23 November 2021

HOF: hoof or palace garden?

Some of the choices I made translating Oera Linda are very different from the ones made by earlier translators. Here is one example, with some explanation.

[143/28] chapter 16a. Canals and Dykes (longer fragment below)

THÉR THJU DÁNTE HETH FON EN HOF

Ottema (1872, 1876, p. 195): die de gedaante heeft van een hoef (i.e. hoof)

Sandbach (1876, p. 195): which has the form of a hoof

Wirth (1933): welche die Gestalt eines Hufes hat (i.e. hoof)

Overwijn (1941, p. 147): as Ottema

Jensma (2006): as Ottema*
[* added note: hier wordt de naam 'Oldehove' (de jongste van de drie terpen waarop Leeuwarden werd gebouwd) verklaard uit 'Oude hoef' (...)]

Lien (2013): som har form av en hov (i.e. hoof)

Menkens (2013): der die Form eines Hufes hat (i.e. hoof)

Ott (2021): which has the appearance of a palace garden


How should we interpret a domain or piece of land with the shape or form of a hoof? If the imprint of a horse's hoof was ment, it could make sense; the triangular shape may represent a building, while the outer shape may be the surrounding domain, fenced by dike, wall or canal. However, nowhere in Oera Linda is HOF/ HOV- used for hoof. It is used in two distinct contexts: 1) related to the residence of a monarch (court), an ornamental garden or perhaps a farm; 2) from verb (BI-)HOVA (Dutch hoeven - need, have to, behove), mostly BIHOF - needs, necessities. All fragments are listed below.

Still, HOF may very well (also, or in the first place) have been the original word for hoof, considering these cognates:

"A hoof [...] is the tip of a toe of an ungulate mammal [...]" (wiki)
hoof - English
hoef - Dutch, Afrikaans
Huf - German
hov - Danish, Swedish, Norse
hófur - Icelandic

1. related to palace, court

hof, hoeve - Dutch
Hof - German

HOVE - 1,4,6
HOVA - 2,7,8
HOF - 3,5

1) [00b] B. Liko Ovira Linda, 803 CE
IK HÀV BI THAM ET HOVE WÉST
I have visited their palace

2) [078] 10b. Athenia: Miscegenation and Decadence
THÉR BEFTHA HÁGA WALLUM FON LÁF THA FON STÉN BVWADON HJA HOVA MITH KESTLIK HUSARK
There, behind high walls of leaf or stone, they built richly furnished mansions

3) [088] 12. Adelbrost: Intrigues and Division
HETH WÉRE SIN TORN VMBE VPPINETH GRÁTE HOF TO DOK.HÉM TO HÉMANDE
He had been allowed to live in the palace of Dokhem

4) [126] 14e. Demetrius and Friso
MEN AS DEMÉTRIUS HIRA SVN SA. LÉT.ER THAM NÉI SINRA HOVE FORA
But when Demetrius saw her son, he had him taken to his palace

5) [143] 16a. Canals and Dykes
THRVCH SLÁTA TO DELVANE ÀND KÁDIKA TO MÁKJANE FON THA GRVND THÉR ÛT.A SLÁTA KÉM. ALSA HÀVON WI WITHER EN GODE HÉM BÛTA THA HRING.DIK. THÉR THJU DÁNTE HETH FON EN HOF. THRÉ PÉLA ÁSTWÁRTH THRÉ PÉLA SÛD.WÁRTH AND THRÉ PÉLA WEST.WÁRTH MÉTEN.
By digging canals and building dykes with the soil that came out of the canals, we have a good domain again outside the ring dyke, which has the appearance of a palace garden, measuring three poles eastward, three southward, and three westward.

6) [149] 16b. Friso: Alliances
MIDLAR HWILA HJA THUS KÀLTA. KÉMON MINA BODON MITHA SÉ.LÁNDAR HÉRA ET SINA HOVE
In the middle of their conversation, my messengers arrived with the Sealander lords at his court

7) [190] 18. Rika: Stealing of Titles
FORI THENE SKÀT THAM THÉROF KÉM HÉRADON HJA VRLANDISKA SALT.ATHA. THAM HJA IN.OM HJARA HOVA LÉIDON
With the treasure they thus gathered, they hired foreign mercenaries, whom they stationed around their courts

8) [202] 19b. Streams of Blood
HI HILD RA AS LIF.WÉRE ET SINA HOVA
He kept them as security guards at his court

2. context: need, have to, behove, needs, necessities

(be)hoeven - Dutch
behöva (need) - Swedish
behofian - Old English
hófa - Old Norse

BIHOF - 9,10,11,12,13
HOVAT - 14
HOVA - 15
HOF - 16

9) [020] 3b. General Laws
EK THORP SKIL EN HÉM.RIK HÀVA NÉI SINA BIHOF
Every village shall possess common land as required (lit. ... after its needs)

10) [040] 5a. Three Principles
ALLERA MANNA.LIK WÉT THÀT I SIN BIHOF MOT. MEN WÀRTH ÀMMAN SIN BIHOF VNTHALDEN SÁ NÉT NÉN MAN HWAT ER SKIL DVA VMBE SIN LIF TO BIHALDANDE.
Everyone knows that one must have his needs fulfilled, and that when one’s needs are denied, no one knows what he will do to preserve his life.

11) [048] 7a. Before the Bad Times
DANA WONON WI KÁPER ÀND ÍSER. BIJVNKA TÁR PÀK ÀND SVMA ÔR BIHOF
from where we won copper and iron, plus tar, pitch, and some other necessities

12) [106] 13h. Apollania’s Burg
THA THRJU NORTH.LIKA HUSA SEND FOL KÉREN ÀND ÔTHER BIHOF
The three northerly buildings are filled with corn and other stock

13) [113] 13i. Apollania’s Journey
WI NE SKILUN NÉN BIHOF LONGER NAVT NÀVE AN THÀT WLA THJUD
we will no longer need (lit. have need for) those useless types

14) [137] 15c. Yesus or Buda of Kashmir
NIMMAN HOVAT THIT TO DVANDE FORI ENNEN ÔTHERA
no one has to do this for another

15) [140] 15c. Yesus or Buda of Kashmir
THAS LÉRE HWÉRBI THA PRESTERA NÉN ORE WITSKIP HOVA AS DROCHTLIK RÉDA. FRÁNA SKIN ÀND VNRJUCHTA PLÉGA
This religion, which requires the priests to possess no other skills than eloquence, hypocrisy and foul play

16) [149] 16b. Friso: Alliances
TO HRÉD MITH ÍSERE KÉDNE ÀND KRÁNBOGUM ÀND MITH FVLLE TJUCH ALSA FAR WÉR.SKÉPA HOF ÀND NÉDLIK SÍ.
equipped with iron chains and crossbows, and fully rigged with what is useful and essential on warships

DÁNTE ~ shape, appearance, likeness, image

Hebe with Jupiter in the shape of
an eagle, by G.A. Diez (c.1820)

DÁNTE: shape, appearance, likeness, image
gedaante - Dutch
getání - Old High German
getaene - Middle High German
dénthe - Old Frisian

Etymologists suggest this word was derived from the verb 'do'. This could be true, but in OL the present root of this verb is DVA, past DÉ-, while varieties with DÁ- do not occur.

Fragments in Oera Linda

DÁNTE (8x) - 1-7, 9
DÁNTNE (1x) - 8

13f. Primal Teachings 2
1) [102/01]
THACH HWAT AN’GA VSA DÁNTE VSA AINSKIPA VSA GÁST AND AL VSA BITHÀNKINGA. THISSA NE HÉRA NAVT TO THET WÉSA.
However, regarding our appearance, our characteristics, our mind and all our thoughts, these do not belong to the being.
2) [102/10]
THÉRVMBE FORWIXLATH ALLE ESKÉPNE THINGA FON STÉD. FON DÁNTE ÀND ÁK FON THÀNKWISA.
Therefore, all creatures change their position and their shape, as well as their minds (or mentality; lit: think-ways, ways of thinking).

13h. Apollania’s Burg
3) [106/25]
SIATH HWA FONÉRE TORE DEL SA SIATH HI THJU DANTE FON.ET JOL.
Looking down from the tower, one sees the shape of the Yule.
4) [107/25]
ANNA SUDSÍDE FON THA BUTENSTE HRING.DIK IS THJU LJUDGÁRDA. OM.TUNAD THRVCH THET GRÁTE LINDA.WALD. HJRA DÁNTE IS THRJU HERNICH.
South of the outer dyke is the Liudgarda, surrounded by the great Linda Wood. Its shape is triangular
5) [107/30]
ALSA THJU DÁNTE VSAR BURCH IS SEND ALLE ÔTHERA
All the burgs are of the same shape (lit.: as the shape of our burg is, are all others)

13i. Apollania’s Journey
6) [112/15]
DÁNA IS.T KVMEN THÀT NIMMAN NÉN SPRÉK VPPA SIN SKILD NETH. MEN BLÁT EN MIS.LIKANDE DÁNTE FON EN DIAR THÀT ER FÀLAD HETH.
Another result is that no one has a motto on his shield, but merely the distorted shape of some beast he has slain.

16a. Canals and Dykes
7) [143/30]
THRVCH SLÁTA TO DELVANE ÀND KÁDIKA TO MÁKJANE FON THA GRVND THÉR ÛT.A SLÁTA KÉM. ALSA HÀVON WI WITHER EN GODE HÉM BÛTA THA HRING.DIK. THÉR THJU DÁNTE HETH FON EN HOF
By digging canals and building dykes with the soil that came out of the canals, we have a good domain again outside the ring dyke, which has the appearance of a palace garden (see blog post)

18. Rika: Stealing of Titles
8) [191/5]
THÁ THA KÀNINGGAR ET ALSA WÍD BROCHT HÉDE THÀT HJA FÉDERUM THÉRA FOLKAR HÉTE THÁ GVNGON HJA TO ÀND LÉTON BYLDON ÀFTER HJARA DÁNTNE MÁKJA.
When the kings had accomplished that they were called feeders of the peoples, they proceeded by having statues made after their likeness.

19d. Askar Lost to Idolatry
9) [205/05]
EN GOLDEN SKILD HWÉRVPPA ÁSKAR HIS DÁNTE KUNSTALIK WAS UTEBYLD
a golden shield depicting an artistic image of Askar (lit. a golden shield wherup Askar his image artistically was depicted)

15 November 2021

Web shop / 1st, 2nd, E-book editions


The web shop oeralinda.nl where all three editions can be purchased is now operational.

The first edition is now sold out [Nov. 25].

An E-book (PDF) has been made and is available in the web-shop. It has hyperlinks enabling easy navigation of the alternative reading order/ sections, if desired.

The second edition (500 copies) is now available!

Regular price for 1 to 3 books is €24

Volume discounts:

≥ 4 books €20 per book

≥ 10 books €16 per book

≥ 20 books €12.50 per book

E-book of the second edition is priced €9

same width x height, but half as thick and half as heavy, reducing shipping cost, in particular for larger quantities
containing 16 manuscript pages in grey-scale (of 190; these were all included in color in 1st edition - 2 on 1 page)
one of the five appendices; new in 2nd edition

14 November 2021

The first Millennium?

"The distinction between Antiquity, Late Antiquity and Early Middle Age is a cultural representation that has no basis in reality." (3rd article linked below)

If we look at written sources, “we have [for the 1st-3rd century] a spotlight on Rome, but know little about the 1st-3rd century in Constantinople or Aachen. Then we have a spotlight on Ravenna and Constantinople, but know little about the 4th-7th century in Rome or Aachen. Finally, we have a spotlight on Aachen in the 8th-10th century, but hardly know any details from Rome or Constantinople. I turn on all the lights at the same time and, thus, can see connections that were previously considered dark or completely unrecognizable.” Gunnar Heinsohn as quoted in same article

History of the first millennium (CE/AD) is questionable.

It is a big and complex topic. Please ignore it for now if you do not feel ready for it.

I have no solid answers yet, but the questions and doubts raised make sense to me and could be relevant for us. Oera Linda may contain clues to possible answers, to an explaining theory, which I intend to discuss later.

For who is interested, here are links to four articles and a video on the topic.

How Fake Is Roman Antiquity?

How Fake Is Church History?

How Long Was the First Millennium?

Revision in Islamic Chronology and Geography

The Timeline Manipulation:

 

Some first notes:

  1. Is Adel, nicknamed Atharik (ch. 16d, [155/05]), related to Athanaric, "king of the Visigoths" (trad. dating reign 369-381)?
  2. Is Alrik (ch. 19f, [209/25]), related to Alaric I, "king of the Visigoths" (trad. dating reign 395-410)
  3. Was Liko's letter dated year 803 NÉI KERSTEN BIGRIP ('in Christian understanding') written 803 years after the birth of Buda/ Krisen/ Yes-us (1600 years after Aldland sank), and not 803 years after the Christ of Christianity?; Liko would then have written in ca. 2400 a.A.s.; Our current year would then be ca. 3620 after the sinking of Aldland. There would have been a cataclysm shortly before Friso's fleet arrived; this would have been ca. 1700 years ago instead of 2300 years. However, there may have been more instances of timelines being manipulated or confused.
  4. Main problem is Hidde's dating combining the two timelines [00a] in a way that 13th century AD would be ca. 19 centuries after Buda's birth.
  5. Rex (king) = RIK.HIS or RIK.S, meaning 'of the empire/ kingdom' ?
  6. Julian calendar: calendar based on the JOL/ Yule (wheel of time)? Was the Chi-Rho symbol (derived from) the JOL?
  7. Augustus = derived from HÁGEST; highest?
  8. 'Caesar' derived from KJASAR; he who chooses?
  9. The 'belly-pain' (ch. 19a How punishment came) could refer to the Justinianic plague (541–549 AD)?
  10. "The remains of metropolitan London from Bede's 7th and 8th centuries cannot be found because, in our textbook chronology, residential quarters in the city of Londinium, a perfect fit for Bede's description, are dated to the 1st-3rd century." ('London in the First Millennium AD: Finding Bede’s Missing Metropolis', Heinsohn 2018.) Bede's dating would still make sense if his system would refer to birth of Buda/Yesus. Christianity as we know it today may have been reformed after his age.


 

11 November 2021

Understanding what Happened

Berruguete, late 15th century (crop)

Our understanding of what happened more than seven hundred years ago is based on little evidence. Much of it is assumption and interpretation, in line with traditions of scholarship. For ages, religious institutions decided what manuscripts were worth and permissible to be saved and made public. There will still be treasures hidden in private collections or forgotten archives. One and a half century back, this will have been more true than today.

In 1867, a manuscript surfaced in the Netherlands. It seemed to be a 13th century copy of an older original, in unusual lettering and containing laws and histories from an era before our year zero. Its contents puzzled the few who got to see it. Was this too good to be true? Or would it have been recognized as a potential threat to the then monarchist-protestant state?

Five years later, the first translation was published as "Thet Oera Linda bok", named after the Oera Linda clan that seemed to have initiated the manuscript and preserved it through the ages. Even before publication, the verdict had already been pronounced in newspapers and magazines: it had to be fake and anyone who thought otherwise was a fool. In 1876, the first and only 'evidence' against authenticity was presented: it could not be authentic, because its language would be 'gibberish'. However, some of the most prominent Old Frisian specialists judged very differently.

In 1938, the controversial manuscript was donated to the Frisian provincial library by the then owner, Cornelis Over de Linden IV (1883-1958), who trusted that his donation would finally lead to proper study of the document and its contents. Until today, this never happened. The library states that it is “commonly believed to be a forgery”,(*) but substantiation of this belief is hard to find. The main ‘evidence’ seems to be the fact that scholars do not take it seriously... Asking the question if the manuscript or its contents could be authentic after all seems to have been taboo in Dutch academia since the late 1870s.

On December 14, 2020, the Oera Linda Foundation was registered, with the purpose to promote research on, translations of, and publications about the manuscript (or codex) known as the Oera Linda-book. The document begins with a letter of instruction, dated 1255 AD by the last known copyist of the writings, Hidde Oera Linda, who briefed his son Okke to also make a copy “so that they will never be lost”.

The foundation's first publication, 'Codex Oera Linda', is intended to be the modern version of such a new copy. It contains a new transliteration and an English translation of the original texts, with an index of proper names and a suggested alternative reading order. It can finally replace the only English edition thus far from 1876 by William Sandbach, which was a translation of the first (1872) Dutch translation by Dr. Jan Ottema and which included a mutilated, so-called facsimile print of the pages with the wheel-based letters and numbers.

In our times, ever more people learn to make up their own minds about issues relevant to them. For those interested in our deepest roots, the origin of our language and consciousness — in particular our innate desire for freedom, truth and justice — Codex Oera Linda may provide a wealth of inspiration.

(* Dutch: "Binnen enkele jaren was de algemene opvatting dat het om een vervalsing ging" http://oeralindaboek.nl/; click on "over het Oeralindaboek")

05 November 2021

2nd English edition of Codex Oera Linda

impression of new cover design
The files have been sent to the printer-binder. The books are expected to be delivered to me mid-November. If shipping abroad will not be too much delayed, they may arrive on time before Yule.

It will be the same size as the first edition (17 by 24 cm/ 6.7 by 9.4 inch), but half as thick (1,5 cm/ 0.59 inch) and half as heavy (ca. 480 gram). It will be paperback, printed on lighter paper (90 gram/m2 instead of 120), it will not include the color section, the font size is somewhat smaller and several short paragraphs have been combined. Also, some improvements have been made, footnotes are added, it includes 16 page-filling manuscript scans (in gray scale, see below), as well as five appendices regarding the authenticity question and to facilitate further research. The cover design is completely different from that of the first edition.

Change of form will make the price per book lower, in particular international shipping cost of larger quantities. There will also be a volume discount, to make larger orders even more attractive, for example for book shops. Before the new edition is released, a proper web shop will be installed on oeralinda.nl.

Click on the images for larger view:
main changes of content marked in red
16 manuscript pages (of 190) are included
five appendices regarding authenticity debate and other relevant (little known) sources

21 October 2021

TONGAR - thunder

Verbum Dei (the Word of God), symbolized
as thunder in engraving "Papal pyramid"
by H. Hondius, 1612 (source)
Cognates (nouns):

tonger - Frisian
thunder - English
donder - Dutch
Donner - German
torden - Danish, Norse
dunder, tordön - Swedish
þruma - Icelandic
toirneach - Irish
tàirneanach - Scots Gaelic
taranau, daranu - Welsh
tunet - Romanian

thuner - Old Saxon

related (verbs):
tonare - Latin
ténnei - Greek (Lesbos)
tanyati - Sanskrit

In Codex Oera Linda:

TÒNGAR - 1
TONGAR.IS WOLKA / TONGAR.S WOLKA (thunder clouds)- 2
THONGAR (2x) - 3

1. [010] ch. 2e. Frya was White, p. 36

THA TO THA LESTA SPRÀK TÒNGAR UT.A WÒLKA ÀND BLIXEN SKRÉF AN THÀT LÒFT.RVM. WÁK.
Then, finally, thunder spoke from the clouds and lightning wrote upon the firmament: ‘Watch!’

2. [142] ch. 15e. Gosa’s Will, p. 194

THJUSTRENESSE SKIL HJU IN.OVERNE GÁST THÉRA MÀNNISKA SPRÉDA LIK TONGAR.IS WOLKA OVIRET SVNNE LJUCHT.
It will spread darkness over the spirit of mankind, like thunderclouds over sunlight.
[...]
THÀN SKIL TVANG FON JRTHA FÁGAD WERTHA. LIK TONGAR.S WOLKA THRVCH STORNE.WIND. ÀND ALLE DROCHTEN BIDRÍV NE SKIL THÉR ÀJEN NAWET NAVT NE FORMÜGA.
Then domination will be erased from earth, like thunderclouds by storm wind, and no sort of idolatry will be able to do anything against it.

3. [202-203] ch. 19c. Reintia’s Dream, p. 237

WR.ALDA SÉIDE HJU HÉDE HJA THRVCH THONGAR TO HROPA LÉTA THAT ALLET FRIAS FOLK MOSTON FRJUNDA WERTHA. LIK SUSTAR ÀND BROTHAR TÁMED. OWERS SKOLDE FINDAS FOLK KVMA ÀND RA ALLE FON JRTHA VRDILLIGJA.
Wralda, she said, had signaled to her by thunder that all Frya’s folk must become friends, united as sisters and brothers, or else Finda’s folk would come and wipe them all off the face of the earth.
NÉI THONGAR WÉRON FRIA.S SJVGUN WÁK.FÁMKES HJA ANDA DRÁME FORSKINNEN. SJVGUN NACHTA ÀFTER EKKÔRUM.
After the thunder, Frya’s seven watch maidens had appeared in her dreams, seven nights in succession.