26 May 2019

Auxiliary verbs GÁ, LÉTA, KUNNA

In earlier posts, the conjugations of the following auxiliary verbs have been explored:
  1. (post) HÀVA (have), WÉSA (be: active voice), WRDA (be: passive voice/ become),  
  2. (post) SKILLE (shall/ will),  
  3. (post) MOTA (must), MÜGE (may/ can/ be able or allowed to), WILLA (will/ desire).
Now we will look at three auxiliary verbs that are less frequently used, but still each occur 20 to 30 times each in the samples, analysed so far:

1) GÁ (go, begin, proceed to); note inf. also GÁN (1x), GVNGGA (1x), GÁNA (3x), GÁNE (1x)
Conjugations found in samples:
present sing. GA; plur. GAN (both once only)/ past sing. GVNG; plur. GVNGON/ perfect GVNGEN (10x), GVNGON (2x), GUNGON (2x), GONGGEN (1x)
  • English: all forms present: go/ past: went/ perfect: gone
  • Dutch: present sing. ga, gaat, gaat; plur. gaan/ past sing. ging; plur. gingen/ perfect gegaan
  • German: present sing. gehe, gehst, geht; plur. gehen, geht, gehen/ past sing. ging, gingst, ging; plur. gingen, gingt, gingen/ perfect gegangen
  • Frisian: present sing. gean, giest, giet; plur. geane/ past sing. gie, giest, gie or gong, gongst, gong or gyng, gyngst, gyng; plur. giene(n) or gongen or  gyngen/ perfect gien or gongen
2) LÉTA (let, allow): no separate forms to distinguish present from past
Conjugations found in samples:
IK LÉT (once only); ER LÉT; HJA LÉTON/ LÉTA (each once only)/ perfect: LÉTEN
  • English: all forms present, past and perfect: let
  • Dutch: present sing. laat; plur. laten/ past sing. liet; plur. lieten/ perfect gelaten
  • German: present sing. lasse, lässt, lässt; plur. lassen, lasst, lassen/ past sing. ließ, ließest, ließ; plur. ließen, ließt, ließen/ perfect gelassen
  • Frisian: present sing. lit, litst, lit; plur. litte/ past sing. liet, lietst, liet; plur. lieten/ perfect litten

3) KUNNA (can/ be able to; sometimes 'know')
Conjugations found in samples: 
present sing. IK KÀN (4x)/ KEN (1x), THV KÀNST (3x), ER KÀN (1x); plur. HJA KÀNNATH/ KENNATH/ KÀNATH (all 1x);
past sing. IK KV (1x), THV KOSTE (1x), ER KVSTE/ KOSTE (both 1x)/ KVN (1x)/ KV (6x) [note: KVNDE only in text 9c: 3x]; plur. WI KVSTE (1x); HJA KVNDON (1x)/ KOSTE (2x);
No perfect, nor infinitive in samples.
  • English: all forms present can, past could and perfect does not exist (in stead been able to is used)
  • Dutch: present sing. kan, kunt, kan; plur. kunnen/ past sing. kon; plur. konden/ perfect gekund (note kennen 'to know' is a different verb in standardised Dutch; not in some of the dialects!)
  • German: present sing. kann, kanst, kann; plur. können, könnt, können/ past sing. konnte, konntest, konnte; plur. konnten, konntet, konnten/ perfect gekonnt
  • Frisian: present sing. kin, kinst, kin; plur. kinne/ past sing. koe, koest, koe; plur. koene(n)/ perfect kinnen/ kind (note kenne 'to know' is a different verb in standardised Frisian, but its past tense is the same as that of kinne!)
= = =

Observations and conclusions to be added.

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