22 June 2017

BIDOBBA, as a matter of speaking

an attempt to exhume a lost meaning

detail of "Saul and the Witch of Endor" by Jacob Cz. van Oostsanen (1526)

One of the main arguments against the authenticity of the Oera Linda-book is that the language would be too modern; that it would simply be oldfrisianised 19th century Dutch. However, many fragments are hard to translate and the various translators often present very different translations, many of which have been discussed and improved on this blog. Obviously, adherents of the hoax theory will argue that the alleged creator(s) added these difficulties to create doubt, confusion, or an illusion of authenticity.

In this post I will show another of these difficulties and my interpretation, which is different from the existing ones.

~ ~ ~

In an earlier post I discussed the OLB-verb BIDOBBA and its relation to 'tub' and 'dopen' (to baptise). The first meaning is to cover/ bury, from DOBBA: dig, delve (also see below: 'bidobje' in modern Frisian). In two of the fragments, however, the verb has a metaphorical meaning, which is not clear.

Fragment 1. [056/15]
Those who valued their stomachs above justice, ...

Fragment 2. [149/17]
Pay attention to how Friso ...

First I will summarise the differences, then list the translated fragments, and finally discuss them.
Besides the question what the verb BIDOBBA means in the first fragment, also the personal pronoun HINI was interpreted differently: as "themselves" (Jensma and Lien) and as "him" (other translators). The OLB has three other occurrences of HINI, where it means "him" each time (30/5, 85/22, 86/20). Reflexive pronouns almost always contain SELVA or SELF. It would thus most probably have been HJARA SELVA instead of HINI, if 'themselves' was meant. Therefore "him" is more likely the right interpretation of HINI.
~ ~ ~

Summary of differences

Fragment 1.

worry, fret, drudge
work his way/  proceed
fob off
win over
Ottema Sandbach
De Heer
Menkens* Jensma** Lien Ott***
* Menkens gave two possible - very different - interpretations and admitted in footnote that he was uncertain.
** Jensma admitted in footnote that he was uncertain and had also considered 'dupe' (bedotten).
*** I am not certain either and decided for this translation mainly because it is the only one that fits in both fragments, considering the context.

Fragment 2.

deceive/ dupe/ fool
(bedotten, hineinlegen,
voor de gek houden, dupere)
fob off
influence/ seduce
(beeinflussen/ becircen)
win over
De Heer
Jensma Menkens Ott

Translated fragments

Ottema 1872 Dutch
1. lieten hem tobben (let him worry/ fret/ drudge)
2. allen wist te bedotten (duped them all)

Sandbach 1876 English
1. let him work his own way
2. understood deceiving everybody

Wirth 1933 German
1. ließen ihn gewähren (let him bestow)
2. alle hineinzulegen wußte (trick them all)

Overwijn 1951 Dutch
1. lieten hem begaan (let him proceed)
2. ze allemaal voor de gek wist te houden (fool them all)

Jensma 2006 Dutch
1. die lieten zich afschepen (let themselves be fobbed off)
2. allen wist af te schepen (fobb them all off)
(footnote to 1.: unclear, as in 149/18 where it is appease or something similar; perhaps 'bedotten' - dupe)

De Heer 2008 Dutch (1. as Overwijn; 2. as Ottema

Raubenheimer 2011 English (1. and 2. as Sandbach)

Menkens 2013 German
1. die ließen ihn gewähren/ toben (let him bestow/ rage)
2. alle zu beeinflussen/ becircen wußte (influence/ seduce them all)
(footnote to 1.: uncertain; to 2.: compare 'bedeppert' - dazed/ stunned; 'doof' - dumb; 'dope')

Lien 2013 Norse
1. de lot seg dupere (let themselves be duped)
2. visste å dupere alle (how Friso knew how to dupe them all)

Ott 2017 English (provisional, not official yet)
1. let him win them over
2. succeeded in winning them them all over

detail of "The Antiquarian"
by Ulpiano Checa (1908)
Discussion and conclusion

Ottema in the first translation of 1872 used words that sound somewhat similar, but are not likely related:
1. tobben (worry, fret, drudge)
2. bedotten (dupe, deceive)
More importantly, they do not really make sense, considering the context.

As for 'tobben', the later translators seem to agree with me, as they all chose a very different interpretation, although Menkens does something similar with 'toben' (to rage), and Lien with 'dupere' (to dupe).

Then 'bedotten' (dupe, decieve); a similar word was chosen by most other translators. Only Jensma and Menkens had a somewhat less negative interpretation, which still makes no sense in my opinion, as I will explain below.

Let's first look at the context of both fragments (translation Sandbach):

1. ... the Magy did just as he pleased, because his daughter had a son by Wodin, and he would have it that this son was of high descent. While all were disputing and quarrelling, he crowned the boy as king, and set up himself as guardian and counsellor. Those who cared more for themselves than for justice let him [?!?!?], but the good men took their departure.

2. Here you must observe how Friso understood [?!?!?] everybody, to the satisfaction of both parties, and to the accomplishment of his own ends. To the Zeelanders he promised that they should have yearly fifty ships of a fixed size for a fixed price, fitted with iron chains and crossbows, and full rigging as is necessary and useful for men-of-war, but that they should leave in peace the Jutlanders and all the people of Frya's race. But he wished to do more; he wanted to engage all our sea rovers to go with him upon his fighting expedition. When the Zeelanders had gone, he loaded forty old ships with weapons for wall defences, wood, bricks, carpenters, masons, and smiths, in order to build citadels. Witto, or Witte, his son, he sent to superintend. [...] on each side of the harbour a strong citadel has been built, and garrisoned by people brought by Friso out of Saksenmarken. Witto courted Siuchthirte and married her. Wilhem, her father, was chief Alderman of the Jutmen [...]. Wilhem died shortly afterwards, and Witte was chosen in his place.

The second fragment provides most clues to what the mysterious word could mean. Firstly, what Friso did satisfied both parties and it helped him accomplish his own goal. He promised to sell the Zeelanders equipped ships, and to go on expeditions together with them. All under the condition that they would leave the Jutlanders in peace. It is obvious that Friso would profit from this too. Secondly, two strong citadels were built for the Jutlanders, and his son Witto married the daughter of the Jutmen's chieftain, whom he would later succeed. Friso, who's aim was to create an empire, in other words, had made valuable allies, and it would have been short-sighted to deceive them, as this would surely come to light in the long run and would make him enemies rather than friends.

My suggestion is that he won over (Dutch: inpalmen) the Zeelanders and the Jutlanders, and this meaning would also fit in the first fragment: The opportunists allowed the Magy to win them over.

from: Friesch Woordenboek A-H (1896)
Dijkstra & Buitenrust Hettema
How BIDOBBA would have gotten this (or a similar) secondary meaning is still a mystery to me. In Dijkstra's Frisian dictionary of 1896 this word has most coverage that I could find, but all listed examples are related to bury/ cover/ hide. Hettema's dictionary of 1874 does not list the word, and the one by Halbertsma of the same year only briefly mentions it means bury in earth.

So why would an alleged creator have chosen this word for something that has no clear relation to bury/ cover/ hide?

"To confuse", a hardcore believer of the hoax-doctrine (if there still is one) will say. But why? Why invest so much time and talent in a project that has no clear purpose, is by no means a crowd pleaser, and has made no one rich or famous. Yes, the Oera Linda-book did indeed create confusion, but to conclude that this must therefore have been its purpose is vainsense.

15 June 2017

"They aimed for the best" ~ new translation

dike-building on the Frisian island Ameland, 1913


In the first part of this fragment, the word DIGER was interpreted in various ways by the different translators. Sandbach left it out. I discussed DIGER earlier (scroll down to 7. April). It was used several times in the manuscript, with different meanings. Richthofen (1840) dictionary translated it as treu, sorgsam: loyal, careful. Modern cognates seem to be:
  • Dutch - degelijk, terdege, gedegen (solid, sound, thorough)
  • German - tüchtig (efficient, prodicient, competent)
  • Swedish/ Norse/ Danish: duktig/ dyktig/ dygtig (good, competent, skilled)
Competent fits well in the context here.
Jensma and Menkens end this part with a full stop, Lien uses a semicolon. All other translators have a comma, suggesting that what follows still is about Frya's folk. Since part one is in present tense (Frya's folk is...), and the rest is in past tense (they did not become... their aim laid...), I think the second part does not refer to Frya's folk in general, but specifically to the hard workers who restored the lands surrounding Liudweard.

1941 winner of the Frisian
Elfstedentocht, Auke Adema
In the second part, WIRG seems to have been interpreted through the context by my predecessors. In the only other occurence in the OLB*, the verb WIRGA means to strangle (Dutch/ German: wurgen/ würgen, old-Dutch: worgen). A cognate in English seems to be: weary, from Old English werig "tired, exhausted; miserable, sad". No etymologist seems to have made a link with worgen/ wurgen/ würgen yet...
Weary fits well here in the new translation.
Then the most rebellious were strangled with their chains.

The third part was paraphrased by Sandbach (copied by Raubenheimer), Overwijn, and Menkens. The other, more literal translations interpreted LÉIDE as the past tense of to lead (Dutch: (ge)leiden; German: führen). Elsewhere in the OLB, LÉIDE is always past of leggen (lay) or liggen (lie). Only once, as LÉITH, does it mean to lead (leads): WIS WÉSA ÀND WIS DVA ALLÉNA LÉITH TO SALICHHÉD.
For the interpretation, it does not change much, but it is a nice detail to be precise about. If they literally said "because their aim laid at the best", this feels like home to me, and can very well be paraphrased as "because they aimed for the best". I think the readers of my new translation will like this.

Here are my new provisional translation (still to be proofread by my editors) and the older ones to compare:

Ott 2017 English (provisional)
but Frya's folk is competent and diligent.
They* did not become tired or weary,

because they aimed for the best**.
(*'They' does not refer to Frya's folk, but to the people who restored the land around Liudweard; **lit.: because their aim laid at the best)

Ottema 1872 Dutch
Maar Fryas volk is wakker en vlijtig,
zij werden moede noch mat,
omdat hun doel ten beste geleidde.

Sandbach 1876 English
but Frya's people [part skipped by Sandbach]
were neither tired nor exhausted
when they had a good object in view
. [paraphrased]

Wirth 1933 German
Aber Fryas Volk ist wacker und fleißig,
sie werden weder müde noch mürbe [Dutch: murw],
weil ihr Ziel zum Besten führt.

Overwijn 1951 Dutch
Maar Frya's volk is wakker en vlijtig,
het werd moe noch mat,
omdat zijn plan het best mogelijke opleverde. [paraphrased: for its plan yielded the best possible result]

Jensma 2006 Dutch
Maar Frya's volk is oplettend en vlijtig.
Zij werden moe noch afgemat,
omdat hun doel tot het beste leidde.

De Heer 2008 Dutch
Maar Fryas volk is waardig en vlijtig,
zij werden moe noch mat,
doordat hun doel tot het beste leidde.

Raubenheimer 2011 English (as Sandbach)
but Frya's people are diligent and hard working
and they do not lose heart [interpretation]
when they had a good object in view. [paraphrased]

Menkens 2013 German
Aber Fryas Volk ist tüchtig und fleißig.
Sie wurden (weder) müde noch matt,
bis daß ihr Ziel erreicht war, [paraphrased: untill they had reached their goal]

Lien 2013 Norse
Frøyas folk er dyktige og flittige;
de var (verken) trette eller slitne [both words mean tired]
fordi deres mål ledet til det beste.

translation DIGER WIRG
Ottema wakker mat
Sandbach - exhausted
Wirth wacker mürbe
Overwijn wakker mat
Jensma oplettend afgemat
De Heer waardig mat
Raubenheimer diligent -
Menkens tüchtig matt
Lien dyktige slitne
Ott competent weary

13 June 2017

"This religion..." ~ a brand new translation

Boniface Converts the Germans by Johannes Gehrts (1855-1921)*


Ott 2017 English (provisional)
This religion, for which the priests need to have no other skills
than eloquence, hypocrisy and foul play

Ottema 1872 Dutch
Deze leer, waarbij de priesters geen andere wetenschap noodig hebben,
als bedriegelijk te redeneren, een vrome schijn en ongerechtigheden

Sandbach 1876 English
This doctrine, which requires the priests to possess no further knowledge
than to speak deceitfully, and to pretend to be pious while acting unjustly

Wirth 1933 German 
Diese Lehre, bei der die Priester keiner anderen Wissenschaft bedurfen,
als betrügerisch zu reden, frommen Scheines und Unrechtes zu pflegen

Overwijn 1951 Dutch 
Deze leer, waarbij de priesters geen andere wetenschap nodig hebben,
dan bedriegelijk redeneren, een vrome schijn ophouden en onrechtvaardige gebruiken 

Jensma 2006 Dutch 
Deze leer waarbij de priesters geen andere wetenschap behoeven,
dan gedrochtelijk raad te geven, vrome schijn en onrecht te plegen

De Heer 2008 Dutch 
De leer waarbij de priesters geen andere wetenschap behoeven,
dan bedrieglijk redeneren, vrome schijn en onrechte plichten

Raubenheimer 2011 English (as Sandbach)

Menkens 2013 German
Diese Lehre, bei der die Priester keine anderen Kenntnisse benötigen,
als betrügerisch zu reden, frommen Schein und Ungerechtigkeiten

Lien 2013 Norse
Denne læra, hvorved prestene ikke behøver noen annen viten
enn avgudelig rådgivning,
hellig ytre og urette skikker

= = = = = =

Redbad's intended baptism
(ca.1839) Johann Wilhelm Kaiser*
1. LÉRE: teaching/doctrine => religion
Leer/ Lehre/ læra (cognate: learn), meaning teaching or doctrine, may be closest to the original word, but I choose 'religion' as I think it fits better in the context.

2. WITSKIP: knowledge => skills
Wetenschap/ Wissenschaft/ viten (cognates: wit, wisdom), translated by Sandbach as 'knowledge', is problematic, since the three qualities or skills that follow can not really be described as knowledge. I think 'skills' fits better here.

3. DROCHTLIK RÉDA: to speak deceitfully => eloquence
Most translations had 'speaking deceitfully'. Jensma: 'monstrous counselling'; Lien: 'idolatrous counselling'. Although a modern cognate of DROCHTEN is 'gedrocht' (monster), elsewhere in the OLB (and still in the Middle Ages) this word means god or godhead. Even Wralda is sometimes referred to as DROCHTEN. Thus DROCHTLIK rather means 'divinely', and the skill of 'speaking divinely' can be translated as 'eloquence', which fits perfectly in the context.

4. FRÁNA SKIN: pretence of piety => hypocrisy
Dutch/ German: 'vrome schijn/ frommen Schein' (pretence of piety) is most literal, but this can more simply be interpreted as 'hypocrisy', which fits well in the context.

5. VNRJUCHTA PLÉGA: acting unjustly => foul play
VNJUCHTA is plural adjective 'unjust' and PLÉGA is plural noun 'practices'. Most translations have 'acting unjustly' or 'iniquities'. Since 'play' is a modern cognate of PLÉGA, I think 'foul play' fits well here.

= = = = = =

*PLEASE NOTE: I have used images of the Christianisation of northern Europe. The text in the OLB is not about Christianity, however (i.m.o.), but rather an earlier version of it.

09 June 2017

Archaeology-based reconstructions of faces and clothes

Dutch archaeology museum Huis van Hilde exhibits several sculptures that are reconstructions, based on skulls, skeletons and other finds in the north-west of Holland. This may give some idea of what the people described in the Oera Linda-book would have looked like.

900 BCE, Bovenkarspel
28 CE, Velsen: Frisian
200 CE, Velsen
600 CE, Castricum
200 BCE, Uitgeest: child
28 CE, Velsen: Roman soldier
400 CE, Castricum

700 CE, Wieringen
Click for larger image:

Short Dutch documentary of the reconstruction process:

Detailed English-language instructions for skull-based facial reconstruction:

06 June 2017



Portret van Gerard Andriesz Bicker,
Bartholomeus van der Helst, ca. 1642
I wonder if RUMA RIKA actually means "ruime rijke": wide and expensive/rich, or that it could be Dutch "roemrijk"/ German "ruhmreich": glorious, or in this context flamboyant, extravagant.

All earlier translations interpreted RUMA as wide. For two other OLB-fragments with "roemrijk" (ROMRIKA, ROMRIKSTA), see below. There are more words that have an U - O variety, but I don't have many examples yet (see below).

Ottema 1872 Dutch
knapen, die zich met wijde prachtige kleederen versierden

Sandbach 1876 English
boys dressed in splendid flowing robes

Wirth 1933 German
Knaben, die sich selber mit weiten reichen Kleidern schmückten

Overwijn 1951 Dutch
knapen, die zich met wijde, prachtige kleren sierden

Jensma 2006 Dutch
knapen die zichzelf met ruime rijke kleren sierden

De Heer 2008 Dutch
knapen die zich-zelf met wijde en kostbare kleren sierden

Raubenheimer 2011 English
lads who decorated themselves with wide expensive robes

Menkens 2013 German
Knaben, die sich selbst mit weiten prächtigen/reichen Kleidern zierten

Lien 2013 Norse
gutter som pyntet seg med vide, fargerike klær

HO KÀLTA VSA ROMRIKA BURCH VRDÉN HÉDEhow Kelta had destroyed our glorious burg
TOGHATERUM THÉRA ROMRIKSTA FORSTUMdaughters of the most glorious kings

Oldest known fragment from other sources:
"Soo trocken si al ghescaert dapperlicke ten stride waert criërende blidelike: Hya, Berge romerike" (Brabant, 1430-1450)

Note on same page as "RUMA RIKA KLÁTAR":
and no one could build a house, larger and more luxurious than that of his neighbors

Other examples of U - O variety:

GVNGON ca. 30x ~ GUNGON 4x ~ GONGON 2x
HVNDRED ca. 20x ~ HONDRED 4x

Between Dutch and German, the O/OE - U variety is very common:
Roem ~ Ruhm
Honderd ~ Hundert
Hond ~ Hund
Moed ~ Mut
Bloed ~ Blut
Som ~ Summe
Voet ~ Fuß

27 May 2017

Swiss pile-dwellings ~ archaelogy and reconstruction

Reconstruction of the Neolithic lake dwelling site discovered in Zurich [source]

These finds have been relevant in the discussion about OLB's authenticity as they can be considered as a confirmation. Hoax-theorists, however, argued that the manuscript must have been compiled after the remains had been found and made public in 1853, which would mean that Cornelis Over de Linden (and his witnesses) must have lied about having had the manuscript in his possession since 1848.

From Ottema's introduction of 1872 (translated by Sandbach):
Since the last twenty years attention has been directed to the remains of the dwellings on piles, first observed in the Swiss lakes, and afterwards in other parts of Europe. (See Dr E. Rückert, "Die Pfahlbauten;" Wurzburg, 1869. Dr T. C. Winkler, in the "Volksalmanak," t. N. v. A. 1867.) When they were found, endeavours were made to discover, by the existing fragments of arms, tools, and household articles, by whom and when these dwellings had been inhabited. There are no accounts of them in historical writers, beyond what Herodotus writes in book v. chapter 18, of the "Paeonen." The only trace that has been found is in one of the panels of Trajan's Pillar, in which the destruction of a pile village in Dacia is represented.
Doubly important, therefore, is it to learn from the writing of Apollonia that she, as "Burgtmaagd" (chief of the virgins), about 540 years before Christ, made a journey up the Rhine to Switzerland, and there became acquainted with the Lake Dwellers (Marsaten). She describes their dwellings built upon piles—the people themselves—their manners and customs. She relates that they lived by fishing and hunting, and that they prepared the skins of the animals with the bark of the birch-tree in order to sell the fare to the Rhine boatmen, who brought them into commerce. This account of the pile dwellings in the Swiss lakes can only have been written in the time when these dwellings still existed and were lived in. In the second part of the writing, Konerèd oera Linda relates that Adel, the son of Friso (± 250 years before Christ), visited the pile dwellings in Switzerland with his wife Ifkja.
Later than this account there is no mention by any writer whatever of the pile dwellings, and the subject has remained for twenty centuries utterly unknown until 1853, when an extraordinary low state of the water led to the discovery of these dwellings. Therefore no one could have invented this account in the intervening period. Although a great portion of the first part of the work—the book of Adela—belongs to the mythological period before the Trojan war, there is a striking difference between it and the Greek myths. The Myths have no dates, much less any chronology, nor any internal coherence of successive events. The untrammelled fancy develops itself in every poem separately and independently. The mythological stories contradict each other on every point. "Les Mythes ne se tiennent pas," is the only key to the Greek Mythology.

Relevant fragments in the OLB:

Appolánja's account (p. 109 of original), new provisional translation:
Above the Rhine, between the mountains, I have seen Marsata or lake dwellers. Their houses are built on poles, for protection against wild beasts and evil people. There are wolves, bears and terrible black leopards. They are also the 'Swetsar' - or neighbours - of the near Creeklanders, Kelta-followers, and the savage Twiskers, all eager to rob and plunder. The Marsata gain their livelihood by fishing and hunting. The skins are prepared with birch bark and sewn by the women. The small skins are soft like Maidens' felt. The burg-Maiden at New Fryasburg told us that they were good and simple [110] people, but without that knowledge, I would have thought they were savages rather than Fryas, judging by their brutal looks. Their skins and herbs are traded by the Rhine dwellers. and exported by the sailors.
Koneréd's account (p. 156 of original), translation Sandbach:
From Texland they went to Westflyland, and so along the cost to Walhallagara; thence they followed the Zuiderryn (the Waal), till, with great apprehension, they arrived beyond the Rhine at the Marsaten of whom our Apollonia has written.

More information:
"Neolithic lake dwelling found in Zurich reconstructed" 2017 link
"Neolithic and Bronze Age lakeside settlements in the Alpine region" 2007 link
Pfahlbau Museum

03 May 2017

KYVA, SANA, TWISTA - quarrel, nag, dispute

Basile de Loose - De Kaartspelers, 1868

kijven - dutch
kífa - oldnorse
kiva - swedish

sana, sannia (streiten) - oldfrisian (Richthofen dictionary)
?senna - icelandic
zanken (quarrel) - eastfrisian
sanikje (nag) - frisian
zaniken ,, - dutch

twisten - dutch
zwisten - german
tvista - swedish
twist - english
tvistra - icelandic

Occurrences in OLB (fragment nr.):

KYVA - 1

SANA - 1

TWIST (noun) - 2,3,4,6,7,8
TWISTA (verb) - 5,10


Ferdinand De Braekeleer - De echtelijke ruzie, 1870

1 [029/26]
If neighbours among each other quarrel and dispute
about some cause or piece of land

2 [030/06]
in order that we may not come into disputes
over causes that are in conflict with our free customs

3 [033/10]
there will arise quarrels and discord

4 [056/03]
Besides this dispute

5 [056/10]
While all were nagging and quarrelling

6 [057/12]
When they were ready they got into a dispute

7 [190/27]
When, in consequence, quarrels and disputes arose in the households

8 [200/30]
Due to the enmity between the Maidens and the Gols,
feud and strife had come into the mountainous land,
bringing with it murder and fire

9 [203/17]
The ghosts of your ancestors will come to wake you up
and blame you for your cowardice and carelessness

10 [209/22]
they would quarrel among each other about the reign

02 May 2017

BISJOWATH ~ new translation show off

When Teunis wished to return home, he went first towards Denmark; but he might not land there, ...

dat had de Moeder besteld (Dutch: Ottema, Jensma)
for so the mother had ordered (English: Sandbach, Raubenheimer)
das hatte die Mutter bestellt (German: Wirth)
dat had de Moeder geregeld (Dutch: Overwijn)
dat had de Moeder bestierd (Dutch: de Heer)
det hadde mora vurdert (Norse: Lien)
das hatte die Mutter angeordnet (German: Menkens)

(All translations being more or less the same.)

It was not hard to find a cognate, that explains this mysterious word:
Gtb (Geïntegreerde Taalbank): sjouwen
- Door middel van een sjouw ontbieden
Dat de Schipper den Zeevoogd aan boord geliefde te sjouwen, dat is, door een scheepszein aan boord te ontbieden
Bekommering …, wat 'er dog in dat schip te doen mogt wezen, dat de Zeevoogd nog zoo laat op den dag aan 't zelve gesjouwt wierd,

- Een sjouw laten waaien, een sjouw hijschen
Tsjouwen. Een Vlag in een gerolt, een Tsjouw genaemt, achter af laten waeien, 't geen voor een merckteken streckt, om aen boort (er staat boot) te komen: oock wel een teken van noot (1671)

So in short, it means to signal at sea with flags. This makes perfect sense in the context and is not quite the same as "ordered" or "organised".

"Show" may very well be a modern cognate.
Old English sceawian "to look at, see, gaze, behold, observe; inspect, examine; look for, choose," (...) (source also of Old Saxon skauwon "to look at," Old Frisian skawia, Dutch schouwen, Old High German scouwon "to look at"), (...).

Causal meaning "let be seen; put in sight, make known" evolved c. 1200 for unknown reasons and is unique to English (German schauen still means "look at").

I will discuss with my proofreaders what a good translation of the fragment would be. (The Mother had had that signalled with flags?)

19 April 2017



Among the gras-seeds we had
not only Kearen, Lyaver and Bleade*,
but also a sweet variety that shone like gold (...)
*unknown what seeds are meant; some cognates below

Ottema 1872 gerst (barley) haver (oats) rogge (rye) tarwe (wheat)
Sandbach 1876 barley oats rye wheat
Wirth 1933 Korn (grain) Haver (oats) Blyde (?) Swete (?)
Overwijn 1951 gerst (barley) haver (oats) stuifmeel (pollen) tarwe (wheat)
Jensma 2006 uitverkoren (chosen) lieve (beloved) blijde (blithe) zoete (sweet)
de Heer 2008 koren/gerst (barley) haver (oats) rogge (rye) zoete tarwe (sweet wheat)
Lien 2013 bygg (barley) havre (oats) rug (rye) hvete (wheat)
Menkens 2013 Gerste (barley) Hafer (oats) Roggen (rye) Weizen/Süßkorn (wheat/ sweet grain)

Ottema guessed BLÍDE is "rogge"/rye (without explicit reasoning) and this was copied by Sandbach, de Heer, Lien and Menkens. He translated KÉREN not as "koren", but as "gerst"/barley, which was copied by Sandbach, Overwijn, Lien en Menkens. Wirth was the first to be honest about the uncertainty of the translation, followed by Menkens. Overwijn was creative in translating BLÍDE, but I don't agree with his reasoning. Jensma translated from the assumption that the text was meant to be funny. It is possible that SWETE was meant as an adjective (meaning: "a sweet sort"), rather than as a noun.

at a harvest festival

Ottema 1872 Dutch
Onder de grasplanten hadden wij
niet alleen gerst, haver en rogge,
maar ook tarwe, die als goud blonk (...)

Sandbach 1876 English
In the fields we had
not only barley, oats, and rye,
but wheat which shone like gold

Wirth 1933 German 
Unter den Grassaaten hatten wir
nicht allein Korn, Haver und Blyde*,
sondern auch Swete**, die gleich Gold blinkten
*unbekannte Getreideart? (unknown cerial?)
**süße Äpfel? Ottema übersetzt "Weizen" (sweet apples? Ottema translates "wheat")

Overwijn 1951 Dutch
Onder de graszaden hadden wij
niet alleen gerst, haver en stuifmeel*,
maar ook tarwe, die als goud blonk
*blyde is van dezelfde stam, als het Franse "blé" = koren, dat is het Bretonse "bleud" = meel of stuifmeel, zodat stuifmeel de juiste vertaling moet zijn, want 'gemalen' meel is geen zaad, stuifmeel wél. (blyde is of the same stem as the French "blé" = cerial, which is the Breton "bleud" = flour or pollen; since 'grinded' flour is not a seed, the translation must be pollen) My comment: blé and bleud will be cognates, but the meaning has probably changed.

Jensma 2006 Dutch
Onder de graszaden hadden wij
niet alleen uitverkoren, lieve en blijde,
maar ook zoete*, die als goud blonk
*In de namen van deze 'fictieve' gewassen wordt de dubbelzinnigheid van vruchten en noten/ vreugde en genoten doorgezet. (In the names of these 'fictional' plants the ambiguity of fruits and nuts/ pleasure/ joy is continued.)

de Heer 2008 Dutch
Onder de graszaden hadden wij
niet alleen koren (gerst), haver en rogge
maar ook (zoete) tarwe, die als goud blonk

Raubenheimer 2011 (same grain names as Sandbach)

Lien 2013 Norse
Blant gressvekstene hadde vi
ikke bare bygg, havre og rug,
men også hvete som skinte lik gull

Menkens 2013 German
Unter den Gras-Saaten hatten wir
nicht nur/allein Gerste, Hafer und Roggen,
sondern auch Weizen/Süß(korn)*, der wie Gold blinkte
 *svvete; vgl. engl. wheat = Weizen ~ Die Übersetzung der Getreidesorten ist unsicher; es könnte auch eine unbekannte Getreideart dabei sein. (Translation of the cereals is uncertain; unknown varieties may be among them.)


Some cognates:

corn (maize) - english
koren (grain; wheat/tarwe, rye/rogge, barley/gerst) - Dutch
korn - german, norse, icelandic, swedish, danish

haver (oats) - english, dutch
hafer - german

possible cognates BLÍDE, besides blé and bleud: "blies" (chaff), "blaad" (flower, blossom, bloom, fruit)

KÉREN also means "chosen"; for example in EN FÁM WAS KÉREN
LJAVER could also means "rather, preferably" (Dutch: liever), related to LJAVDE (love), LJAWA (dear)
BLÍDE also means "happy, blithe"; for example in ALLE WÉRON BLÍDE
SWETE (also?) means "sweet"; for example in HJARA SWETE WINA

This example shows that when a modern word exists which is similar to the old word, it does not have to have the same meaning. Sometimes the same word has different meanings in different regions of the Netherlands. Meanings also change through time. This is the case with words in general, but in particular with names of animals and plants/ trees.

Other examples:
Dog in Dutch refers to a particular type of dog, the general word is hond, which is cognate of hound.
Big in Dutch does not mean pig, but piglet. The general word is varken, but the German cognate of that - Ferkel - means piglet.

(I will think of more examples.)

10 April 2017

1934 Frysk Studinte-Kongres

Leeuwarder courant, 22-12-1934 (Newspaper article in the Frisian language)

Frysk Studinte-Kongres.

Fjirde kongres to Ljouwert.

Earste dei.

Jistermiddei bigoun yn 'e Klanderij to Ljouwert it fjirde Kongres fen 'e Federaesje fen Fryske Studinteforienings, dêrt' moai greate bilangstelling for wier. De seal mei tal fen jonge minsken — de Wageningers koe men der út oan hjar kleurige petsjes — seach der fleurich út.

De foarsitter, de hear P. MIEDEMA, iepene it Kongres en wiisde op de kultureel wittenskiplike bitsjuttiug fen de studine-kongressen. Sprekker hjitte wolkom leden en âld-leden, de parse en binammen de sprekker, prof. dr. Wirth út Berlyn.

It doel fen dit Kongres moat wêze kultureel-wittenskiplik net allinne foar de bûtenwrâld, mar ek foar ús sels oer. In synthese moet socht wirde twisken de wittenskip en it folkseigene. Wiidweidich set sprekker de forhâlding de forhâlding twisken beide útien. Hy wiist binammen op it bilang fen de stúdzje fen de praeistoarje fen de godstsjinst fen 'e Friezen. It objekt fen dizze stúdzje mei neutrnael wêze, de biwirking fen 'e stúdzje dêrfen hinget ing mei de nationale psyche gear. It nationale apriori mei net forwaerloazge wirde, mar moat by dizze stúdzje foldwaende ta syn rjucht komme.


Dêrnei hâldde prof. dr. HERMANN WIRTH syn foarste lêzing oer: Âld-Fryske Religy (tariedend diel).

Mei it bistjûr fen 'e Federaesje wier sprekker oerienkomd, det er syn lêzing yn it Heechdútsk en net yn it Nederlânsk ef Leechdútsk hâlde scoe, om't er spitigernôch net yn steat wier it yn it Frysk to dwaen.

Yn 'e nei-oarlochske tiid, sa sei sprekker, is de histoaryske wittenskip as mei hannen omkeard. Britsen is mei de evolutionistysk-liberalistyske opfetting as scoe it mei de geastlike ûntjowing fen it minskdom krekt sa gien wêze as mei de technyske det út it primitive stadichoan it mear komplisearre foartkomd is, det men dos yn 'e selde lyn as de stientiid brûnstiid, izertiid haw hawwe scoe in religieuse evolúsje, dy't bigoun mei it animisme en ein'ge mei it Chrirtlike montheïsme.

Det mei dizze theory britsen is, is net de skild fen dy "böse" nationael-socialisten. Né, de greate stjit hjirta hat jown de Roomske pater Wilhelm Schmidt en syn neifolgers, dy't nei yngeande stúdzje fen de godstsjinstige tinkbylden fen de natûrfolken, binammen fen de Indianen, ta de konklúzje kamen, det ek de primitive foltsen geastlike hichtepunten en ek it monotheïsme kend hawwe. Hjar wirken hat de Roomske tsjerke tsjerkelik goedkard en it is wol nijsgjirrich, det nou't it greate lichem, det himsels biskôget as de iennichst wiere tsjerke fen Christus, soks dien hat, it krekt de liberale en protestantske learden binne, dy't hjar noch fêstklampe oan de âlde evolutionalistyske theory, dy't fen in kennis fen in almachtich God as hichtepunt fen it geastlik libben foar de opkomst fen de hjoed deis bisteande monetheïstische Godstsjinst net witte wol. Giet Wilhelm Schmildt noch om de Germanen hinne en hat dy it allinne oer de Indianen en noch in pear oare primitive foltsen, sprekker wol sjen litte det ek ús foarfaers it oarspronkelike iengoanddom koene, krekt like goed as it skrift en de fordieling fen it jier. It wirdt heech tiid det der in ein makke wirdt oan it minderweardichheidscomplex fen 'e Germanen‚ dy't hjar noch altiten dellizze by it praetsje, det se de earste bigjinselen fen de kultuer fen it keizerlik Rome en it iengoadendom fen it tsjerkelik Rome krigen hawwe.

De Thule-kultuer.

Né de kultuerboarne fen ús foarfaers is folle âlder. Sprekker‚ dy't yn it tariedend diel fen syn lêzing it hawwe scil oer de Thule-kultuer, wist der op, det by tal fen folken, yn Europa en Azië en ek by de Indianen yn Amerika de leginde foarkomt fen in mienskiplik stamlân, det lein hawwe moat heech yn it Noarden en det men forlitte moast, om't de goaden as straf for de sûnden fen de minsken it ûnwenber makken troch klimaetforoaring. Yn ûnderskate lânnen hat men oerbliuwsels foun fen in âlde kultuer, dy't allegearre werom geane nei in kultuersintrum earne oan 'e Hudsonbaei yn Noard-Amerika.

Do't men dit kultuersintrum foun tocht men earst oan in Eskimo-kultuer en letter oan in foar-Eskimo-kultuer. Mar de Eskimo's sels hawwe in legende fen bloune minsken mei blauwe eagen, dy't se oantsjutten mei in namme, dy't bisibbe is oan dy fen 'e Germaenske kriichsgod Thor ef Donar en det útstoarn wêze scoe. Neffens sprekker woe hat men hjir to dwaen mei it mienskiplik stamfolk fen rjue Jeropeeske, Aziatyske en Indiaenske folken.

Om dit to biwizen lit prof. Wirth op it wite doek sjen in greate sery lantearne-plaetsjes fen teikeningen, dy't men by al dizze folken weromfynt en dy't safolle oerienkomst hawwe, det nei't sprekker mient, men gerêst ta in neije sibskip en in mienskiplike ôfstamming fen dizze folken bisluae moat.

Ut dizze teikeningen scoe it bliken dwaen, det de âlde Germanen, ynsté fen analphabethen to wêzen, al in liniair skrift hiene, det nea út byldskrift ûntstien wêze kin en dos net, lykas de evolutionistyske wittenskip oannimt, him ûntjown hat út de byldskriften fen de âlde Easterske kultuerfolken. Sterker, yn Egypte komt it foar, foar't men der hieroglypen hat, en yn it lettere Egyptyske hieroglyphenskrift fynt men it for tsien persint werom De oare 90 persint fen dit skrift is ûnôfhinklik hjirfen ûntstien.

Dit skrift, it âlde Runeskrift, giet ek nei de âlde Thule-kultuer werom en it hat hiel de skiednis troch bistien en wirdt — sûnder det de officiele wittenskip der aen fen hat — hjoed de dei noch ûnder it folk brûkt.

Dit skrift is net allinne fen bilang, om't it tsjinne om meidielings op hout ef stien fêst to lizzen mar ek jowt it yn syn symbolyske teikens utering oan de religieuse fielings fen de Nordyske foltsen, dy't de Thule-minsken as stamfolts hiene. Fen ûnderskate Runen stiet dit fêst Sprekker neamde yn det forbân de Odil-rune en de Hagalu-rune.

De Odil-rune, in vertikael teiken, twa sirkeltsjes mei in lyn forboun, is it symboal fen de midsimmer en de midwinter (boppeste en ûnderste sirkel), yn forbining mei mankoar en dos fen it hiele jier. Fierders it symboal fen it libben en de dea en it nije libben nei de dea.

Dêr't inkeld yn it hege Noarden de sinne yn'e winter in deimannich weibliuwt en yn 'e simmer in deimannich net ûndergiet kin dizze Rune inkeld dêrre en dos ûnder de Thule-minsken ûntstien weze.

Yn letter tiden, do't de neikommelingen fen it Thule-folk mear nei it Suden ôfsakke wieren en de rin fen 'e sinne for hjarren dos oars waerd, krige men nêst dizze rune ien dy't de foarm hie fen in krús mei skeefsteande balken. Ut de forbining fen dizze beide runen waerd berne it achtspeakige rêd ef seisspeakige rêd, de hagalu-rune, it allerhillichste symboal fen de Nordyske foltsen, dy't net allinne it forrin fen it jier útbylde, mar ek makrokosmyske en mikrokosmyske bitsjutting hie. By dizze foltsen libbe in Godsbigryp, det omfieme Wrâldgeist, tiid, skepping, ierde en minske, dêr't de hagalu-rune it symboal fen wier.

Oare runen wize der op, det der by de foltsen út 'e Thulekrite ek bikend wier in Middeler en Heilbringer. Op it Midwinterfeest (Joelfeest) fierde men de berte fen dizze Middeler út Mem-Ierde. Ek wier det Joelfeest it symboal fen de opstanning nei de dea.

Neffens sprekker is dizze Godstsjinst libjen bleaun yn de folkssiele, al waerd se den ek letter "officieel" fen 'e Wodantsjinst forkrongen. En sa hie letter it Christendom gjin inkeld oarspronkelik symboal nedich, se koe al hjar symboalen oan de âlde folksgodstsjinst, dy't yn 'e folkskinst (forsiering, kalenders,feestkoeken esf.), oant djip yn 'e 18e ieu libjen bleau, ûntliene. By de foltsen bûten de Thulekrite fynt men dizze symboalen net, alteast net autochtoon.

Ut ien en oar docht it bliken, sa bisleat prof. Wirth, det ynsté fen det ús Aryske foarfaers hjar kultuer en Godstsjinst fen oare folken oernamen, it Godsbigryp, oars as de oare foltsen, de Nordyske minske ynberne wier.


Yn syn twade lêzing naem prof. WIRTH him foar to bihandeljen de âld-Aryske en âld-Germaenske wrâldskôging, it Wodanisme en de Christianisearring fen de Germanen. Dêr't de sprekker lykwols oan syn lantearneplaetsjes en syn films boun wier, wier de bihandeling fen ien en oar noch al incidenteel en krige men as forslachjower de yndruk, det hwet nei foaren brocht waerd, mear tsjinje moast as in biwiis fen de stellingen yn 'e foarste lêzing forkindige, as eat nijs wier.

Ûnderskate symbolen, dy't by al de foltsen fen de Thulekrite foarkomme en binammen de libbensbeam waerden wiidweidich bihandele. Dizze libbensbeam is in variant op it achtspeakige ef seisspeakige red (de Hagalu-rune, de iepenbiering Gods yn romte en tiid. It seisspeakige red, in lettere variant fen it achtspeakige, hat oanlieding jown ta it fordielen fen it jier yn toalve moannen ef fjouwer en tweintich healmoannen, dy't elts hjar eigen Rune hawwe. Fen tige bilang binne bihalven de rune fen it midwinterfeest (joelfeest), dy fen de fyfte moanne (Maeije). Den wirdt bidden for in goed wjirjen op it gewaechs en om dit frij to hâlden moanne (Maeije). Den wirdt bidden for in goed wjirjen op it gewaechs en om dit frij to hâlden fen heil en froast. Christianisearre hat men hjir to dwaen mei de iishilligen.

It Midsimmerfeest libbet foart yn tal fen folksfeesten, dy't oan't hjoed de dei ta noch bisteane en dêr't it oprjuchtsjen fen neimakke beammen mei in red boppe yn en hjirûnder in pop mei útsprate earmen, symboal fen 'e Godssoan, de Middelaer en Heilbringer, tige hiem by binne. Yn Súd-Germanië binne dizze feesten for in great diel forlein nei Pinkster, yn Noard-Germanië, der't de Christianisearring folle letter barde, is it Midsimmerfeest bistean bleaun.

Fen great bilang is ek it feest fen 'e rispinge, det men yn Augustus hie.

Fen allerlei âld-Aryske en oer-Aryske symboalen fynt men yn 'e folklore de rudimenten werom. B.g. de god sûnder earmen, de god mei de útspraette earmen en de god mei de greate hannen. Dit wieren by de âlde folken fen de Thulekrite net útsûnderlike goaden, mar forskiningsfoarmen fen de heilbringer nei gelang de moannen fen it jier. Ek de Mem-Ierde bliuwt jimmer yn 'e ien ef oare foarm bistean. Itselde kin sein wirde fen twa dieren, dy't men yn forbân mei de libbensbeam en it red fynt, it hynsder (âldtiids mei acht skonken) en de swan.

Det it Christendom al dizze symbolen net to neate dien hat, mar oernaem, docht bliken út de plastyk by de Rumaenske (einlings moast men sizze) de Germaenske boukinst. Sa fynt men op in suil yn de Quedlinburgske dom nuch tige klear de god mei de greate hannen.

Al foar de Christianisearring waerd in oanfal dien op dizze âlde Godstsjinst troch it Wodanisme, troch de keningen yn 'e mande mei de preesters nei foaren brocht yn hjar striid mei de wize frouljue (profetessen). Mar yn it hert fen it folk koe men de âlde religy net útroegje.

Yn Palestina, dêr't dizze oer-godstsjinst fen út it Westen trochkrong, it earst yn Galilea, waerd hja fen'e Jahwe'-preesters forfoarme ta in tsjinst, dy't learde, det de Joaden it útkarde folk wêze scoene. Mar ek kaem út Galilea it werjaen fen hjar bitsjutting for hiel it minskdom fen dizze oer-religy en al hjar feesten en symbolen gyngen yn it Christendom oer. En yn ús tiid fen nij histoarysk en archeologysk ûndersiik wirdt wiermakke it wird út it evangeelje: De stiennen scille sprekke as de minsken net mear sprekke kinne.

Twade dei.


Hjiroer handele prof. Wirth yn syn trêdde lêzing. Earst woe sprekker in lytse persoanlike rekkenskip ôf lizze yn forbân mei dit forneamde boek. Twaris hat er syn carrière yn 'e groun bidoarn, earst yn forbân mei it Flaemske activisme, letter, do't er Oera-Linda-Kronyk útjoech.

Hy hearde foarearst fen dit boek as studint yn 1904, do't in professor op it college him sei, det it úitjaen fen dit boek in grap west hie. Hy seach it do net yn en it rekke út syn tinzen wei.

Nei de oarloch, do't er in earnstige szúdzje makke fen âlde symbolen, binammen fen it acht- en seisspeakige rêd, kaem it him wer yn hannen.

Do krige er tafallich in tiidskriftartikel yn hannen oer it Oera-Linda-boek. Dêr stie safolle frappants yn, det er stúdzje fen it boek makke en it forline jier útjoech. Hy bigriep bêst hwet dit bitsjutte scoe. De âlde liberale evolutionistysche wittenskip scoe him fûl forsette, de wierheit fen sprekkers theoryen scoe hjar ein bitsjutte.

Sprekker jowt alles ta hwet der tsjin it Oera-Linda-boek yn to bringen is (papier, verknoeide tael, anachronismen, Aufkläringsideën). Mar dit alles tajown bliuwt der yn it boek safolle oer, det oan oer-Germaenske cultuur en symbolyk tinken docht, det in earnstige boarnenstúdzje nedich is.

Yn 't Oera-Linda-boek fynt men dingen, dy't gjin forfalsker, al hie er biskikt oer de hiele archeologyske wittenskip fen syn tiid útfine kin. Yn dit forbân wiist sprekker op de geograef, prof. Hermann, dy't ek tajowt, det der yn it Oera-Linda-boek in kearn fen echtens is.

De saek is dizze: Cornelis over de Linden hat it Oera-Linda-boek skreaun. Syn boarnen wieren in âlde forlern giene famyljekronyk, it eigentlike Oera-Linda-boek, de kronyk fen Worp van Tabor en fierders syn eigen 19e ieuske tinkbylden, ûntliend oan Volnay. It is nedich it Oera-Linda-boek út to jaen yn in stringe boarne-crityske útjefte, en sadwaende it echte fen it falske schiede.

Mei troch de stúdzje fen Hermann is der nij ljocht op it boek fallen en ek sprekker moat tajaen, det er oan't nou ta tofolle ûnder in autoriteitscomplex stie.

Sa docht it bliken, det it Oera-Linda-boek net handelt oer de Friezen, mar oer in folle âlder folk, de Fria's (frijen ef frjeonen). Wy hawwe hjir to dwaen mei de Fria's cultuer, in Oer-Arisme cultuer, de cultuer fen de Hunebêdden. Biwiis hjirfor is û.m. de geheimsinnige Od, dy't de heit wêze scoe fen de bern fen de trije stammemmen fen it âlde Oera-Linda-boek. Mei dizze Od — dyt' wy kenne as in godsnamme (eang forbân hâldend mei de Odilrune) — hat de officiele wittenskip noch nea wei witten. De Odilrune is de rune fen Joelmoanne (Desimber).

Od, bitsjut foarst heitelân, fierders bitsjut Odil, adel ef edel. Od is it libben Gods en alles hwet de minsken eal makket.

Fierders komt yn it Oera-Linda-boek (foarste blêdside) foar it seisspeakige rêd mei de runen der omhinne, hwet tige tinken docht oan de Hagalu-rune en ek oan 'e âlde fjouwer-en-tweintich heale moannekalinder, dêr't eltse heale moanne syn rune hat.

Ek de namme fen de God Wralda, by de Lappa Ralda, wiist op tige âlde komôf. De hillichdommen fen dizze God binne hjir troch Karel de Saksenslachter en Bonifacius forneatige op sa'n gemiene manear, det it rjucht wier, det de Friezen dizze lêste deasloegen.

Fen dizze Od-Wralda bistiet by alle âlda folken fen de Thulekrite in hillich runenskrift, dêr't de timmerman Cornelia Over de Linden gjin aen fen hawwe koe.

Ynteressant is ek, det alles hwet by de Nordyske foltsen hillich en abstrakt symboal wier, by alle leger steande Súdlike rassen yn it dierlike weisonk.

As fierdera symbolen binne to neamen it Hakenkreuz, det by alle Thule-foltsen foarkomt, as twa gekrúste Odilsrunen, it sinnebyld fen de roungong fen it jier.

Skip en swan binne de maritime symbolen fen de Fria-kultuer, by lettere Germaenske folken wein en hynsder.

Den komt sprekker ta de Fryske Uleboerden, dêr't men ek jimmer de swan fynt, dy't hjir de odebar is, de fûgel, dy't it libben bringt, de fûgel, dy't de geliedfûgel Gods is. (Op oare plakken is dit de earrebarre). Fierders komme yn de Uleboerden foar, it rêd, de Odilrune ensf.

In tige faek foarkommend symboal is ek de God, mei de iene earm op, de oare nei ûnderen ta, it symboal fen jierwikseling by it Midwinterfeest. Der waerd ek it Joelting hâlden. De Germanen swarden den by it stigende ljocht en it sinkende ljocht, ien earm omheech, ien nei ûnderen ta. Lykas tsjinwirdich noch sward wirdt.

Yn forbân mei dizze âlde Fria-kultuer bihandele sprekker noch it âlde Christendom yn Skotlân en Ierlân, det de Easterske tsjerkehierarchie en it latyn as tsjerketael net koe. Ek hjir hat men de Odilrune op de grêfstiennen en hja hiene de leare, det Christus yn 'e ôfgroun gie om alle forstoarnen, dope ef net dope, to forlossen. Dit is de âlde Aryske leare, dêr't it Midwinterfeest û.m. de symbolyk wier fen it wer opstean fen de deaden.

Gjin wûnder, det de âlde Germanen fen it Roomske Christendom, mei as kearn hjar âlde leare, mar bidobbe ûnder Jahwistyske eleminten, net folle hawwe moasten en hjar better thús fielden by it Arianisme, det tichter by de âlde hieme Godsforearing kaem.

De greatste tragyk by de Germanen is, det by de Christianisearring de forbining mei it Godlike trochsnien is, om't somliken sillich wirde en oaren net. God omfiemet alles.

Tige bilangryk is ek yn it Oera-Linda-boek, hwet der fêstlein is fen de wize frouljue, in kultus, dy't men oeral by de âlde Germanen fynt en dêr't binammen de keningen, dy't it folksrjucht forkringe woenen for it keningsrjucht, fûleindich tsjin strieden. Doch it folk hâldde oan de wize frouljue fêst (trije frouljue ef féen út de folksmearkes). En lang nei de Christianisearring rjuchte it folk yu 'e kathedralen en tsjerken noch jimmer bylden op fen 'e trije wize frouljue.

Yn 'e midsieuwen is stadichwei de âlde folkskultuer en religy forkrongen troch do Roomske kultuer, it folksfrjemde Romeinske rjucht en mei Easterlike ynfloeden trochkrongen Godstsjinst. Nei in oplibbing yn 'e tiden fen de Reformaesje kaem it yn 'e njoggentsjende ieu troch de sinneleaze yndustrialisearring en de Mammontsjinst fen kwae ta slimmer. Mar yn ús tiid bigjint wer it bloed to sprekken en wolle wy wer frij libje, dos foart mei al dy godstsjinstige eleminten, dy't faeks passe by oare folken út it Suden en it Easten, mar net by ús. Litte wy wer ta God komme op ús eigen Nordyiske wize.

Mei it each op de tiid waerd der gjin bisprek hâlden.

De FOARSITTER tanke prof. Wirth for de manear, dêrt' hy syn theoryen op útien set hat.

(It Kongres wirdt foartset).

~ ~ ~

Nog een artikel over OLB in het Fries: Nieuwsblad van Friesland : Hepkema's courant, 8-9-1906, zie hier, "In Nampraetsje".

03 April 2017

Frisia and the OLB on Mysterium Fasces Radio

Fellow OLB-students Karel Anker and Báleygr on internet radio "Mysterium Fasces". Below are some comments, notes and questions. (Last 20 minutes are on other topics.) Replies by Karel were added in blue.

19:50 I will not criticize much of Sandbach's translation, but in the Creation Myth (FORMA SKÉDNISE), I think there still is a significant mistake. Firstly, good thing that "hate" was replaced by "life force". A second mistake by Ottema, copied by almost all later translators, is to connect WR.ALDA.S to DRÁMA and not to OD. Notice position of the dot/ period in the original:

page 6, line 29-30: [...] ANDA DRÁMA [period] WR.ALDA.S OD [...]

Therefore: "... pleasure and delight [or: fruits and nuts] in their visions dreams. Wralda's Od (life force) ..."

27:20 A note on the Oldest Doctrine (FORM.LÉRE): It is remarkable that this was not copied initially as Adela had advised: "I should farther recommend that you should visit all the citadels, and write down all the laws of Frya's Tex, as well as all the histories, and all that is written on the walls, in order that it may not be destroyed with the citadels." Adela's advice was followed and Apol, Adela's husband, was responsible for having the texts at Liudgarda copied. Their daughter Apollania writes about her burgh in Ljudgarda: "On the south wall the Tex is inscribed. On the right side of this are the formulae [FORM.LÉRE], and on the other side the laws;" However, these were not copied into the original Book of Adela Followers, as she writes: "The old legend [FORM.LÉRE] which is written on the outside wall of the city tower is not written in 'The Book of Adela's Followers'. Why this has been neglected I do not know; but this book is my own, so I will put it in out of regard to my relations." It looks like Adela's husband Apol did not think much of this seemingly sacred text, or was it left out for some other reason?

31:45 Erratic interpretations of Wralda. Are these posted/ discussed somewhere else online?

Yes, there is some tiny, but vocal, american cult. They pretend to have 'maidens', call Wr.alda "Walda", claim that Wr.alda is not even divine but creation itself, and base their exegesis on only the Sandbach translation, in the same manner evangelicals stick to the KJB. I do not wish to give them any exposure at all, as their mere existence is bad enough.

Now that I know who was meant, I agree to not give them exposure here.

38:15 "Libya" is nowhere used in the OLB, only LYDA and LYDA.S LAND.

My mistake, I forgot to expand on that quip and explain myself. Herodotus writes that the continents are named after three women, and the continent which we now call Africa, used to be called Libya/ Lydia.
Tangentially, mind that Herodotus also states that the Europa myth was an ex post facto invented myth by the Phoenicians to aggrandise themselves and use to propagandise their claims on European lands. This is very cohencidental.

Herdotus book IV, chapter 45 (translation A.D. Godley, 1920):
[1] But it is plain that none have obtained knowledge of Europe's eastern or northern regions, so as to be able say if it is bounded by seas; its length is known to be enough to stretch along both Asia and Libya.
[2] I cannot guess for what reason the earth, which is one, has three names, all women's, and why the boundary lines set for it are the Egyptian Nile river and the Colchian Phasis river (though some say that the Maeetian Tanaïs river and the Cimmerian Ferries are boundaries); and I cannot learn the names of those who divided the world, or where they got the names which they used.
[3] For Libya is said by most Greeks to be named after a native woman of that name, and Asia after the wife of Prometheus; yet the Lydians claim a share in the latter name, saying that Asia was not named after Prometheus' wife Asia, but after Asies, the son of Cotys, who was the son of Manes, and that from him the Asiad clan at Sardis also takes its name.
[4] But as for Europe, no men have any knowledge whether it is bounded by seas or not, or where it got its name, nor is it clear who gave the name, unless we say that the land took its name from the Tyrian Europa, having been (it would seem) before then nameless like the rest.
[5] But it is plain that this woman was of Asiatic birth, and never came to this land which the Greeks now call Europe, but only from Phoenicia to Crete and from Crete to Lycia. Thus much I have said of these matters, and let it suffice; we will use the names established by custom.

39:00 "Finda was yellow". I guess there was a slight misundersanding of my post about GÉL (yellow), which is not clear, I admit. "Geel" could have meant light-brown, which is what her skin-colour would have been. It is not likely that GÉL refers to her hair colour: "Finda was [GÉL], and her hair was..."

The central point brought up here is that it is not clear or definitive either way.


40:45 "Are the Franks white?" OLB says on page 157 (Sandbach p. 211-213) that the Franks were Twisklanders with various haircolours (red, brown and white) and brown faces. The ones with red and brown hair bleached their hair, which made them even more ugly than they already were. Twisklanders are said to have been banned and expelled Fryas, who had taken Tartar (thus: Finda-blood) wives. So, according to the author, the Franks were a mixed, bastardised people.

What I find the most interesting here is that they also call themselves 'Frya'. I think the passage you are quoting betrays a particular prejudice, since it is a report from the author's brother who was himself attacked by them. It could just as well be a fabrication or exaggeration to contrast one the “us” from the “them”.
Later in the book Maiden Reintja has a very different perspective on the twisklanders. They even have maidens themselves. So, they may be unpure, they are not that far 'lost'.

That's right. Good point.

42:30 "Are the Finns the descendants of Finda?" According to OLB, the word "Finn" is not related to the name/ verb Finda but to the adjective FIN (translated by Sandbach as formal): THRVCH VS SEND HJA FINNA HÉTEN. (but we call them Finns,) HWAND AFSKÉN HJARA FÉRSTA ALGADUR DROV ÀND BLODICH SEND. (because although all the festivals are melancholy and bloody,) THACH SEND HJA THÉR ALSA FIN VP THAT WI THÉR BI ÀFTER STÁNE (they are so formal that we are inferior to them in that respect.)
Cognates: fine, fijn, fein etc. This adjective is also used to describe Fraya's hair: HJRA HÉRON THÉR SA FIN WÉRON AS RACH (her hair, which were as fine as spiders’ webs); and in FINNESTE WÉRUM (finest goods).
The chapter in which the Finns are introduced speaks of a slave-folk (SLÁVONA FOLKA), coming from the east (KÉM THÉR UT.ET ÁSTA EN FOLK WÉI). They were said to not be wild like many of the Finda tribes, but similar to the Egyptians (THAT FOLK NAS NAVT NE WILD LIK FÉLO SLACHTA FINDA.S MEN É.LIK ANDA ÉGIPTA.LANDAR).
In the chapter about the alfabet, it is suggested that the Finns are descendants of Finda: "In her time Finda also invented a mode of writing ... her descendants have soon lost the meaning of it. Afterwards they learned our writing - that is, the Finns, the Thyriers, and the Krekalanders".
It is also suggested in the part about Tunis and Inka: ÀND WONDER. (and what a surprise!) BY INKA THÉR EN GRYNS HÉDE VMBE THA KÀNINGAR FON FINDA.S. FOLK TO THJANJA (With Inka, who hated to serve the kings of Finda's folk,) HLIPON THA MÁSTA FINNA ÀND MÁGJAR OVIR (most Finns and Magyars sided.)
So although the Finns are suggested to be of Finda's blood, their name does not seem to be related.
As for present day Finns, I think many of them are of more purely white blood than many Dutch, specially the Swedish speaking Finns. Don't forget that already the first Magí had his daughter marry Wodin, and Adela also mentions the mixing of Finns with Fryan blood. Also, in the time of the Roman invasion, many freedom-loving whites may have decided to move more to the north-east.

55:35 "Rather dead than slave." Nice fragment to illustrate this is when Friso makes his children take poison, after they have been kidnapped by the Greek pervert Demetrius (Sandbach p. 173).

59:28 "Jesus Christ described in OLB"? If Jesus of Nazareth is meant, this is an interpretation that I do not share. The dating of the events described in this fragment (Sandbach p. 185, OLB p. 136) is ca. 600 BCE (1600 after Atland sank). "JES.US" a.k.a. BÛDA, KRIS.EN, FÒ; Since Buddha lived around this time, these names have rather been aliases of him ("Fot" is a known one). There are theories about Jesus of Nazareth having studied with Buddhists. He may have gotten his name there. He will not have been the first with this name. I have not looked into this myself, but it is noteworthy that Sanskrit scholar and professor Dr. Christian Lindtner, who possesses a PhD in Buddhist Studies states on the introduction of his website:
Recent (...) discoveries of old Sanskrit manuscripts in Central Asia and Kashmir provide decisive proof that the four Greek Gospels have been translated directly from the Sanskrit. A careful comparison, word by word, sentence by sentence, shows that the Christian Gospels are Pirate-copies of the Buddhist Gospels (combined, of course, with words from the OT).

I do not accept such chronological datings at face value. Especially those dating from before the "11th" Century. Bit this is too large a subject to go into just here. It is, in my eyes, also not that important if they actually are the same or not. I now know enough about it, to understand that I don't know what actually happened or when to come to a conclusion on the subject. But considering the podcast is centered around Traditional Christianity, confusing Jessos Krishna and Jesus Christ might make more listeners interested in the OLB.
The bit of Dr. Lindtner is very interesting and revealing.


1:05:45 Relationship NÉF and "navy"? This is an interesting theory, but not directly suggested in the OLB. See blogpost fryskednis/neftunis-neptune for cognates and older versions/ meanings of nephew.

As you may have noticed by now, I don't always draw from the OLB but also from other sources or just my own inspirations. Nef/-p generally means a (close) common descendence between individuals. Being part of a particular family or dynasty. This is mirrored by the meaning of “king” which is a contraction of “kin” + ”-(l)ing” = 'member/descendant of THE family/dynasty'.

The use of these terms for the holders of highest autonomous authority for men is very puzzling since this contradicts the specific anti-dynastic laws that have been laid out in the manuscript. In combination with the fact that these gouvernmental laws have only been established some time after hostile contact with Findasfolk. It could very well be the case that previously the Frisians were a lot less democratic. The Franks come to mind here. They considered themselves Frisians (Frya) still. Being situated more closely to Findasvolk and coming in conflict more quickly, thus needing an extensively more militarised society and thus a stern 'Father' figure next to a mild Mother.

Maybe even the Twixlandic 'mixing' with Tartars is meant figuratively to paint them as the wild warriors they had to be, because they bordered the Tartars who are always looking for a fight and thus had to constantly fight with them to defend themselves. The 'OLB Frisians', being protected by the Twixtlandic buffer states had the luxury to only resort to this when deploying the military at sea, with a monarch who had to relinquish power as soon as he returned to safe homelands. So perhaps, from their safe havens did not understand the disposition of the Twixlanders. Once the foreign empires are at the doorstep of the core Frisian lands, we see the 'patriarchal' development also happen. But it was not enough at that point, sadly. In modern times this development can be recognised in Prussianism and their need to be militarised by bordering huge hostile empires, with the condescending and hostile perspective the comfortably safe British had of Prussia being a 'total warmonger barbarian' as a result.
Too bad we only have one perspective delivered to us. So this likely stays a wild speculation from my part.

To come back from my tangent. Navy (and the Latin 'navis') being a loanword for ship, comes from the fact that proper shipbuilding originally comes from the North Sea peoples, specifically Norwegians (see 3 links below). Only around the North Sea can the complete evolution of shipbuilding be actually found. We introduced and shared our vessels the other peoples later, and thus started shipbuilding from an advanced initial there.
Considering what we call the 'ship' in churches in our languages, non-germanics call a 'nave'. I don't think concluding that navy comes from Nef is that wild of a conclusion. (link 1, link 2, link 3)

1:16:30 "To be married at 25" ~ noteworthy is that this law appears to have no longer been applied at some point, as KONE.RÉD never married and died without children, according to his nephew BÉDEN (Sandbach p. 227). Or was he WRAK (rule nr. 5)?

1:20:40 Etruskans are not explicitly mentioned in the OLB. Which people were interpreted as such?

That's extrapolating from the OLB saying that Italy has been settled by all the races.

1:21:00 Trojans are Ionic Greeks? ~ Troy is mentioned twice in OLB, and it is suggested that at least part of the Trojans were of Finda-blood:
adornments ... from Troy, a city conquered by the Kreaklanders
2. (New, provisional translation:)
The Near Creeklands [± Italy] used to belong only to us only,
but since times immemorial,
descendants of Lyda and Finda have also settled there.
Of the latter, many ended up coming from Troy, eventually.
Troy was the name of a city
that was conquered and destroyed by the folk of the Far Creeklands [± Greece].
After the Trojans had nestled in the Near Creeklands,
with rigour and vigour they built a bastion
of walls and towers, named Rome - meaning roomy or renown.

This also falls under the historical revisionism that takes too long to properly explain now, so I owe you an extensive insight into threading this together another time.

If we assume the OLB is written roughly in chronological order. These references are after Findasfolk captured The City from the original Trojans, and thus not indicative of the real Trojans. In the same manner that modern Egyptians are not related to those of old. The OLB mentions Ulysses being a Jonic Greek king from Troy just after its capture during the Trojan War. Ulysses is with Aeneas the founder of Rome, attested by Hellanicus, Damastus and Aristotle. Also note that the 'Phyrgians', of the famous Phrygian [Frisian] cap that symbolises freedom, were close allies of the Trojans and fought on their behalf.
(added by Karel:) A compilation of Phrygian=Frisian Caps

1:27:25 "usurers (...) are hard-hearted" (Sandbach) ~ The (provisional) new, more literal translation:
Those who come to the market are strictly forbidden to commit usury 
(...) for such folk have vulture-like* hearts.
(*Dutch/ German: gier/ Geier = vulture/ greed)

"Vom Geier zum Meier", postcard 1900

1:48:00 Tinlands/ Brittania (as named in OLB), where banned Frya-folk were sent. This may actually have been only a small part (south-west: Devon, Cornwall) of what is now Great Britain (wiki/Tin mining in Britain, wiki/Tin sources and trade in ancient times).

I am aware that the rich tin deposits are located in only those regions. But it's fun to have an OLB explanation of Perfidious Albion.

1:57:05 Chronology Wodin, Tunis, Inka: The arrival of Tunis' fleet at the Phoenician coast according OLB (p.58, Sandbach p.83) was 193 after Atland sank, or 2000 BCE.

1:57:25 Symbolic numbers. The most significant number in the OLB seems to have been 12. See blogpost.

2:01:00 Similarity of our numbers with Arabic/ Sanskrit ones; It is rather the Sanskrit number-names that are more similar to ours, than their shapes. See relevant part in video.

2:13:30 That the Fryas accepted some sort of spiritual realm, is illustrated for example by (1) Frya dictating Festa from her watch-star and watching over her 'children', (2) similarly Frya's seven Maidens (WÁK.FÁMKES). Another example is (3) when Friso orders his children to take poison rather than be abused, for if their "souls are not pure", their "spirits will haunt the earth".

2:24:15 Thanks for the shout-out, goys :-)

~ ~ ~

... And thanks for the replies, Karel.

~ ~ ~

Links to other OLB-interviews (with me, Jan Ott) incl. notes:
Red Ice (March 2016)
Aesir Broadcasting (September 2016)