that called themselves Fryas, Frya's Folk or Frya's Children (sometimes: Frya's Sons). Although in the original text FRYAS (with -S) is also used for singular (an individual of the tribe), I will also translate this as Frya for clarity. In those cases it is always clear that it does not refer to the primal Mother. The meaning of the adjective fry(a) is "free". As a noun it means "free one" (as opposed to slave).
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [9/18 - 14/7].

Fryas ~ (see: Frya)
Members of the people that considered themselves to be Children of Frya or free ones. Their homeland was Fryasland, but they could also be living in colonies elsewhere. (... will add more)

Wralda ~ WR.ALDA (less frequently WRALDA and once VR.ALDA)
Literal meaning "over-old one" or "most-ancient one". Some people would interpret this as God, others as Logos. The various texts sometimes contradict each other as to how Wralda is to be interpreted. It is also remarkable that the primal doctrines about it were not included in the initial Book of Adela-Followers, contrary to Adela's instructions. This might indicate that the 'theology' had become controversial in Adela's time. Sometimes the word means "world", its modern cognate. Often the word GÁST is added, which can be interpreted both as "Spirit" or "Ghost" (the latter being my choice in the translation): Wralda's Ghost.
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [11/18 - 12/12], [45/03-12], [98/03 - 103/23].

Yol ~ JOL
The sacred six-spoke wheel or Wheel of Time, which was a symbol of Wralda and the basis for the letters and numbers. In combinations with -FÉRSTE, -TID and -DÉI it refers to the annual celebration, now Yule (Dutch/ German: Joel/ Jul). I have spelled it with Y instead of J to better represent the probable pronunciation and make the connection to Yule more obvious. (Also see: Carrier.)
Key fragments: [6/12-19], [45/1 - 47/2], [83/22 - 84/24].

Burg ~ BURCH (sometimes BURGH), plural BURGUM or BURGA
This can also be read as burgh or borough. Some people would rather translate it as "citadel". It is used in combinations, for example with -FÁM (maiden), -WAL (wall or rampart), -WÉPNE (weapons) and in names of specific cities or citadels (Fryasburg, Treasureburg, etc.). Most burgs would have had a tower, on the walls of which laws and histories were written.
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [15/1 - 19/6], [106/10 - 108/32].

Tex ~ TEX
This mostly refers to Frya's Tex (set of primal laws), after which the often mentioned Texland appears to have been named, but the mythic Finda is also said to have left one.
Key fragment: [10/31 - 14/7], [45/13-14].

Steersmen/ -man ~ STJURAR, STJÛRAR (sometimes STJURA)
This can also be read as "navigators", although the term seems to also have been used for sailors in general. In the original text there is no difference between plural and singular (the latter occurring only twice). The Steersmen seem to have been a somewhat separate people, as they are often said to use different words or pronunciations.
Key fragment: [27/12 - 27/9].

Can also be read as Volk, people, nation or race. Often: Frya's Folk (whites), Finda's Folk (yellow or mongrel) and Lyda's Folk (blacks). Also used in combination with Mother: Folk Mother.

Earth ~ JRTHA
This word is often personified (female) and sometimes refers to ore or soil. If Earth in the sense of our planet is meant, the word may have rather associated with the land only, that is: not including seas and oceans. This is not clear, however.
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [49/11 - 50/13], [115/11 - 116/32], [189/15-26].

Sacred Fire ~ FODDIK (plur. -A or -UM)
Could also be read as Flame, Light or Lamp. It had to be kept burning and new ones had to be lit from the original one at Texland. A probable modern cognate is "photo", which originally means "light".
Key fragments: [13/30 - 14/7], [15/2-18], [75/18-23].

Carrier ~ KRODER (once: KRODAR)
Personification of time: the Carrier and his Yol (or: Wheel of Time). The modern Dutch word is "kruier"; someone who operates a wheelbarrow. Related are Krodo from the Saxon Chronicle and Chronos from Greek mythology. (See also: Yol.)
Key fragments: [14/10-11], [35/32 - 36/1], [45/9-12], [71/26-28].

Mother ~ MODER (sometimes MODAR; plur. -A or -UM)
This word is mostly used as an honorary title for the elected Folk Mother or 'mother of the people', but in some cases also for a regular mother. The Mother was chosen from the various Burg Maidens and resided at Texland in Fryasburg. The election of Mothers sometimes caused much discord as the aspiring Burg Maidens could be overly ambitious and jealous. (Also see: Burg, Maiden.)
Key fragments: [13/31 - 14/2], [15/1 - 19/7], [23/7 - 24/4], [82/19 - 85/7], [87/24 - 88/17], [91/14 - 92/29], [117/20 - 118/22], [191/17-27].

Maiden ~ FÁM (plur. FÁMNA; diminutive FÁMKE; sometimes FAM-)
Most burgs had one leading Burg Maiden (BURCH.FÁM, sometimes also called Mother or simply Maiden) and up to 21 regular Maidens (FÁMNA), as well as 7 young apprentices or students (LÉR.FAMKES or SPILLE MANGÉRTA). The Maidens role was to teach, give advice, take care of the ill, and watch over the Sacred Fire. (Also see: Burg, Mother, Sacred Fire.)
Key fragments: [15/8 - 19/6], [62/8 - 63/1], [103/27 - 106/9], [108/7-32], [151/31 - 153/13].

Reeve ~ GRÉVETMAN (sometimes GRÉVA or GRÉVE)
Sometimes GRÉVETMAN and GRÉVA are used as different titles, but sometimes the latter is used to mean the first. Also: VRSTE GRÉVE (supreme reeve). Can also be read as count or earl; the chosen male head of a region or district. Note: GRÉVA sometimes has a different meaning: plural noun "graves" or adjective "grey" (i.e. old man or veteran).
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [20/24], [23/10-17], [27/1], [87/20], [143/8], [144/19], [150/14-16].

King ~ KÉNING, KÀNING or KENING (only twice: KING; plural -GAR)
For the Fryas this was a chosen leader of an army or fleet. In foreign cultures it more had the meaning similar to that of our middle ages (inherited and ruling over the people). Some kings that are explicitly named: Wodin, Ûlysus, Wichhirte, Alexandre, Áskar.
Used in combinations SÉ-, WÉT-, WIT- (Sea-); KÉNINGK.RIK (noun: kingdom), KÉNINGLIK(-E/-A) (adjective: royal). Sometimes synonymous with Army Leader (HÉR.MAN).
Key fragments: [21/15 - 25/2], [152/8-25], [191/1-16].

Sea King ~ (see: King)
Chosen leader of a fleet. Some of the Sea Kings: Tünis, Jon, Friso.
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [27/12 - 29/14], [45/17].

Sea Warriors ~ SÉ.KÀMPAR (also without ".")
This word can also be read as "marines". It is sometimes used in a more neutral, less warlike context, sometimes for what we would call "pirates". Three fragments suggest that a group of Danish sea people took this word as their tribal name (related to Sicambri?).
Key fragments: [15/27-30], [48/27-29], [53/21-30], [131/20-23], [202/6-7].

Sometimes synonymous to King and may also sometimes have meant local ruler. German "Heer" still means army, as well as Dutch "heir" (obsolete). Modern cognates Du/Ge: hertog/ Herzog mean "duke".
Key fragments: [01/30 - 02/2], [3/9], [5/15-19], [16/8-12], [21/15 - 22/7], [53/25], [131/14], [209/27].

Sometimes this word is used for 'nobility' (Du/Ge: edelen/ Edlen). Related "odal" or "othala" rune.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [203/17-18].

Descendants ~ÀFTERKVMAND(-A/-E) (Once: -KOM-)
Literally: 'aftercoming'. Also verb: OFSTAMED (descended); noun: KOM.OF (descent); ERVNÔMA (heirs).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [192/14-31]

Princes ~ FORSTA, sometimes FORSTUM (only 4 times singular: FORST)
Modern cognates Du/Ge: vorst/ Fürst. Literal meaning is first or foremost, which is similar to the original meaning of prince or principal (from Latin primus: first).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Often used in combination with FORSTA, mostly in a very negative sense. Singular PRESTER is only used twice and female PRESTERESSE once. HÁVED.PRESTER: 'head'- or high priest.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/]

Rede ~ RÉD (noun, derived from verb RÉDA)
Can also be read as the more common but Latin-based 'advice' or 'counsel'. However, the archaic, more native 'rede' deserves a revival. Du/Ge: raad/ Rat. The verb 'read' is a modern cognate. (see here)
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Allies ~ ÁTHA, ÁTHUM (ÁTHSKIP: alliance)
Singular ÁTHE does not always translate well as ally, but rather as comrade. Name Athena/ Athens would be derived from this word.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Mercenaries ~ SALT.ATH(-A/-UM)
Literally 'salt-allies'; allies paid with salt, in contrast to voluntary allies or WÉRAR: defenders of their own land or people. Modern cognate soldier (Du/Ge: soldaat/ Soldat) does not fit well as translation, since this could also be interpreted as defender. (Also see: Allies, Defenders.)
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Defenders ~ WÉRAR (from much used verb WÉRA: to defend)
Also used in combination BURCH- and LAND-. This was something honorable, in contrast to SALT.ÁTHA (see: Mercenaries).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Slaves ~ SLÁVONA 29, SLÁFONA 1, SLÁFONUM 2, SLÁVONENA 1 (singular SLÁF 2, SLÁV 1; female SLÁFINE 1; verb SLÁVA 1)
Often used in combination with FOLK or FOLKA(R): slave people(s). Sometimes this word literally means 'slaves', but often it refers to people who were not 'Fryas', in other words unfree people. It is not likely that Slavic peoples were meant, but it is possible that this the name of this race was derived from this word and habit of referring to them. This would be opposite of the ruling notion; that the word 'slave' is derived from the name of these people.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [140/25-26].

Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].


... (not ready yet ~ I am having a summer holiday break)

24 July 2017

STÁKBÉJA ~ stalkberries not stingberries

Still Life with Flowers and Fruits (fragment) by Eelke Jelles Eelkema, 1825, with raspberries or Stengelbeere (stalkberries)

Ottema translated STÁKBÉJA as steekbessen/ doornbessen (gooseberries, lit. stingberries/ thornberries). Sandbach translated that as holly berries/ gooseberries (copied by Raubenheimer). All subsequent translators stuck to Ottema's interpretation of sting- or gooseberries (full fragment and various translations below):
- Wirth: Stechbeeren
- Overwijn, De Heer: kruisbessen
- Jensma: steekbessen
- Menkens: Stachelbeeren
- Lien: stikkelsbær

Since STÁK is used elsewhere once for stake/ stalk/ stock (*), and words related to Dutch 'steken' (stick/ sting/ stab/ poke) are always spelled differently (**), I suggest that a better translation of STÁKBÉJA would be stalkberries. A German-dialect version of this word - Stengelbeere - is known to be used for raspberries:

source: http://www.woerterbuchnetz.de/DWB?lemma=stengelbeere

(*) [066/08]
Terwijl al hare lieden stokstijf van schrik stonden
While all her people stood transfixed [stock and stiff; stock-still] with horror

(**) VPSTÉKA, VPSTÉKEN, STÉKA, STÉKATH, VPSTOKEN, STÀK, FARUTSTÀK, ANSTEKTH, STEK, STEKER, UTSTEKKA - all varieties of Dutch 'steken' (sting, poke, stab, stick, etc.)

# # # Fragment and various translations # # #


Ott 2017 (provisional, not proofread yet):

In the woods here I have seen creep- and stalkberries*.
In our homeland there are berry trees like your linden trees,
the fruits of which are much sweeter
and three times as big as stalkberries.

(*Dutch: staak- or stengelbessen; 'Stengelbeere' is a German dialect word for raspberries)

Ottema 1872 Dutch:

Hier in de wouden heb ik kruip- en steekbessen gezien.
Bij ons zijn bessenboomen zoo groot als uwe lindeboomen,
waarvan de bessen veel zoeter
en driewerf grooter zijn als uwe doornbessen zijn.

Sandbach 1876 English:

I have found in the woods here bramble and holly berries.
In my country we have trees bearing berries, as large as your lime-trees,
the berries of which are much sweeter
and three times as large as your gooseberries.

Wirth 1933 German:

Hier in die Wäldern habe ich Kriech- und Stechbeeren gesehen.
Bei uns sind Beerenbäume wie ihre Lindenbäume,
wovon die Beeren viel süsser
und drei mal grösser als Stechbeeren sind.

Overwijn 1951 Dutch:

Hier in de wouden heb ik bos- en kruisbessen gezien.
Bij ons zijn bessenbomen zo groot als uw lindebomen,
waarvan de bessen veel zoeter
en driemaal zo groot als kruisbessen zijn.

Jensma 2006 Dutch:

Hier in de wouden heb ik kruip- en steekbessen gezien.
Bij ons zijn bessenbomen als uw lindebomen,
waarvan de bessen veel zoeter
en drie keer groter dan steekbessen* zijn.
(*"klaarblijkelijk kruisbessen")

De Heer 2008 Dutch:
Hier in de wouden heb ik bos en kruisbessen gezien.
Bij ons zijn bes-bomen als uw lindebomen,
waarvan de bessen veel zoeter
en driemaal groter als kruisbessen zijn.

Raubenheimer 2011 English:

I have seen bramble and holly berries in the woods here.
In our country there are berry trees like your lime-trees,
the berries of which are much sweeter than
and three times as big as your gooseberries.

Menkens 2013 German:

Hier in den Wäldern habe ich Kriech- und Stachelbeeren gesehen.
Bei uns gibt es Beerenbäume (so groß) wie Eure Lindenbäume,
von denen die Beeren viel süßer
und dreimal größer als Stachelbeeren sind.

Lien 2013 Norse:I skogene her har jeg sett krype- [blåbringebær] og stikkelsbær*.
Hos oss er bærtrær som deres lindetrær,
hvorpå bærene er mye søtere
og tre ganger større enn stikkelsbær.


other example of 'creeping berries' from: "Historische beschryving der reizen..." (1750) by Pieter de Hond

18 July 2017

Yes-us from Kashmir

[139/08] in the end they said that Yes-us was a god

The Oera Linda-book (first published in Dutch translation by Dr. J.G. Ottema in 1872) contains a narrative about a Jes-us or Yes-us from Kashmir:
  • who would have lived ca. 600 BCE, 
  • who would also have been known as Buda, Kris-en and Fo
  • who would have been a wise teacher that was deified after his death.
The narrative suggests that Yes-us was one of the names of Buddha, which raises the question if Jesus of Nazareth (whether historic of mythic) might have been named after this earlier Yes-us. [I wrote this before I studied the works of Joseph Atwill, which I highly recommend.]
Note: Although I have transliterated the name as JES.US, I prefer spelling in English as Yes-us, since the J in Dutch and German is pronounced as English Y, not as J (dj). Compare English: "Yule" vs. Dutch/ German: "Jul"/ "Joel". Ottema translated the name as Jessos, which was copied in the English translation by Sandbach (1876).
If Yes-us (whatever spelling) was indeed one of many names of Buddha (which is not impossible), one can imagine why both Christian and Buddhist authorities would have hidden or destroyed sources about it.

~ ~ ~ 

First, some quoted fragments by way of introduction (my italics).

Ottema (1804-1879)
Dr. J.G. Ottema (1873) "Geschiedkundige Aanteekeningen en Ophelderingen bij Thet Oera Linda Bok" (p.28, my provisional translation from Dutch):
Jes.us, Jessos, Jess
With the expulsion of Buddhism from Kashmir and its dispersion to the east, the name Jess seems to have disappeared and been replaced in the legend by Gautama and Sakyamuni. The influence of Buddha's teaching, however, seems to have spread westwards too, with the Fire-worshippers of Aria, the Persians and those in Azerbaijan, the latter having kept the memory of Buddha's first name in their name Yezidis. Likewise with the Slavic peoples, among which the Old-Polish mythology uses the name Jess for the supreme godhead as well as for the greatest of planets, Jupiter.
Fo is the common Chinese name for Buddha.
Krisen: In India, Buddha is regarded to be the ninth Avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu and a continuation of the Avatar of Krishna, which would make Buddha the reborn Krishna.

Volney (1757-1820)
C. F. Volney (1791, translated 1802 from French) "The Ruines; Or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires and the Law of Nature"
(...) so that the existence of Jesus is no better proved than that of Osiris and Hercules, or that of Fot or Beddou, with whom (...) the Chinese continually confound him, for they never call Jesus by any other name than Fot.
Christianity, or the Allegorical Worship of the Sun, under the cabalistical names of Chrish-en, or Christ, and Ye-sus or Jesus.
"Finally, these traditions went so far as to mention even his astrological and mythological names, and inform us that he was called sometimes Chris, that is to say, preserver, and from that, ye Indians, you have made your god Chrish-en or Chrish-na; and, ye Greek and Western Christians, your Chris-tos, son of Mary, is the same; sometimes he is called Yes, by the union of three letters, which by their numerical value form the number 608, one of the solar periods. And this, Europeans, is the name which, with the Latin termination, is become your Yes-us or Jesus, the ancient and cabalistic name attributed to young Bacchus, the clandestine son (nocturnal) of the Virgin Minerva, who, in the history of his whole life, and even of his death, brings to mind the history of the god of the Christians, that is, of the star of day, of which they are each of them the emblems."

Strabo book 15, chapter 1, section 59, with translation Hamilton & Falconer, 1903 (source):
῎αλλην δὲ διαίρεσιν ποιεῖται περὶ τῶν φιλοσόφων, δύο γένη φάσκων, ὧν τοὺς μὲν Βραχμᾶνας καλεῖ τοὺς δὲ Γαρμᾶνας.
Megasthenes divides the philosophers again into two kinds, the Brachmanes and the Garmanes*. (*translators' note: Brahmins and Sarmanes)
~ ~ ~

Translation of chapter 15c. here, manuscript pages and edited transcription start here.

16 July 2017

Tribes west of Panj-ab or Indus River ~ maps

Note: in the Oera Linda-book Pang-ab does not refer to what is now the Punjab region, but to the river that is now Indus River.


Ott 2017 (provisional, not proofread yet!):
To the west of the Panj-ab the 'Íra' or wrathful live,
as well as the 'Gedrostne' or runaways,
and the 'Oryetten' or forgotten.

Ottema 1872 Dutch:
Bewesten Pangab zijn de Yren (Iraniers) of wrangen (Drangianen),
de Gedrosten (Gedrosiers) of weggeloopenen,
en de Urgetten* of vergetenen.

(*corrected: Orgetten (Oriten))

Sandbach 1876 English:
To the west of the Punjab are the Yren (Iraniers), or morose (Drangianen),
the Gedrosten (Gedrosiers), or runaways,
and the Urgetten*, or forgotten.

(*Sandbach did not take Ottema's correction into account)

Wirth 1933 German:
Im westen des Pangabs sind die Ira oder 'Wranga' (sauren; Drangiana?),
die Gedrostne (Gedrosia?) oder Vertriebenen
und die Orjetten oder Vergessenen.

Overwijn 1951 Dutch: 
Ten Westen van Pangab zijn de Yren (Iraniërs) of Wrangen (Drangianen),
de Gedrosiërs (of weggelopenen)
en de Urjetten (Oriten) (of vergetenen).

Jensma 2006 Dutch:
Bewesten Punjab daar zijn de Yren oftewel bozen,
de Gedrossiërs oftewel weggebritten
en de Orjetten oftewel vergetenen.

(Yren - Ariërs/ Gedrosië is een streek ten westen van de Indus/ Oreiten, Indisch volk, woonachtig boven het tegenwoordige Karachi)

De Heer 2008 Dutch:
Ten Westen van Pangab daar zijn de Yren ofwel Wrangen.
De Gedrosiërs ofwel weggelopenen,
en de Orjetten ofwel vergetenen.

Raubenheimer 2011 English: 
To the west of the Pangab are the Ira, or Wranga,
the Gedrostne, or runaways,
and the Orietten, or forgotten.

Menkens 2013 German: 
Beim West-Pangab gibt es die Yren oder Wrangen,
die Gedrosier oder Weggezogenen
und die Huriter oder Vergessenen.

Lien 2013 Norse: 
Vest for Pangab, der er ir(an)erne eller ’de vrange’,
gedroserne eller ’rømlingene’,
og orittene eller ’de glemte’.

A´RIA (: region/ Arians: people) ~ Ἄρια
GEDRO´SIA (:region/ Gedrosii: people) ~ Γεδρωσία
ORITAE (: people) ~ Ὠρεῖται

(This post is not ready yet. Please come back later)

15 July 2017

Chronicles of Eri ~ notes

Three years ago, I read the Chronicles of Eri, part 1 and part2, and referred to them a few times on the forum, as summarised here and here (use control-F). For future use, either by me or other researchers, the notes that I made are posted below.

title pages of part 1

Chronicles of Eri - some notes at first reading.


xxxii - Cecrops from Egypt -> Attica

xxxiv - Priestcraft!!! 2nd paragraph

xxxvii - Adele (Greek) - obscure, uncertain

xl - Ion, general of the Athenian forces --- quote Jopsephus!!!

xliii - Ellen (Hellenja) and Jon / Thessaly, Pelasgi

xlvii - Israel slaves

The first people in the register of time who confederated, arms in their hands, premeditated evil in their hearts, to molest a kindred people, were the children of Israel; but they had been 215 years in bondage in a strange land, and slavery vitiates the soul, corrupts the mind, and changes as it were the essential qualities of man; they had for a long season felt themselves deserted, and forgotten by the world, save their taskmasters, in whose practices towards them they only recognized the ways of man.

lvii - Pt. 2: idea that Scandinavia parent state of Scythians ridiculed by Connor

lx - Nice criticism of Christianity

lxviii - IV Scythian goths = cimmerii = cimbri = germanni

xcii, 92 - Sidon as origin Spanish Skyths

101 - Nice about Great Flood

Fryas = Cimmerii and Celtae - Cimbri, Germanni
"why so many nations and countries had quite other names amongst their neighbours, than what was usually known amongst themselves"

131 - Vesta and Fire Service

143 - Part XII Language

cl - Word root Magy - mag

152 - Ur-o-maz or Ur-a-mas persian primal god - fire how excellent

clxxxviii - Begin of word list

Here also: Giola (GOLA?) - messenger, servant (greek: aggelos)

Bbachal - staf (bacchus?)
Kai - et - ocas (and) --- ogsa, also

225 - reacht - rectum (right, law) --- rjucht

229 - Phoenicia, palmland

239 - Venus, fen - woman (finda?)

259 - Language cimbri, germani

260 - Tudesque - thjudisk

367 - Argyle - Ardgael - highlands of the Gaal, which were the Sciot (Skythen)

349 - (Conclusion) ... Gaal Sciot Ib-eir, who emigrated from Iber, by the way of Sidon and the Mediterranean to the north western quarter of Spain, to which they gave the name of Gaelag, where having abided for the space of 120 years, Eolus the then chief journeyed to Sidon, where he learned the use of letters, whither he shortly afterwards sent nine of the wisest  of the people to be instructed in that science.

352 - Cyrus, the Elamite or Persian Scythian, (whose mother was ### Mandane ###, the daughter of Astyages, the Median Assyrian)

Idem: I shall make a few observations that will produce the effect of putting to silence for ever more the senseless political fictions of Sasson scribblers, by their oligarchy, ...

357 - Sassons, language
"And that the language of Eri, or Gneat Bearla, is that spoken by the Scytho-Iberian, Naol-Maid-eis, Ogeageis, improved to the Bearla Fcine, or Phcenician language, by the aid of letters, a dialect of the Persian, Hebrew, Greek, Roman, and Gothic, as written in Gaelag 1365 years before Christ, ..." etc

360 - "If I have..." and "Have I shewn..."

361 - "... the migrations of this tribe from Magh-Seanar, by Euphrates, to the Araxes, and Iberia in Magh-Og, from thence to Gaelag, by the way of Sidon and the Mediterranean, and ultimately to this Eri."

36 - (434) "... instruct the Gaal to beware of the devices of the children of Feine, they are covetous, they are deceitful, with their lips they give honour to Baal, in works they have respect for riches only." => FINDA

38 - "In the language of Eri, Eolus means wisdom" => JOL (yolus) later also IOLAR (name)

52/ 450 (A) priests of Sydon!!!!!

60 and onwards - Very negative about priests like in OLB

Similarities Gaal-Fryas:
Fire Dervice,
Priest criticism,
Folk = children of ...
"Priests of Sidon",
Children of Feina (?)(Finda?)

- Very different language and style (with some similarities and overlap)
- Gaal is purely male culture contrary to matriarchy/ wise women
- 'Godhead' (creator) "Baal" = sun
- Inheritance of power

title pages of part 2


14 (20) - Different mentality: "Er taketh delight in the lessons of wisdom, he chargeth the Olam to nourish the fire of the spirit of the youth, that he and his race may rule over men."

23 - IOLAR means eagle

24 - "Shun Casantir eider, go not to the land of metals. The children of Feine have fair words on their lips, their hearts are treacherous, the fire of their spirit burneth too fiercely ; is it not continually fanned by the breath of avarice ?"

31 - <<In these days came a ship, with men of Feine, with letters, saying, "Let my servants search through thy land for metals of precious things, if any such are to be found therein, and ye shall have one twentieth part, and my servants will pay for whatever they have from thee. Let there be a covenant between thee and me." ...  deceit is in the heart, falsehood is in the tongue of Feine.>>
+ important part about priests and statues Baal, Sul, Re!!!

34 . Footnote c: children of Feine = Phoenicians // note d about image worship

48-50 - (Note b) flood as metafore for invasion!!! (compare Hidde 1256 AD)

62 - Note g - Great tirade against priesthoods

64 - Note a - envy between Olam and priests

81 - "When the children of Feine thought to throw chains of slavery over them, did not our fathers escape from them?"

98 - Erimionn: about priests and princes/ kings, very interesting

100 - The 5 new laws (some cancelled)

105 - "Sons of Golam"

106 - New laws

107 - "Shall one have spoken falsely of another, let the false one suffer in the like manner as he designed against the other, and let the like be observed in all cases for ever."

119 - "Race of Golam"

124 - "And the Gaal do complain that the priests terrify their minds with evil spirits of the air, over which Baal hath given dominion unto them:
Therefore the Carneac move not without an offering,
But of these things no words are spoken aloud, only from the mouth of one to the ear of another, for fear is on the minds of the Gaal because of the priests." ???KERENAK??? Carneac

Difference style:
Baal enters his house ...
and it was so

146 - "Saorlam rose, and he did speak of the glory of his race, and how the Danan were borne on the waves of the sea, the old world before the world that is, felt the heat of the sun." => Reference ALDLAND???

161-162 - Interesting piece - mind control

202 - Again year count 7th century BCE; so very much in 8th, 7th century BCE

208 - About original in possession author

215 - Important part on priests-Baal

217 - Name oiliol 'bèrn' gael!!! --- many references 'kings, princes, nobles'

218 and onwards - Serious war threat 6th century BCE

222 - 'Bearngael'

230 - Footnote about names 'bear-' --- also a remark about war after long time of peace

242 - Baal temples - religion

243 - Important part idem

246 - Metal mining begin, new chariots for 2 horses

253 - 'Chief of maginis'

255 - Digging canals

261 - Boys in small boat - ancestors came with "ships of the merchants" + following part!

265 - Footnote 2 - original was thus at least of 6th century BCE

267 - Enemy of Gaal in durable houses, ca. 500 BCE - war on mainland!

270 - Gaal buried their dead

273-4 - Significant footnote - phoenicians, mineslaves, brigantes

279 - Extreme cruelty

287 - Taxing for army

288 - Metaphor: wolf-shepard

294 - Cruelty

298 - Priests sow discord and warmonger: Danan friends of race Er: converse with spirits of the deep, not Baal

301 - Cruel revenge (eye for eye-like)

310 - Names blotted out from the rolls

327 - Words Baal known to cruimtear only

328 - The waters of Athluan!!!

339 - Mighty slaughter: priests poured the sound of their voices into the hearts of the men of Gaelen

341 - Nice: "And the eye of the damsel spake unto his heart tenderly; in the silence of their tongues their eyes held converse deliciously."

344 - Chief of Rathbot...

351 - "It is safer to put confidence in a thousand women than in one man; man is treacherous, he is full of deceit. Use woman tenderly, and she will return thy tenderness one thousand fold."

362 - Maca, first queen! ca 300 BCE

375 - Names of daughters

383 - Migration Gael of Feotar to North Britannia ca. 275 BCE / in general: much war and conflict between 600 and 300 BCE

385 - Sons of Golam

391 - Whole chapter more poetic, rhythmic / much more romance in last part

415 - Gaal of Feotar (from the land of Cruithen) are Garman, Germani, who came to Eri 299 BCE!!! "Loc Garman"

428 - "The princes and nobles of these lands were evil towards each other continually, and they did stir up the Gaal to be foes one to the other."

429 - Example of patrilineal - son of ... son of ... etc

435 - Remarkable love story Aine, Mara

443 - Cruitnig? different folk which becomes stronger...

451 - Fir Cios? different 'hostile' folk?

456 - Daughters of Feotar are popular - must have been a beautiful, strong race... Brandt and Storm - Fryas names?

482 - Great battle, many dead

485 - Land of Ardtain?

487 - Chronology of the hebrews

492 - Year of metaphorical flood: 2247 BCE / exodus israelites: 1381 BCE

496 - Of the Scythians v.a. 5359 BCE

497 - Pelasgoi, Cecropeia in Attica: 1120 BCE --- Hemon, Pelasg. settles in Thessaly 1060 BCE

499 - Marius destroys Cimbri or Germanni: 102 BCE

502 - Pelasgoi are Scythian shepherds

503 - His brother Neptune or Iapetus 956 BCE

a map as published in part 2

08 July 2017

The Great Remigration of ca. 300 BCE ~ Returnees not Foreigners

OLB pp. 120-125: how the Gértmen moved from Gértmania in the Punjab or the Indus river delta to Athens, in the service of king Alexander, ca. 320 BCE (compare Arrian's "Anabasis of Alexander")
OLB pp. 128-130 and 119: how Friso brought a fleet with Gértmen and Hélénja-followers (Ionians and Athenians) from Greece to Fryasland, ca. 305 BCE (compare Frisian 'fantastic' historiography)

Fragments regarding the re-migration of people from the Punjab and Greece (mostly Athens & Ionian Islands), after having lived in these colonies for many generations:
  • [120/11] - [125/03] Ljudgért on how the Gértmen left Pang-ab in service of Alexander, and landed in Athénia.
  • [127/28] - [130/20] Ljudgért continues on how Friso led his fleet, including the Gértmen and Ionians to Fryasland.
  • [118/32] - [120/14] Fréthorik: "How the Gért-men and many Hélénja-followers came back"; about their arrival in Stavere, permission from the Mother to stay, and main places of resettlement.

Regarding the aftermath of the re-migration:
  • [131/26] - [133/16] Fréthorik about the peculiarities of the Brok-men (returnees).
  • [144/17] - [154/17] Koneréd about Friso's takeover of power in Fryasland and making allies North and East.
  • [154/17] - [157/32] Koneréd continues about Adel, Friso's son, and his wife Ifkja, aiming to re-unite the Fryan nations.
  • [158/10] - [163/09] Gosa's rede about the importance of upholding the old ways and language (she particularly fears decay resulting from the great re-migration: returning Helléna-followers), and how Adel & Ifkja started schools and continued re-uniting the nations.

The returnees or re-migrants were referred to (by Fréthorik) as BROKMANNA [131/29] and distinguished three sub-groups: GÉRTMANNA [132/01] from the Punjab, THÉR FONA KRÉKALÁNDA [132/06] or 'those from Greece', and JÔNJAR [132/19] or Ionians.

Earlier he writes [118/32]: (HO THA) GÉRT.MANNA AND FÉLO HÉLÉNJA FOLGAR (TOBEK KÉMON) ~ (how the) Gértmen and many Hélénia-followers (came back).

Gosa [161/20] spoke of WITHER KVMANDE HEL.LÉNA FOLGAR ~ returning Helléna-followers. (This can include the Gértmen and the Ionians, since they were branches of the followers of Minerva, a.k.a. Hellénia.)

In the following fragment, they are referred to as foreigners (UTHÉMAR), but when this is literally translated as such (as has always been done so far), it may be unclear who are ment. I believe this remigration is one of the most significant topics of the OLB, and therefore suggest to avoid confusion, by using the interpretation as 'returnees' or 'remigrants', rather than the literal translation 'foreigners' here.
Another interesting detail is that some translators read SELIGA as SÉLIGA (Dutch/German: zalige/Selige):
 - Selige/Glückliche (blessed/happy) ~ Wirth/Menkens
 - brave kinderen (good children?!) ~ Overwijn, De Heer
As Jensma noted, 'sellech', 'selik' etc. means 'such', according to the Oldfrisian Richthofen dictionary, which fits better here.


Ott 2017 (preliminary)
If they found such among the natives and returnees*,
who expressed mutual friendship,

(*interpretation which makes more sense than the literal translation: foreigners)

Ottema 1872 Dutch:
Bevonden zij dan onder de inlanders of buitenlanders zoodanige,
die elkander vriendschap toedroegen,

Sandbach 1876 English (paraphrased):
If they found a friendly feeling existing between the natives and foreigners,

Wirth 1933 German:
Fanden die unter den Einheimischen und Ausheimischen »Selige«,
die einander Freundschaft entgegenbrachten,

Overwijn 1951 Dutch:
Kwamen zij dan onder de inheemsen of buitenlanders brave kinderen tegen,
die elkaar vriendschap toedroegen,

Jensma 2006 Dutch:
Vonden zij dan onder de inwoners en uitwoners* zulken
die elkaar vriendschap toedroegen,

(* inhabitants and outsiders?!)

De Heer 2008 Dutch:
Vonden zij dan onder de inheemsen en uitheemsen brave kinderen
die elkaar vriendschap toedroegen,

Raubenheimer 2011 English:
If they found a friendly feeling existing between the locals and foreigners,

Menkens 2013 German:
Fanden sie dann unter den Einheimischen und Auswärtigen Glückliche,
die einander Freundschaft antrugen,

Lien 2013 Norse:
Fant de da blant innbyggerne og utenbygdsboere* slike
som viste hverandre vennskap,

(* residents and non-residents)

Summary of the nine different earlier translations of INHÉMAR ÀND UTHÉMAR:
inlanders of buitenlanders - Ottema
inheemsen of buitenlanders - Overwijn
inwoners en uitwoners - Jensma
inheemsen en uitheemsen - De Heer
natives and foreigners - Sandbach
locals and foreigners - Raubenheimer
Einheimischen und Ausheimischen - Wirth
Einheimischen und Auswärtigen - Menkens
 innbyggerne og utenbygdsboere - Lien

~ ~ ~

Other fragments with UTHÉMEDA / ÛTHÉMEDE: