Posted 22 October 2012 - 10:52 PM
The Old-Greek word λόγος (logos) is "an important term in philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion". (wikipedia/Logos)
It is still used in words ending with -logy (biology etc.), logic, logarithm, etc.
I suspect that it is related to the Old-Frisian word LOGA (flame).
logi - icelandic, oldnorse
loga, logha - oldfrisian
ljós - icelandic
lys, ljos - danish, norse
ljus - swedish
ljocht - frisian
lux - latin
The flame is associated with the tongue.
Vlam: "Min of meer tongvormig, of als zoodanig gedacht of voorgesteld zichtbaar verbrandingsverschijnsel..." (http://gtb.inl.nl)
(=> "more or less tongue-shaped...)
vlam [tongvormig verbrandingsverschijnsel] (P.A.F. van Veen en N. van der Sĳs (1997), Van Dale Etymologisch woordenboek)
(=> again: "tongue-shaped ..."
In OLB it is used as LOGHA at the following pages/lines:
Compare relation tongue/ speech: (Latin) LINGUA - language, tongue.
In Dutch it is common metaphor to say "flames licked ..." (vlammen likten ...).
Classic etymology relates logos to the verb legein - to speak.
In Dutch we use liegen (past: loog) for to lie.
Posted by Abramelin 23 October 2012 - 01:51 PM
Old Saxon: liogan
Middle Low German: legen
Old High German: liogan
New High Herman: lügen
Old Frisian: liāga
New Frisian: lige
Old English: lēogan
New English: lie
Old Norse: ljúga
New Swedish: ljuga
Old Church Slavonic:lŭgati
Lithuanian: lugóti (= to request)
Related Dutch verb: lokken (= to lure)
Related Dutch word: loochenen (= to deny)
Posted 23 October 2012 - 04:09 PM
I would like to add the consideration that what λόγος (logos; the Word, reason) was in our culture (which is based on Greco-Christian thinking), the FODDIK (eternal, sacred fire, with its LOGHA; flames) seems to have been for the Fryans (as desribed in the OLB).
Posted by Abramelin 23 October 2012 - 05:23 PM
The etymology of Lugdunum is a latinization of the Gaulish place name Lugodunon. Gaulish was the predominant language of the region when conquered by the Romans. While dunon means hill fort, the source of Lug is uncertain. The most commonly offered meaning is the Celtic god named Lug, whose messenger was the crow (lugus), and who was associated with the cock (rooster), ultimately to become the symbol of France. Most references to Mercurius in Gaul really refer to Lug, as he was the Celtic god that the Romans considered to be Mercury (see interpretatio graeca for more about this practice). Lug was popular in Ireland and Britain, but there is no evidence of his cult or worship in Lugdunum, except for the apparent use of crows as an early symbol of the city. An alternative derivation is that lug refers to the Celtic word for light (a cognate of Latin lux and English light).
The exact etymology of Lugus is unknown and contested. The Proto-Celtic root of the name, *lug-, is generally believed to have been derived from one of several different Proto-Indo-European roots, such as *leug- "black", *leuǵ- "to break", and *leugʰ- "to swear an oath", It was once thought that the root may be derived from Proto-Indo-European *leuk- "to shine", but there are difficulties with this etymology and few modern scholars accept it as being possible (notably because Proto-Indo-European *-k- never produced Proto-Celtic *-g-).
A rooster calling at the dawn, a crow as a spiritual 'messenger' in many cultures around the globe..
LUG, seen by the Romans as no other god but their Mercury, the god of (also) speech, and communication in general. messages, writing, and so on.
Then a (possible but disputed) connection with bright, shining and light.
And last but not least, Overwijn (the third writer to publish a book, including a translation, about the OLB in 1941/1951) who tried to explain many words and names in the OLB using Celtic.
It makes sense to me:
foddik = fire = flames (tongues) = light = inspiration = messages = words = communication, etc.
when you look into a flame long enough it will turn into a tongue and start to speak
imagine long dark and quiet nights, no books, radio, tv, internet
act during the day
reflect during the night
I bet many great ideas started by looking at the moon, the stars and into flames at night.
Posted by Van Gorp 25 October 2012 - 01:18 AMInteresting, first feeling is "How to reconcile the meaning of (sun)light (of the truth) with the lie"
-> Blinding light, we can't see clear. Laaiend enthusiast zijn we dan.
Liegen, loochenen, lokken -> verblinden.
Leuk is aan-lokkelijk: we get attracted by the light it transmits. But sometimes also blinded by it.
Other expressions: Liegen dat em zwart ziet (or he's lieing untill his nose becomes black or smoke above his head, from fire offcourse)
Alok: Indian name for Light (Hel-lig, Al Hoog, Halo).
Some other linguisitc connections (maybe allready mentionned, but it's amusing)
op-lichten: giving light but also to cheat
op-luchten: dat licht op, zuiverend, make pure
er licht/lucht over gaan, doodleuk, luchtig, een klucht -> joke, jokken, liegen
de luchter/luster: the holder of candles -> met veel luister gebracht -> erin geluisd
Posted 26 October 2012 - 08:47 AMMore about LOGA (flame), the probable origin of both LUX (the light) and LOGOS (the word).
TNZN - Taalatlas van Noord- en Zuid-Nederland
Etymologisch dialectenwoordenboek (1996), A.A. Weijnen
Westfries woordenboek (1984) Jan Pannekeet
(Dictionary of Westfrisian dialect)
loef, znw. de/'t
2. Zwarte walm of aanslag van o.a. een petroleumlamp of -stel.
Zegsw. teugen de loef in strouke, tegen de haren in strijken.
- Teugen de loef in weze, tegen de draad in zijn, dwars zijn.
loeg, znw. 't. Verouderde variatie van loef 2.
loege, w.w. Verouderde variatie van loeve, zie aldaar.
loeve, w.w. Ook: walmen, loef afgeven. Vgl. loef. / 't Lichie loeft.
In OLB (original page/ line nrs.)
THJU LOFT WÀRT SWART ÀND NÍLOF FON TÁRA TO STIRTANE
BLIXEN SKRÉF AN.THÀT LOFT.RVM.. WÁK.
FJUWER THINGA SEND TO JVWE NOT JÉVEN.
MITH NÁMA. LOFT. WÉTER. LÁND ÀND FJUR.
SEND THÉR SVM THRVCH THENE FYAND FAT
ÀND KVMATH HJA TO BÀK
SA MOT MÀN HJAM FÉR FON THÀT KÀMP OF FORA.
HWAND HJA MACHTON FRY LÉTEN WÉSA BY ÀRGE LOFTUM
ÀND THAN NE MÜGON HJA HJARA LOFTA NAVT NI HALDA
ÀND TACH ÉRLIK BILÍWA.
LOFT WÀRTH ALTHUS DROV ÀND DIMME.
HALD OF HWAND HIR IS THJU LOFT ÔLANGNE VRPEST
THRVCH THA PRESTERA.
THES NACHTES SKÁTON HJA BARN.PILA ANDA LOFT.
THÀT FOLK WÉRMITH HI WITH THA SALT.ÁTHUM THERA GOLUM KÀMPED HÉDE
HÉD.ER UT.A SAXANA.MARKUM LVKTH
MITH LOFTE FON GRÁTE HÉRA.RÁVE ÀND BUT.
Also: LOV / LOVE as used in OLB can be related.
Posted 26 October 2012 - 03:27 PM
Maybe we can add Locus (location, space, open ruimte) besides Lux, Logos [...]
From LOGA / LOGHA (flame/ fire) to LOGE (lodge, location, camp, place to live)
BUTA ÀND BIHALVA HÉDON VSA STJURAR ÀND KÁPLJVD MÉNI LOGE
ANDA HÉIND KRÉKELANDA ÀND TO LYDJA.
[Ottema/ Sandbach p.69]
Bovendien hadden onze zeelieden en kooplieden menige loods (factorij)
in de heinde Krekalanden (Italie) en in Lydia.
Moreover, our sailors and merchants had many factories
among the distant Krekalanders and in Lydia.
HI WROCHTE THAT TÜNIS BI THÉRE MVDE FON.T.FLÍ.MAR EN LOGE BVWA MACHTE.
[Ottema/ Sandbach p.85]
hij bewerkte dat Teunis bij de mond van het Flymeer een pakhuis bouwen mocht.
he induced Teunis to build a warehouse at the mouth of the Flymeer.
Ottema and Sandbach translated loods/ pakhuis and factory/ warehouse, but camp or lodge would have been correct too.
French: loger = to make a camp
Middle English: logge
A home, a place to stay (if only for a while) is a place with a fire, to stay warm and have light during the night.
Home is where the hearth is.
That is how LOGA (fire) became LOGE (camp, lodge).
What the hearth is for a house (the warming center), the heart is (or was thought to be) for the body.
heart - english
hjärta - swedish
hjarta - icelandic
hjerte - danish, norwegian
herz - german
hart - dutch
hert - frisian
HIRTA / HIRTE / HIRT- OLB
hearth - english
herd - german
haard - dutch
hurd - frisian
HÉRD - OLB