25 May 2019

Auxiliary verbs MOTA, MÜGE, WILLA

As is the case with most auxiliary verbs, the various modern cognates can have (somewhat) different meanings and uses. The verb 'may', for example means 'to be able' and can be used as auxiliary of prediction; 'will' is a future auxiliary; the Dutch 'mogen' means 'to be allowed' (archaic 'vermogen' is as 'may'), and 'willen'/ 'wollen' means 'to wish/ desire', etc.

English
German
Dutch
Frisian
Danish
Norse
Swedish
must
müssen
moeten
moatte
måtte
måtte
måste
may
mögen
mogen
meie
maj
mai
maj
will
wollen
willen
wolle
ville
ville
vilja

= = = 

1a. MOTA present
FRYAS** English German Dutch* Frisian*
IK MOT all conjug.: ich muss sing.: ik moat
THV MOST must du musst moet do moatst
ER MOT
er muss
hy moat
WI MOTON
wir müssen plur.: plur.:
-
ihr müsst moeten moatte
HJA MOTON/ MOTA

sie müssen


* in Dutch, 2nd person sing. je/jij and plur. jullie are informal, formal is u/U with verb conjug. as in sing.; in Frisian do (sing.) and jim (plur.) are informal (like German du and ihr), formal is jo (like German Sie, with capital and verb conjug. as 3rd person plural) with verb conjug. as plur.; other Dutch personal pronouns are: ik (I), hij/zij/ze (he/she), wij/we (we), zij/ze (they); other Frisian pers. pronouns plur.: se/sy/hja/hju (she), wy (we) and hja/sy (they).
** ER and HI are both used for 'he', HJU for 'she'; in text 16d (almost exclusively), SE is used for 'she' and 'they'; TE is used besides the more common THV (2nd pers. sing.), J, I and JO(W) is used for 2nd person singular and plural; whether sing. or plur. is ment, is not always clear, as is the case with Dutch and Frisian polite/formal forms 'u'/ 'U' and 'jo'.

1b. MOTA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
- - ich musste sing.: sing.:
- - du musstest moest moast
ER MOST(E) - er musste

WI MOSTON* - wir mussten plur.: plur.:
J MOSTE** - ihr musstet moesten moasten
HJA MOSTON*** - sie mussten


* 1 out of 4: MOSTE/ ** 1 out of 4: MOSTEN/ 2 out of 11: MOSTE 

2a. MÚGE present
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK MÉI all conjug.: ich mag sing.: ik mei
THV MÉI* may du magst mag do meist
ER MÉI**
er mag
hy mei
WI MÜGEN
wir mögen plur.: plur.:
I MÜGE***
ihr mögt mogen meie
HJA MÜGE****
sie mögen


* 1 out of 5: MÜGTH/ ** 2/17 MACH/ *** only once/ **** 1/7 MÜGATH, 1/7 MÜGON

2b. MÚGE past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK MACHT all conjug.: ich mochte sing.: ik mocht
- might du mochtest mocht do mochtst
ER MACHT(E)*
er mochte
hy mocht
WI MACHTON
wir mochten plur.: plur.:
-
ihr mochtet mochten mochten
HJA MACHTON**
sie mochten


* 6 out of 18: MACHT, 9/18 MACHTE, 3/18 MOCHT/ ** 4/11 MACHTE

3a. WILLA present
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK WIL all conjug.: ich will ik wil ik wol
THV WILST will du willst jij wilt do wolst
HI WIL
er will hij wil hy wol
WI WILLATH
plur.: plur.:
J WILLE*
willen wolle
HJA WILLE/ -ATH


* only once

3b. WILLA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK WILDE all conjug.: ich wollte sing.: ik woe
- would du wolltest wilde do woest
HI WILDE
er wollte
hy woe
WI WILDON*
wir wollten plur.: plur.:
-
ihr wolltet wilden woene(n)
HJA WILDON**
sie wollten


* 1 out of 3: WILDE/ ** 4/12 WILDE

= = =

Observations and conclusions to be added.

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