17 September 2021

ASK(-E/-A) ~ ash(es)

impression of Iron Age cremation (source)
varieties of burying ashes in mound: 1. loose in rectangular pit; 2. in urn; 3. in cloth or leather; 4. only covered by mound (illustration in brochure about Urnfields by Oermuseum Sept. '21)

some cognates
as - Dutch, Afrikaans
ash(es) - English
Asche - German
aske - Danish, Norse
aska - Swedish, Icelandic
jiske - Frisian*
āsa - Sanskrit
ačiun - Armenian
hassa - Hittite

(* Ironically, the New-Frisian variety is more divergent from Old-Frisian than the other NW-European cognates. There are more examples of this peculiar phenomenon.)

varieties in Oera Linda
ASKE - 2f
ASK - 5d, 7b
ASKA - 14d

fragments

2f. Frya’s Tex (p. 39)
AFTERNÉI HJARA ASKE FIFTICH FÍT ANDA GRVND TO DÀLVANE TILTHJU THÉR NÉNEN GÀRS.HÀLM VP WAXA NI MÉI. HWAND ALDULKERA GÀRS SKOLDE JVW DJAROSTA KVIK DÉJA.
Thereafter, bury their* ashes fifty feet deep, so not a single blade of grass would grow into them, for such grass would kill your most precious cattle. (*anyone who robs another of his freedom, and his mother)

5d. Punishments for Evildoers (p. 75)
THA STJVRAR SKOLDON SIN MÀM ÀND AL SINA SIBBA NÉI EN FÉR É.LAND MOTA BRÀNGA AND THÉR SIN ASK FORSTUVA TILTHJU.R HÍR NÉN FENINIGE KRÛDON FON WAXA NE MÜGE.
The steersmen must take his* mother and all his relatives to a distant island and there scatter his ashes, so that no poisonous herbs may sprout from them here. (*someone so evil as to betray us to the enemy by revealing paths and passages that lead to our places of refuge)

7b. How Aldland Sank, ca. 2190 BCE (p. 84)
WALDA BÀRNADON THÉR.THRVCH ÀFTER EKKORUM ÀND THÁ WIND DÁNA WÉI KÉM. THÁ WÁJADON VSA LANDA FVL ASK.
As a result, forests burned one after the other, and when Wind came from there, our lands were covered with ashes.

14d. Alexander the King (p. 170)
AS HJA HÉRADON THÀT HJA MITH MOSTE STATON HJA THA TIMBER HLOTHA ANE BRÔND. THÉRTHRVCH WRDE VS ÉLE THORP ANDA ASKA LÉID.
When they heard that they had to join, they set the lumberyards ablaze, which reduced our whole village to ash.

08 September 2021

Why that book cover?

Since various people have asked me why I chose the painting by van der Waay as cover for Codex Oera Linda, here are two fragments that I was thinking of. There were more reasons, but the fragments alone should be enough justification. (Click on the fragments for larger view.)
1b. Adela's Advice, p. 26
13h. Apollania's Burg, p.154

07 September 2021

References to Covert Warfare in Oera Linda

caricature of spying monk, ca. 1700
B. Liko Ovira Linda, 803 CE
(p. 20)
They [monks] speak sweet words, but unnoticed they meddle with all that concerns us Fryas. They collaborate with foreign kings, who pay them well. These know that we are their greatest enemies, because we dare speak about freedom, justice and royal obligations. Therefore, they want to obliterate all traces of our ancestral heritage and what is left of our morals. [...] if we do not strengthen ourselves, they will exterminate us all.
1b. Adela’s Advice, ca. 560 BCE (p. 22, 24)
[...] the magus did not conquer a single district by force of arms, but rather, merely through deceitful intrigue and with ease, since the military leaders and noblemen were beset by greed.
[...] he selected the best looking of his Finns and Magyars and promised them mountains of gold if they could find acceptance among our people and then spread his doctrine. But his people went further: children were kidnapped and taken to the Upsalands, and when they had been perverted by his ways, they were sent back. When these apparent slaves had learned our language, they convinced the military leaders and nobles to submit to the magus, so their sons could succeed them without election by the folk.

4e. Aewa (p. 63)

While we are busy damaging each other, the envious Finda people come with their false priests, to steal your possessions, defile your daughters, corrupt your morals, and in the end throw the bonds of slavery over every Frya’s neck.

4f. Minerva (p. 65, 68-69) ca. 1620 BCE

[...] a certain kind of people is wandering the earth [...] gnawing in the dark [...] to invent tricks to rob other people of their knowledge, so they can more easily seize and enslave them, and suck their blood like leeches.
They cunningly made themselves masters of our laws and customs, and they managed to explain and distort them all through misinterpretations. They also placed maidens under their care [...] and instead of properly educating these maidens before sending them among the people, to nurse the sick and teach the children, they kept them ignorant and dimmed their light [...]. They were also used as counselors, but that counsel only appeared to come from their own lips, as in reality their lips were nothing but the mouthpiece through which the priests promulgated their own desires.

8a. Magyars and Finns, ca. 2090 BCE (p. 87); domination by exploiting fear

[The Finns] believe that evil spirits are everywhere and enter into people and animals [...] The Magyars claim that they can ban and banish the evil spirits. The Finns are always in fear because of this, and their faces never show signs of joy.

 8b. Wodin and the Magus (p. 89-91)

When the magus heard how his men were all being slain, he sent messengers with scepter and crown. They said to Wodin: ‘O you, greatest of all kings! [...] The magus possesses great riches [...] You are the most heroic king on earth [...] Become our king, and we shall willingly be your slaves. [...] Wodin [...] was caught in their trap and crowned by the magus. [...] the magus gave him his daughter as a wife. He then was incensed with [...] magic herbs, and gradually Wodin became so audacious, that he dared to disavow and ridicule Frya and Wralda’s spirit, while he bent his free neck before images of false gods. His reign lasted seven years, and then he disappeared. The magus said that he had been accepted among their gods, and that he ruled them from there [...] The magus, however, did as it pleased him, because his daughter had born a son by Wodin, and the magus now declared this son to be of high descent. [...] he crowned the boy as king, and installed himself as his guardian, representative and counselor. Those who valued feasting above justice let him win them over [...]
8e. The Idolatrous Gols (p. 98)

The Gols, however, celebrated various vile idolatrous rites, attracting the coast dwellers with their whorish girls and the sweetness of their poisonous wine.
If one of our folk had committed such a bad offense that his life was in danger, the Gols afforded him refuge and shelter, and lead him to Phoenicia — that is Palmland. When he was settled there, they made him write his family, friends and allies that the land was so good and the people so happy that no one could imagine it.
In Britannia were plenty of men, but few women. When the Gols realized this, they abducted girls from everywhere and gave them to the banished men for nothing. All of these girls, however, had become servants of the Gols, and stole the children from Wralda to offer them to their false gods.

9a. The War of Kelta and Minerva, ca. 1630 BCE (p. 101, 102)

At the first war [lit. defense] feast that followed, when all her landsmen were armed, she [Kelta] brought barrels of beer, to which she had added a magic potion. When the folk was altogether drunk, she went standing on the back of her warhorse, leaning her head upon her spear. The red of dawn could not have been more beautiful.
When she saw that all eyes were fixed upon her, she opened her lips and spoke: ‘[...] Minerva has hexed all the folk [...] just like all our cattle that died lately. [...] if I was not a burg maiden [...] I would burn that witch in her nest.’
As soon as she had thus spoken, she hurried to her burg. The drunken folk, however, was so much aroused that they had lost any sense of reason. In their mad fervor they crossed the Sandfal, and while night was falling, they attacked the burg in ongoing rage.

(many more fragments to be added)

15 August 2021

An Oera Linda- or JOL-Font

A creative OL-student has kindly sent us a link to his JOL-Font, which can be downloaded and installed at archive.org.

It is a good start and we thank him for his contribution to the project.

However, I would like a font to look more like the actual hand written letters in the manuscript.

For example, like in these experiments by me:


Something in the style of the Comic Sans font?

Who can do this? I will provide the best scans for that.


14 August 2021

The number Seven - SJVGUN - Sjoege

In Codex Oera Linda, the number seven plays a significant role. There are six slight spelling varieties, but the dominant one is SJVGUN (38 times out of 50).

Various cognates in known languages:

šiûgn - Wangerooge Frisian (extinct since 1950)
soogen, sôgn - Saterland Frisian
sju - Norse, Swedish
sjö - Icelandic
seven - English
zeven - Dutch
zeuven - Westfrisian
seiven - Scots
söven - Low German
siwen - Luxembourgish
sewe - Afrikaans
syv - Danish
sieben - German
sân, sâwen - Frisian
семь (sem') - Russian
сім (sim) - Ukrainian
seitse - Estonian
seitsemän - Finnish
septiņi - Latvian
septyni - Lithuanian
sept - French
Șapte - Romanian
seacht - Irish
seachd - Scots Gaelic
saith - Welsh
sette - Italian
sete - Portuguese
siete - Spanish
седум (sedum) - Macedonian
siedem - Polish

seofon - Old English
sibun - Old High German (8. Jh), Gothic
siƀun - Old Saxon
septem - Latin
ἑπτά (heptá) - Old Greek (New Greek: εφτά, eftá)
सप्तन् (saptán) - Sanskrit

Oldfrisian dictionaries:
siugun, sigun, sogen, soven, saven, savn (Köbler 2014)
sogen, saun, siugun (Wiarda 1786)
siugen uitspr. soaen (Hettema 1832)
sigun, siugun, sogen, soven, saven, savn (Richthofen 1840)

In Codex Oera Linda, the number seven is used in many phrases, many compared to other counting numbers:

Pronunciation would have been sjoegen.

There is this word from informal (spoken) Dutch dialects (e.g. in Amsterdam, Westfriesland): sjoege: understanding, insight, knowledge, wit. Its etymology is uncertain, but assumed to have come from Yiddish and Hebrew:

Dutch etymological standard work on sjoege

I suggest that sjoege is SJVGUN is seven, which number is related to understanding, insight, knowledge, wit

Other numbers may have also had a symbolic meaning, for example four (FJUR) being related to the fourth element; fire and six (SEX) being related to fertility, procreation and sexual pleasure.

07 August 2021

Alternative reading order/ sections

On page 9 of Codex Oera Linda - English edition (2021), a list is presented with a suggested alternative reading order. While the codex page/line numbers are correct, some of the chapter numbers are not (they refer to an earlier version by mistake). Below is the correct and more elaborate list. (Printable PDF may be added later.)


Historical narratives

1) c. 2200 to 2100 BCE
codex [047/06 – 061/27]
book p. 81-98

7a. Before the Bad Times
7b. How Aldland Sank, ca. 2190 BCE
8a. Magyars and Finns, ca. 2090 BCE
8b. Wodin and the Magus
8c. Tunis and Inka Depart
8d. Tunis and the Tyrians
8e. The Idolatrous Gols

2) c. 1650 to 1550 BCE
codex [061/28 – 071/29]
book p. 99-110

9a. The War of Kelta and Minerva, ca. 1630 BCE
9b. Jon’s Revenge
9c. Kelta and the Gols
9d. Jon and Minerva Resettle
codex [033/22 – 040/10]
book p. 63-70

4f. Minerva
4g. Crete
codex [072/05 – 075/07]
book p. 111-114

9e. The Geartmen Move to Panj-ab

3) c. 1200 BCE
codex [075/08 – 079/10]
book p. 115-119

10a. Ulysus’ Quest for a Lamp, ca. 1190 BCE
10b. Athenia: Miscegenation and Decadence

4) c. 600 to 500 BCE
codex [079/11 – 087/18]
book p. 121-129

11a. Denmarks Lost, ca. 590 BCE
11b. Death of Frana
11c. Death of the Magus
codex [141/26 – 142/01]
book p. 193

15d. Frana’s Will
codex [087/19 – 089/32]
book p. 131-133

12. Adelbrost: Intrigues and Division
codex [001/01 – 005/28]
book p. 21-27
1a. Council in Confusion, ca. 560 BCE
1b. Adela’s Advice
1c. Names of the Reeves
codex [091/11 – 097/27]
book p. 136-142

13b. Bruno: A Treacherous Maiden
13c. Death of Adela
13d. Ode to Adela
codex [090/01 – 091/11]
book p. 135-136

13a. Adel-Bond Alliance
codex [106/10 – 113/21]
book p. 152-159

13h. Apollania’s Burg
13i. Apollania’s Journey

5) c. 350 to 50 BCE
codex [113/23 – 118/31]
book p. 161-166

14a. Fryasland Swamped, ca. 305 BCE
14b. Gosa: Expulsion of the Blacks
codex [130/21 – 131/25]
book p. 179-180

14f. Northland
codex [163/10 – 168/19]
book p. 215-220

16f. Liudgeart: Panj-ab Report
codex [120/10 – 130/20]
book p. 167-179

14d. Alexander the King
14e. Demetrius and Friso
codex [118/32 – 120/10]
book p. 166-167

14c. A Fleet Arrives, ca. 300 BCE
codex [131/26 – 133/26]
book p. 180-182

14g. Defects of the Brokmen
codex [133/17 – 134/21]
book p. 183-184

15a. Wilyo from the Saxonmarks
codex [143/01 – 163/09]
book p. 195-215

16a. Canals and Dykes
16b. Friso: Alliances
16c. Friso: Praise and Suspicion
16d. Adel and Ifkia
16e. Gosa: Purity of Language
codex [142/01 – 142/32]
book p. 193-194

15e. Gosa’s Will
codex [168/20 – 210/32]
book p. 221-245
17. Beden, Son of Haechgana
18. Rika: Stealing of Titles
19a. Askar Prepares for War
19b. Streams of Blood
19c. Reintia’s Dream
19d. Askar Lost to Idolatry
19e. How Punishment Came
19f. Askar’s Failure
Other

6) Myths and teachings
codex [005/30 – 011/11]
book p. 29-36

2a. Festa, Take up your Stylus
2b. Our Primal History
2c. Lyda was Black
2d. Finda was Yellow
2e. Frya was White
codex [045/01 – 047/04]
book p. 77-80

6. Yule, Script, Numbers
codex [097/29 – 106/09]
book p. 142-151
13e. Primal Teachings 1
13f. Primal Teachings 2
13g. The Unsociable Man
codex [134/22 – 141/25]
book p. 184-192

15b. Hellenia: Princes and Priests
15c. Yesus or Buda of Kashmir

7) Laws, rules and justice
codex [011/13 – 033/21]
book p. 37-63

2f. Frya’s Tex
2g. Festa: Laws and Frya’s Day
3a. Burg Laws
3b. General Laws
3c. Laws for the Army and War
3d. Folk mother and Kings at War
3e. Security and War Aftermath
4a. Preventing War
4b. Laws for the Steersmen
4c. Useful Precedents
4d. About Laws
4e. Aewa
codex [040/11 - 044/27]
book p. 71-76

5a. Three Principles
5b. Regulations and Penalties
5c. Punishments for Wrathful People
5d. Punishments for Evildoers
5e. Three Thieves

8) Letters of instruction
codex [00a/01 - 00b/25]
book p. 19-20

A. Hidde Oera Linda, 1255 CE
B. Liko Ovira Linda, 803 CE


this printable jpg can be inserted in the book

20 July 2021

Notes from the publisher / Shipping Log

[Please note: if you have not received a tracking link or invoice, please check your spam box.]

 Minor changes of service: 1) In earlier communications, it was suggested that parcels to non-EU destinations would be registered as gift, to avoid import tax. At later consideration, this was a mistake, as we cannot take the risk that customs would not agree. Therefore the actual value is registered. 2) Earlier I suggested that before shipping, all who had ordered would be informed and would have the chance to provide a possible change of address. This would be too much work. If your address has changed, please inform us or make use of a forwarding service. 3) Some people have asked me to write a personal message or signature in the book. This would slow down the shipping action and I am too scared to ruin the books. I do it in very rare occasions only.

I am being flooded with messages asking when the books will be sent. Answering all would delay distribution. Some delay is caused by increased customs bureaucracy and wrong packing materials having been delivered twice. I intended to handle the first edition myself and am learning by doing. Future editions may partly be printed in USA and elsewhere, in cooperation with more experienced publishing houses.

Delivery can still be expected end of July, perhaps early August for some.

SHIPPING LOG

If your parcel is sent registered or with tracking code, you receive a link by E-mail.

Wednesday, July 21 — USA: boxes (incl. a surplus) were shipped to Florida, from where the books will be sent to these states:

AK 2; AZ 2
CA 4+3+2+1+1+1+1+1 = 14
CO 5+1+1 = 7
FL 21+2+2+2+1 = 28
IA 1
ID 3+2+2+1 = 8
IL 2+1+1+1 = 5
LA 1; MD 1; ME 1; MI 1
MN 3+1 = 4
MO 2; MS 1; MT 2
NC 2+2+1+1+1+1 = 8
NH 1; NJ 4; NY 1; OH 1; OK 2
PA 2+2+1 = 5
TX 1; UT 1
VA 1+1 = 2
WA 10+2 = 12
WI 1; WV 1

July 21
July 24

Thursday, July 22 — parcels sent to:

Australia: VIC 1+1, NSW 1 = 3
Canada: AB 1+2, BC 1+1+1, ON 1+1+1, SK 1 = 10
Czech Republic: 2
Japan: 1
New Zealand: 2+1 = 3
Finland: 1+3 = 4
Norway: 1+1+1+2 = 5
Poland: 1
Romania: 1
Slovenia: 1+1 = 2
Switzerland: 1+2+3 = 6

Netherlands: 1 (birthday priority)

Friday, July 23 — All parcels for EU (not NL), UK and Jersey were packed and labels were prepared. One parcel could be sent already to:

Belgium: 9 (more to Belgium sent on Saturday)

Saturday, July 24 — parcels sent to:

United Kingdom: 10+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 = 22
Belgium: 4+2+1 = 7
(Friday 1 box with  9 books was sent)
France: 1+1+1+1 = 4
Germany: 4+4+2+1+1 = 12
Jersey: 1
Denmark: 1+1+1 = 3
Italy: 1
Sweden: 1

Sunday, July 25 — parcels sent to:

Netherlands: 6+4+3+(5x2)+(14x1) = 37 (more to come, several handed over personally)
South Africa: 1 (fastest so far; ordered and paid for today!)

Monday, July 26 — box and parcels sent to:

Friesland: 20+3+1 = 24
Iceland: 4

Tuesday, July 27 —After having stood in Cologne, Germany for five days (for unknown reasons), the boxes to USA are now being flown to Florida (confirmed by phone 9 a.m. Dutch time).

(shipping of books paid for after July 27 are no longer reported here; if sent with track & trace or registered service, an Email notification will be sent)

Wednesday evening July 28 (USA time): boxes were checked in at Jacksonville, FL — delivered Thursday July 29 on 11:54 a.m. (USA time)!

Friday July 30 — parcels within USA are sent with USPS Media mail, which may take 10 days to arrive, except the box with 10 books which will be UPS Priority and may take 3-5 days. Tracking links have been sent Monday Aug. 2.

17 July 2021

Codex Oera Linda ~ page scan samples

(note: because these are color scans, the black printed text seems lighter than it really is)

 
Foreword by Asha Logos (pages 11-13) see here.
more scans will be added

10 July 2021

RÉK, MITH KRÛDON BIREKAD


Some cognates (meaning smoke, vapor):
reek - Frisian
rook - Dutch, Afrikaans
Rauch - German
røg - Danish
røyk - Norse
rök - Swedish
reykur - Icelandic
Raach - Luxembourgish
ryk - Old-Norse

When meaning bad smell:
reek - English
reuk - Dutch
Geruch - German

07 July 2021

Implausible hoax doctrine

    The most scholarly work published thus far about the Oera Linda-book was a dissertation by Goffe Jensma. (1) It presents a theory in which a triumvirate, backed by several co-conspirators, produced the manuscript in order to initially fool their intended audience and eventually, when their victims would have understood the prank, make a theological statement. A basic assumption of the study was that it had to be a 19th century fictional creation.

  1. De Gemaskerde God — François HaverSchmidt en het Oera Linda-boek ('The Masked God'), 2004, defended at the Faculty of Theology at Groningen University. It has an English summary, accessible at www.academia.edu/619642.
Goffe Jensma
De Gemaskerde God (2004) dissertation by Jensma
Dutch translation (2006) by Jensma

    The three creators would have been pastor and poet Haverschmidt (1835-1894), his friend the librarian and linguist Verwijs (1830-1880), and royal navy shipyard superintendent Over de Linden (1811-1874). While the first two were known to have been college friends, Haverschmidt would have had to get to know Over de Linden well enough in the 1.5 year (December 1862 to July 1864) that he was one of three pastors at the Den Helder parish of 9,300 members. Over de Linden was known to not be a church-goer, he was a generation older than the pastor, was (grand)father and remarried as a widower in May 1863. The 28 year old Haverschmidt got married in August 1863 and would one year later become father. Both will have had other things on their mind — not least of all to work for a living — than concocting a highly advanced (and potentially dangerous) mystification.

Haverschmidt (1835-1894)
Verwijs (1830-1880)
Over de Linden (1811-1874)

    After the two supposedly would have gotten acquainted, they would have had to mostly work together with Verwijs through mail, as the pastor moved to Schiedam in 1864 and the linguist lived in Leeuwarden, hours of travel separating the three of them.

    However, most implausible of all circumstances was that the intelligent and talented Verwijs would have risked not only losing his career, but also being criminally prosecuted. After all, having examined the manuscript in 1867, he initially concluded that it was "irrefutably authentic" and "an ancestral manuscript, copied many times", (1) asking the Frisian Provincial Executive permission to negotiate a purchase from the owner as well as funds to have it copied and translated. (2)

  1. Letters Verwijs to Over de Linden, October 13 and 19, 1867.
  2. 'Gedeputeerde Staten', the executive branch of government of a province in the Netherlands.

    If the manuscript would have been intended to be obviously fake at second consideration, as Jensma theorized, Verwijs' request would have been unforgivable, if he would have been complicit. And even if the three creators would have agreed to keep their teamwork a secret, would Verwijs have had reason to trust especially Over de Linden, whom he could hardly have gotten to know well and who, like he, was known to be a drinker and thus could easily have talked past his mouth?

    What if King William III would have insisted to see the manuscript and what if he would have taken offense at the anti-monarchist sentiments expressed in the work? If it had been a joke, it was a very dangerous one. As it was later stated: "Some see [it] as the deceptive masterpiece of dark powers, created with the apparent goal of undermining the foundations of church and society." (1)
  1. Dr. M. de Jong in his foreword of Het Geheim van het Oera-Linda-Boek (The Secret of the OLB), 1927.
King William (1817-1890)
    In a publication about Germanic words for woman, (1) Verwijs suggested that the name of the town Vronen was derived from the Old-Frisian word FRÁN (Dutch vroom; sacred, pious), while in Oera Linda the original form FOR.ÁNA (Dutch voor-aan; in front) is suggested. He published much more about etymology. If he really created the Fryas language, it should be possible to identify his signature. However, in the meticulous studies that tried to prove him guilty, such evidence was never found.
  1. De namen der vrouw bij den Germaan, 1863.
Verwijs (1863)

    Jensma's three suspects all had a life. They were not hermits with unlimited time or resources. Even if they would have had the time and skills to create it, as well as the courage to possibly enrage the establishment, would they have taken the risk that the manuscript remained unnoticed? If Ottema had not translated and published it, hardly anyone would have known it ever existed. Would none of them have wanted any credit for it, if only posthumously?

    Before theorizing about possible modern creators, it should first be compellingly proven that it cannot possibly be a 13th century copy, or a copy thereof. If it would be a 19th century fantasy, loosely based on a selection of sources, this should have become ever more evident in the last 150 years, but the opposite is the case.

03 July 2021

Frisian Antiquities (1875) — English translation

In 1938, the manuscript known as The Oera Linda-book was given to the province Friesland by custodian and owner Cornelis Over de Linden, the fourth of that name, who was confident that "through Science the Truth will triumph over the mystery surrounding this manuscript".

One year prior to the handover, in 1937, there had been attempts to set up a fund for publication of a facsimile edition of the manuscript, perhaps followed by various translations and new research. The then owner Cornelis Over de Linden was one of the initiators and a willing investor. Collaboration was sought with the Frisian Society for History, Archaeology and Language. (1) The provincial librarian, historian, theologian and member of the Frisian Society, Geert A. Wumkes supported the initiative, (2) writing:

"It is less significant to me who wrote the Oera Linda-book. What matters is its inherent, spiritual value, as a testimony to the Westfrisian love of freedom at a time when the national character was threatened with utter destruction. Both its moral and literary quality, as well as the spirituality it expresses, I consider more relevant than authenticity and historical facts." (3)

However, four months later, in a reply of two sentences, the president of the Frisian Society, baron Pieter A.V. van Harinxma thoe Slooten, who was also the Queen’s commissioner for the province Friesland, informed the initiators that the Society refused to give any support, financially or morally. (4)
Wumkes had not been the only respectable advocate of Oera Linda's value, but he was one of the last who dared to openly praise it. The first and foremost had been Dr. Ottema, whose introduction to his first edition of 1872 was translated by William Sandbach in the 1876 English edition. This introduction will be known to most readers and remain accessible. A less well known introduction to Oera Linda, and perhaps a more notable one, for it was published by the same Frisian Society that would later so disdainfully reject it, is translated below.

  1. Friesch Genootschap van Geschied-, Oudheid- en Taalkunde; cooperation with the Westfries Genootschap (North Holland) was also intended.
  2. It was thanks to the efforts of Wumkes that Over de Linden would hand over the manuscript to the library in 1938. Wumkes is most well known for his Frisian translation of the complete Bible, published in 1943.
  3. Letter Wumkes to Molenaar, dated March 22, 1937 (original Dutch text here).
  4. Letter Harinxma to Molenaar, dated July 17, 1937.


Frisian Antiquities (1)

The Over de Linden family in Den Helder is in possession of an old manuscript, of which script, language and content were unknown. It had been passed on from generation to generation, with the advice to preserve it with care, as a family-treasure. They guessed it was written in Old-Frisian and suspected it might contain information about ancient ancestors.

When Dr. Eelco Verwijs, archivist-librarian of Friesland, heard about this, he informed the Dutch government, that commissioned him to examine it. On December 17, 1867, he reported his first conclusions and that the owner had given him permission to copy and translate the manuscript. [...]

Thanks to the persevering zeal and care of Dr. J.G. Ottema, the content was understood and translated. In detail he reported the results of his examination in a meeting of the Frisian Society on February 10, 1871. This report was printed and distributed, leading to a great public interest in this curious document.

In Ottema's opinion, the doubts that had risen about the manuscript's authenticity had no grounds. He saw it as a most important source of old Frisian history, revealing relevant new information. As he concluded: "We may thus accept that this manuscript, of which the oldest part was composed in the sixth century before our era, contains the oldest product (after Homer and Hesiod) of European literature. It describes an ancient people in our fatherland, thus far unknown, with a development, civilization, industry, navigation, trade, literature and pure, sublime religious values. In our imagination, our history did not reach beyond the arrival of Friso [c. 300 BC], the supposed Frisian founding father. Here however we discover a history beyond 2000 BC, surpassing the antiquity of Greece and equaling that of Israel."

The manuscript is a copy from 1256, (2) made by Hidde Oera Linda. In all debates about its authenticity and value, it was impossible to have a well-founded judgment, until the printed version was published in 1872. [...]

After publication, the book that was remarkable from any point of view remained a source of conflict and both sides of the debate sought to defend their belief. In 1973, Dr. Ottema explained the content in a brochure, titled Historical Notes and Clarifications to the Oera Linda-book, (3) and defended it a year later in The Royal Academy and the Oera Linda-book. (4) Dr. A.T. Reitsma from Groningen studied it and presented the results of his research in three meetings of the Frisian Society. (5) He concluded that the work has both internal and external marks of authenticity, and gave examples of its high historic value. In the last of these meetings the opponents also had the opportunity to raise their concerns. The manuscript itself was also displayed at that occasion, so the possible authenticity as 13th century copy could be judged.

The most extensive research thus far was reported in the Deventer newspaper in 1874 and later published separately, titled In response to the Oera Linda Book. (6) It is obvious that the author was someone knowledgeable and unprejudiced. His answer to the thought that the book would be a forgery, made after 1853, when the stilt-houses in lake Zürich were discovered, is: "Who then would be the author? Not just anyone would be capable of such a thing. Accurate knowledge would have been needed for that of the oldest Frisian language, of which a very limited vocabulary from only a few sources is available. Moreover, knowledge of how that language changed in the course of time. For remarkable differences can be noticed between the linguistic varieties used by the first and last composers of the manuscript. The forger would also have needed exceptional historic and geographic knowledge. It could not have been done without many years of preparatory studies. Writing the odd script would have been a drudgery. And what would all those efforts have been good for? Honor? — But forgers have good reasons to keep their name a secret. Money? — That publication would hardly cover printing costs could have been known beforehand. The pleasure of fooling scholars? — Would a very well-educated and talented man, as the assumed creator must have been, sacrifice so much time and effort in order to gain such questionable delight? None of all that is plausible.

"We thus face an odd dilemma: Either we allow ourselves to be fooled by the creation of a highly devoted, mad genius — or a great deal of old history is placed in such light, that a revolution in this field will become inevitable.

"You might then suppose it was the product of a bored monastic? This cannot be the case either. As we intend to explain, the Oera Linda-book teaches ethics and an understanding of God that are so ultimately true and pure, so unmonkish and untheologic, that someone, raised under the influence of Catholic or even Protestant dogmas, could impossibly have expressed such true free-thinking and entirely unbiased feelings."

And yet this scholar had to conclude: "Although nothing goes against the physical possibility; although we discovered nothing that convinces of a forgery, — still there is something suspicious about the parts that deal with Greek-Roman antiquity. We have no doubts about the honesty and frankness of the gentlemen Over de Linden and Dr. Ottema. If any element is forged, they were not involved — we are wholeheartedly convinced of that. We have suspicion, but it is not serious enough to outright reject the Oera Linda-book."

All things considered, we may call this book remarkable. As long as it will remain difficult, to distinguish myth, legend or embellished tradition in the earliest history of any nation, the Oera Linda-book — considered by some as a glorification of the Frisian race — will remain an object of meticulous research. Still, anyone who has read the book will have to admit, that the work contains inner marks of great value. Therefore we readily agree with the following statement by the Deventer scholar: "Although I have come to love the book with all my heart, I look forward to the results of scientific examination without concern. Because, even if it would be convincingly refuted on historic grounds, the book would still keep its great ethical value as an allegory or as fiction."

  1. Translated from the Dutch original (link to PDF). Full title: Friesche Oudheden — Afbeeldingen van Merkwaardige Voorwerpen van Wetenschap en Kunst, gevonden in de Archieven, Kerken, Kasteelen, Terpen enz. van Friesland (Frisian Antiquities — Depictions of remarkable objects of science and art, found in the archives, churches, castles, terps etc. of Friesland), published by the Friesch Genootschap (1875), p. 48-50 Het schrift van het Oera Linda-Bok, with a depiction of page 45 of the manuscript.
  2. The 1256th year should have been read as the year 1255.
  3. Original Dutch title: Geschiedkundige aanteekeningen en ophelderingen bij Thet Oera Linda Bok. A revised and more extensive edition was published with the same title in 1878.
  4. Original Dutch title: De Koninklijke Akademie en het Oera Linda Boek.
  5. Dr. Anne T. Reitsma was theologian, pastor and one of the founders in 1838 of the Frisian Theologian Society, which he gave its motto: Truth in Freedom.
  6. Full title: Naar aanleiding van Thet Oera Linda Bok — Historische schetsen met enige in- en uitvallen (1874), translated in German as Historische Skizzen auf Grundlage von Thet Oera Linda Bok (1875); although it was published anonymously, it was clear that the author was prof. Annes J. Vitringa, school director and author of articles and books, most significantly Darwinia (1876) about a monstrous world as he believed it would look like if Darwin's teachings were truly applied.

24 June 2021

Notes on the Over de Linden family

That Cornelis Over de Linden was custodian of the manuscript in 1867 when he first sought help getting it translated is undisputed. The earlier history of the manuscript is less certain and will be discussed below.



lifespan
Ms. ownership*
1
Jan Andriesz Over Lende
c.1719-1794
? -1794?
2
Andries Over de Linden
1759-1820
1794?-1820
3
Hendrik Reuvers, married
1796-1845
1820-1845

    to Aafje Over de Linden
1798-1849

4
Rijkent Kofman, married
1820-1861
1845-1848

    to Cornelia Reuvers
1818-1878

5
Cornelis Over de Linden I
1811-1874
1848-1874
6
Leendert F. Over de Linden
1837-1919
1874-1919
7
Cornelis Over de Linden IV
1883-1958
1919-1938

 - - - - - - -


8
Friesland Library/ Tresoar

since 1938
*ownership before 1848 uncertain — some would say: before 1867


If Cornelis received the manuscript in 1848, as he maintained and as several witnesses testified, it will have come from his grandfather Andries Over de Linden, carpenter and shipbuilder. If the latter had intended to have his grandson inherit it, one would expect an explaining letter of instruction to accompany it. Another possibility is that Andries instructed his son in law Hendrik Reuvers who was at least acquainted with the family since 1818 and who may have later instructed his son in law Rijkent Kofman. There are facts suggesting that Cornelis was not handed over the manuscript voluntarily in 1848 as he claimed, but rather that that there had been discord related to the handover. Cornelis may have been convinced that he was the rightful heir, passing on the Over de Linden surname, but he had not been properly instructed about the manuscript and its content.

Andries was the second surviving son of Jan Over Lende, who started a bookshop in 1764 in Enkhuizen. His older brother Johannes (1752-1809) continued the trade of their father in Enkhuizen, and the son of Johannes, Jan (1776-1858) did as well, besides being book printer and binder. The question arises why the manuscript was not passed down through the line of book traders rather than to the carpenter Andries. Or were there more than just one copy? Perhaps Andries was favored because he had been named after his yet unknown father's father.

The oldest known information thus far about the family is from January 1741, when Jan Over Lende, 21 years old, signed accounts in Leeuwarden as (what may be translated as) assistant of the public prosecutor. Four years later, in the summer of 1745, he got married in Harlingen, Friesland, where he and his bride Janke Hansen then lived. His surname was spelled by different scribes as Over de Lende and Over Linde respectively. Soon after the marriage they must have moved to Enkhuizen in Westfriesland, on the other side of the Zuyderzee, now IJsselmeer, because their first child was baptized there in June 1746. An older sister of Janke, Antje Hanses already lived in Enkhuizen when the latter got married in 1742, and a younger brother Oene Johannesz also married there in 1751. It is still unknown what profession Jan Over Lende had between 1741 and 1765, but in 1746 he signed five notarial documents as a witness. His signature then was Jan Andriesz, using his patronymic instead of the surname Over Linde. Also, at the registrations of baptisms between 1746 and 1764 of all his children, the surname was not used. When he and his wife signed their testament in 1783, he wrote Over Lende again. At his death in 1794, the scribe wrote Over de Linden, which would remain the spelling when family names became formalized in 1811, under French rule.

There is no direct clue as to where Jan Andriesz Over Linde was born, but it can hardly be a coincidence that a Lijsbet Andriesdr from Steggerda, married to Engele Haitzes, had a son Andries, born in Lemmer in 1763, who would later (1811 at the latest) also adopt the name Over de Linde. The Linde or Lende was and is the name of a stream in the south of the province Friesland. Seen from Leeuwarden, Harlingen and Lemmer, Steggerda lies on the other side of it. To go there, or to have come from there, one had to go over the Linde.

Is this why Jan used it as a surname in Leeuwarden in 1741 and in Harlingen in 1745 and why he initially did not use the name in Enkhuizen, because there they would not have known of a stream called Linde? Or did he move to Enkhuizen to flee from something and did he hide for a while with the more anonymous patronymic? Did he as a book trader get hold of the manuscript and keep it because of the stunning coincidence that it had been copied by an apparent namesake, or had he had it for much longer, before he moved to Westfriesland? Was Okke, son of Hidde Oera Linde, addressed on page one of the manuscript an actual forefather of Jan, or did a later ancestor start using the surname Over Linde, because he read it in the manuscript that had otherwise come in his possession?

These questions and speculations will only have value for readers who are willing to consider authenticity of the Oera Linda manuscript. With the advancing digitization of archives, relevant information may be found more easily in the future, if not about the Over de Linden family, then perhaps in other families with curious names, like Tex, Jol and Van Adelen.

23 June 2021

Language too modern?

From many of our words, the origin is unknown. Even in the fifth century BCE, Socrates speculated about etymology.

Plato Cratylus, for example 409c - 410a (transl. Fowler 1921): "Hermogenes: And what of πῦρ (fire) [...]? Socrates: Πῦρ is too much for me. It must be that either the muse of Euthyphro has deserted me or this is a very difficult word. [...] I know that many Greeks, especially those who are subject to the barbarians, have adopted many foreign words. [...] If we should try to demonstrate the fitness of those words in accordance with the Greek language, and not in accordance with the language from which they are derived, you know we should get into trouble. [...] Well, this word πῦρ is probably foreign; for it is difficult to connect it with the Greek language, and besides, the Phrygians have the same word, only slightly altered." The Fryas word for fire is the same as that for four: FJUR. In Plato's dialogue between Socrates and Timaeus (53d), the latter relates the element fire with the tetrahedron; a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces. In Oera Linda (codex p. [012], book p. 38), it is mentioned as the fourth element, after "LÒFT. WÉTER. LÁND" (air, water, land).

Although there are models, theories and speculations, we simply do not know how old our languages are and how they developed. We are discovering more about civilizations that were probably lost as a result of cataclysms, so we should be able to imagine that spoken and written languages once existed that may have been more advanced than their remnants later were. When critics of Oera Linda suggest that its syntax or vocabulary would be too modern to be authentic, their usual reference will be the oldest available, accepted sources of Dutch and Frisian. They are few and were written by scribes who had learned to read and write in the classical languages.

Latin and Greek as we know them may have been languages used primarily for the transmission of information and not for representing the language then spoken by normal people. Everyday language may have been much more similar to dialects that still exist. So, what if a text would emerge that was written or copied by someone who had actually learned to read and write the spoken language of his pre-Christian ancestors? Would this text not seem modern and strange — too easily readable, in the eyes of someone who had expected an older text to be less legible compared to that of an early medieval monk?

Critics have given examples of words that they consider to be modern, or that they assume must have been meant as a joke, like BED-RUM for bedroom (it can also mean: ask-, invite- or pray-room) or NÉF.TÜNIS (cousin, nephew or kinsman Tunis) for Neptune. Other words are assumed to be intentionally ambiguous. However, all such examples are speculative or arguments from incredulity (a fallacy). Old languages logically will seem ambiguous, because use and meaning of words has changed through time and there have been regional differences. Even within and between the various texts of the manuscript, there are examples of different and changing meanings.

As far as I know, no Old-Frisian specialist has ever published a review of the Oera Linda language. The 1876 pamphlet by J. Vinckers usually referred to by people who claim that Oera Linda's falseness has long been established, was never translated into, summarized or reviewed in English, for a reason. It simply is no good.

17 May 2021

Codex Oera Linda: probe and comparison to Sandbach's edition (1876)

1) Compare appearance in the book (note: page and text design of COL will be further improved):

2) Compare the choice of words: first line (CAPITALS) is transliteration Ott (2021),
second line translation Ott (2021)
and third line (italic script) translation Sandbach (1876).


[00b] LJAWA ERVNÔMA.
[00b] Dear heirs,
Beloved successors,

VMB VSA LJAWA ÉTHLA.S WILLE ÀND VMB VSA LJAWA FRYDOM.S WILLE, THVSAND WÁRA SÁ BIDD.IK TO JO. OCH LJAWE
For our beloved ancestors' sake, and for the sake of our precious freedom, a thousand times I beg you — dearest —
for the sake of our dear forefathers, and of our dear liberty, I entreat you a thousand times

NE LÉT THA ÁGON ÉNIS PÁPE.KAPPE [5] TACH NIMMERTHE OVER THISSA SKRIFTA NE WÉJA.
to never let the eyes of a monk go over these writings.
never let the eye of a monk look on these writings.

HJA SPRÉKATH SWÉTA WIRDA, MEN HJA TORNATH VNMÀRKSÉM AN ALLES HWAT FON VS FRYAS TREFTH.
They speak sweet words, but unnoticed they meddle with all that concerns us Fryas.
They are very insinuating, but they destroy in an underhand manner all that relates to us Frisians.

VMBE RIKA PREBENDNE TO WINNANDE SÁ HÉLATH [10] HJA MITH THA POPPA KENINGGAR.
They collaborate with foreign kings, who pay them well.
In order to gain rich benefices, they conspire with foreign kings,

THISSA WÉTATH THAT WI HJARA GRÁTESTE FJANDA SEND. THRVCHDA WI HJARA LJUDA TO SPRÉKE THVRA, VR FRYDOM RJUCHT ÀND FORSTNE PLJCHT.
These know that we are their greatest enemies, because we dare speak about freedom, justice and royal obligations.
who know that we are their greatest enemies, because we dare to speak to their people of liberty, rights, and the duties of princes.

THÉRVMBE LÉTATH HJA ALLES [15] VRDILIGJA. HWAT FON VSA ÉTHLUM KVMTH ÀND HWAT THÉR JETA REST FON VSA ALDA SÉDUM.
Therefore, they want to obliterate all traces of our ancestral heritage and what is left of our morals.
Therefore they seek to destroy all that we derive from our forefathers, and all that is left of our old customs.

OCH LJAWA IK HÀV BI THAM ET HOVE WÉST.
My dear ones! I have visited their palace.
Ah, my beloved ones! I have visited their courts!

WIL WR.ALDA .T THJELDA ÀND WILLATH WI VS NAVT STERIK NE [20] MÁKJA, HJA SKILUN VS ALGÁDUR VRDILIGJA.
If Wralda allows it, and if we do not strengthen ourselves, they will exterminate us all.
If Wr-alda permits it, and we do not chew ourselves strong to resist, they will altogether exterminate us.

SKRÉVEN TO LJUD.WERD, ACHT.HONDRED ÀND THRJU JÈR, NÉI KERSTEN BIGRIP.
Written in Liudwerd, year eight hundred and three in Christian understanding.
Written at Liudwert, Anno Domini 803.

[25] LIKO TONÔMATH OVIRA.LINDA.
Liko, surnamed Ovira Linda.
Liko, surnamed Over de Linda.

24 April 2021

Specifics of the book and shipping costs

Codex Oera Linda ~ English edition will have a hard cover with linen back, 96 pages color (original manuscript) + 256 pages black/white (translation, transliteration, introduction, index etc.) = 352 pages and three reading ribbons.

Size: 17,5 x 24,5 x 3,1 cm; Weight: 1,1 kg

Price per copy is € 36, -

Shipping cost per destination group

1. Netherlands

incl. VAT (btw)
track & trace,
post office delivery
track & trace,
home address delivery
registered
and insured
1 - 8 copies (max. 10 kg)
€6,25
€6,75 €8,70
9 - 19 copies (max. 23 kg)
€12,50 €13,- €15,-


2. USA: [as from Sept. 10: see 5.] thanks to our main sponsor, mail costs are only € 10, - per book (the share in shipping boxes to US). However, as from August, parcels are only mailed on the first day of each month. Parcels with under 10 copies are sent with USPS and have a tracking code.

— listed below are only the destinations from which orders have been received so far —

Note: For registered & insured mail to EUR1, EUR2 and Other, please add € 2,50.

3. EUR1: Belgium, France, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Italy, etc.

incl. VAT
basic, no
track & trace
track & trace
1 copy
€9,30
€13,-
2 - 4 copies (2 - 5 kg)
x €19,50
5 - 8 copies (5 - 10 kg)
x
€25,-
9 - 16 copies (10 - 20 kg)
x
€34,-
17 - 19 copies (20 - 23 kg)
x
€45,-

4. EUR2: United Kingdom, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, Iceland, Slovenia, Portugal, Romania, Poland, Jersey, Andorra, etc.

incl. VAT basic, no
track & trace
track & trace
1 copy
€12,-
€18,50
2 - 4 copies (2 - 5 kg)
x €25,-
5 - 8 copies (5 - 10 kg)
x
€31,-
9 - 16 copies (10 - 20 kg)
x
€40,-
17 - 19 copies (20 - 23 kg)
x
€55,-

5. Other: USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Czech Republic, Japan, Russian Federation, South Africa, etc.

incl. VAT basic, no
track & trace
track & trace
1 copy
€23,-
€29,30
2 - 4 copies (2 - 5 kg)
x €46,80
5 - 8 copies (5 - 10 kg)
x
€83,30
9 - 16 copies (10 - 20 kg)
x
€145,30

Note: For registered & insured mail, please add € 2,50.

20 April 2021

WÀRF, WÀRV - wharf, yard

wharf or shipyard by Jan Luyken (1697)

Old spellings (some):

hvarf - Old-norse
hwerf - Old-saxon
werf, werve - Old-dutch
hwaerf - Old-english

New spellings (some):
werf - Dutch
wharf - English
Werft - German
varv - Swedish
værft - Danish

current common meaning: shipyard/ dockyard;
more original meanings (also): (artificial) inhabited hill/mound, property around a house/ yard, quay/shore or dam/dyke

Oera Linda fragments:

[019/15] SA JÉFT MÀN HJAM HUS ÀND WÀRV [...]
[/20] SA MOT MÀN HIM THÉR EN HUS EN WÀRF JÉWA [...]
[/25] ALLERA MANNALIK MOT MÀN EN ÀFTER DÉL AS WÀRF BY SINA HUS JÉVA

he is given a house and yard [...]
they must give him a house and yard there [...]
Everyone must be given an arable back yard behind his house


[090/01] NÉI MÀM HIRA DÁD HETH MÀN ADEL.BROST MIN BROTHER VRSLÉJEN FONDEN VPPA WÀRF
after my mother died, my brother Adelbrost was found dead on the wharf

-LÁWA and -LOV- words

General Note: From now on, when referring to a fragment in the original text, I will no longer use the exact line in which the fragment starts, but the block: line 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30, as used in my new edition and already online here.

personified Belief by Jb. Matham, after Goltzius (1593)
A reader commented:
There is a somewhat incongruent line I found in most English editions of the OLB I read, and I am wondering how you will deal with it in your new translation. We know the Fryas believed in the occult, as Minnos was a seer*, and Kalta a witch, so it is confirmed they had a belief in sorcery/ witchcraft. We also know from a line later in the book (I forgot where exactly) they believed that wicked souls would 'haunt the earth' after death, so they also believed in 'evil spirits'**. Despite all of this, in Frethorik's writings we hear him denounce the (Scandinavians?), he states "They believe in bad spirits, sorcerers, witches, dwarves, and elves as if they descended from the Fins".*** I think a better word for 'believe' would be worship, because we know the Fryas would have also believed in sorcery and bad spirits, however they didn't worship sorcerers and spirits, like the Fins would've. Changing 'belief' to worship makes a lot more sense to the reader, and makes more sense of the general religious worldview of the Fryas, however I am wondering if changing it would maintain the translation's integrity.

* [029/10] MINNO WAS [...] SIANER - Minno was [...] seer; this does not have to be interpreted as 'occult' as it can simply mean he had a clear vision (was 'clairvoyant').
** [127/15] '... if you defile your soul, you will never reach Walhalla. Your soul will then wander over the earth without being able to see the light. Like bats and owls you will hide in your hole by day, and come out at night, crying and howling upon our graves, while Frya must turn her head away from you.'; this was Friso speaking, who may well have been influenced by foreign beliefs. I agree however, that there are enough fragments suggesting a belief in what we might call the 'supernatural'.
*** see fragment [133/10] below.

This inspired me to do a quick study, the conclusion of which is that (BI)LÁWA does mean 'believe' as is clear from the contexts in which it is used. However there are some other interesting conclusions to be drawn from the study below. For now, I will have to leave these to the discretion of the student.

1. Oera Linda words and their modern cognates/ varieties

A. (BI)LÁWA (verb)
believe - English (noun: belief)
geloven - Dutch (noun: geloof)
glauben - German (noun: Glaube)
leauwe - Frisian

B. LÁWA (noun) [unclear if this word is related to the previous, but since its spelling is identical I have included it here]
lion - English
leeuw - Dutch
Löwe - German
liuw - Frisian
løve - Norse, Danish
lejon - Swedish
ljón - Icelandic
[Note: Through Latin leō (...) ‘lion’ derived from Greek léōn. The -w- in Old Dutch is an intervocal transition sound. The Greek word is derived from an unknown language. The Semitic words for ‘lion’ (Hebrew lāvīʾ, Assyric labbu, Akkadic lābu) deviate too much.] Dutch source (my underlinings): etymologiebank

C. VRLOVA (verb)
(promise - English)
beloven - Dutch (noun: belofte)
geloben (archaic) - German (noun:  Gelöbnis)
love - Danish (noun: (løfte)
lova - Swedish (noun: (löfte)
love - Norse (noun: love)
lofa - Icelandic (noun: (lofa)

D. ORLOVI (noun) used as meaning 'permission'
furlough, leave - English
verlof - Dutch
Urlaub - German
ferlof - Frisian
orlof, leyfi - Icelandic
orlov - Danish
løyve - Norse
lov - Swedish

E. LOV (noun)
(praise - English; cognate love)
lof - Dutch (verb: loven)
Lob - German (verb: loben)

2. Oera Linda fragments and translation

A. (BI)LÁWA - believe

[037/05]
WI WILLATH BILÁWA THÀT THIN RÉD GOD SY
We want to believe your counsel is good

[132/05]
ANG THRVCH OVERBILÁWICHHÉD
anxious from superstition

[132/20]
SÁ LÁWATH HJA THÀT THENE GÁST THES VRSTURVENE THÉR INNE FÁRATH
they believe that the spirit of the departed resides in it

[133/10]
ÔLON LÁWATH HJA AN BOSA GÁSTA. HEXNA. KOLLA.
ULDERMANKES. ÀND ELFUN AS JEF HJA FON THA FINNA WEI KÉMEN

They persistently believe in evil spirits, witches, sorcerers,
little forest men and elves as if they stemmed from the Finns

[139/10]
ALLE THÉR AN HIM ÀND AN SINA LÉRA LÁWA WILDE
all who would believe in him and his teachings

[210/25]
THRVCHDAM.ET FOLK NAVT LÁWA NAVT NILDE
THAT WODIN HJAM HELPA KVSTE

because the folk would not believe
Wodin could help them


B. LÁWA - lion

[009/25]
THRVCH THENE KRÀFT HJRAR BLIKKAR STRÉK THENE LÁWA TOFARA HJARA FYT DÀL
The force of her glance made the lion lie down at her feet

[109/20]
THÉR SEND WOLVA BARA ÀND SWÁRTE GRISLIKA LÁWA
There are wolves, bears and terrible black lions

C. VRLOVA - promise (Dutch: beloven)

[003/01]
VRLOVANDE.RA KY MITH GOLDEN HORNA
promised them mountains of gold (lit. 'cows with golden horns')

[003/10]
VRLOVADON HJA FON SINANT WÉGUM JETA.N ÀFTER.DÉL BY
were promised a back yard on behalf of the magus

D. ORLOVI - permission

[093/01]
HÉDE MIN BURCH.FÁM ORLOVI VMBIM BUTA THA LAND.PÁLA TO HELPANE
my burg maiden was per­mitted  [lit. 'had permission'] to merely banish him

[113/15]
HETH HJU ORLOVI FRÉJAD VMBE NÉI HJRA HUS TO GÁNE
she asked leave to go home

E. LOV(E) - praise (LOV.SPRÉKA/-E: 'ode' lit. 'praise-speak', LOVLIK: 'admirable' or 'laudable' lit. 'praise-like')

[095/20]
THÉRE BURCHFÁM.S LOV
Ode to the burg maiden

[091/05]
LOV.SPRÉKA OVIR MIN MÀM
an ode to my mother

[091/01]
HWANA KVMTET WÉI THÀTSTER SOKKE HÁGE LOVE TO SWIKTH
why do you praise her so much?

[092/15]
THÀT IS LOVLIK
That is admirable indeed

[097/20]
IN THA LOV.SPRÉKE
in the ode

[154/05]
THA JONGA FÁMNA KÉTHON SINA LOVE
the young maidens praised him