28 July 2017

Word List of Key Terms

Orphan girls with books (1900-1930) by Nicolaas van der Waay

The first draft of the new English translation is now ready. Below I will create a list of key words and names, some of which will be left (almost or in most cases) unchanged, others are interpretations of the original word that need some extra explanation. A list of personal, tribal and geographical names will also be made.

This glossary will grow and evolve in time, until it is published in the coming book. It will also be put in alphabetical order.

Listed first is the word, name or term as it will appear in the translation, then the most common transliteration and eventual spelling varieties.


Frya ~ FRYA (sometimes FRÍA or FRIA)
Name of the (possibly in part) historic, and/or (at least in part) mythic primal Mother of the people that called themselves Fryas, Frya's Folk or Frya's Children (sometimes: Frya's Sons). Although in the original text FRYAS (with -S) is also used for singular (an individual of the tribe), I will also translate this as Frya for clarity. In those cases it is always clear that it does not refer to the primal Mother. The meaning of the adjective fry(a) is "free". As a noun it means "free one" (as opposed to slave).
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [9/18 - 14/7].

Fryas ~ (see: Frya)
Members of the people that considered themselves to be Children of Frya or free ones. Their homeland was Fryasland, but they could also be living in colonies elsewhere. (... will add more)

Wralda ~ WR.ALDA (less frequently WRALDA and once VR.ALDA)
Literal meaning "over-old one" or "most-ancient one". Some people would interpret this as God, others as Logos. The various texts sometimes contradict each other as to how Wralda is to be interpreted. It is also remarkable that the primal doctrines about it were not included in the initial Book of Adela-Followers, contrary to Adela's instructions. This might indicate that the 'theology' had become controversial in Adela's time. Sometimes the word means "world", its modern cognate. Often the word GÁST is added, which can be interpreted both as "Spirit" or "Ghost" (the latter being my choice in the translation): Wralda's Ghost.
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [11/18 - 12/12], [45/03-12], [98/03 - 103/23].

Yol ~ JOL
The sacred six-spoke wheel or Wheel of Time, which was a symbol of Wralda and the basis for the letters and numbers. In combinations with -FÉRSTE, -TID and -DÉI it refers to the annual celebration, now Yule (Dutch/ German: Joel/ Jul). I have spelled it with Y instead of J to better represent the probable pronunciation and make the connection to Yule more obvious. (Also see: Carrier.)
Key fragments: [6/12-19], [45/1 - 47/2], [83/22 - 84/24].

Burg ~ BURCH (sometimes BURGH), plural BURGUM or BURGA
This can also be read as burgh or borough. Some people would rather translate it as "citadel". It is used in combinations, for example with -FÁM (maiden), -WAL (wall or rampart), -WÉPNE (weapons) and in names of specific cities or citadels (Fryasburg, Treasureburg, etc.). Most burgs would have had a tower, on the walls of which laws and histories were written.
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [15/1 - 19/6], [106/10 - 108/32].

Tex ~ TEX
This mostly refers to Frya's Tex (set of primal laws), after which the often mentioned Texland appears to have been named, but the mythic Finda is also said to have left one.
Key fragment: [10/31 - 14/7], [45/13-14].

Steersmen/ -man ~ STJURAR, STJÛRAR (sometimes STJURA)
This can also be read as "navigators", although the term seems to also have been used for sailors in general. In the original text there is no difference between plural and singular (the latter occurring only twice). The Steersmen seem to have been a somewhat separate people, as they are often said to use different words or pronunciations.
Key fragment: [27/12 - 27/9].

Folk ~ FOLK, plural FOLKAR, FOLKA, FOLKUM, FOLKRA or FOLKRUM
Can also be read as Volk, people, nation or race. Often: Frya's Folk (whites), Finda's Folk (yellow or mongrel) and Lyda's Folk (blacks). Also used in combination with Mother: Folk Mother.

Earth ~ JRTHA
This word is often personified (female) and sometimes refers to ore or soil. If Earth in the sense of our planet is meant, the word may have rather associated with the land only, that is: not including seas and oceans. This is not clear, however.
Key fragments: [6/12-32], [49/11 - 50/13], [115/11 - 116/32], [189/15-26].

Sacred Fire ~ FODDIK (plur. -A or -UM)
Could also be read as Flame, Light or Lamp. It had to be kept burning and new ones had to be lit from the original one at Texland. A probable modern cognate is "photo", which originally means "light".
Key fragments: [13/30 - 14/7], [15/2-18], [75/18-23].

Carrier ~ KRODER (once: KRODAR)
Personification of time: the Carrier and his Yol (or: Wheel of Time). The modern Dutch word is "kruier"; someone who operates a wheelbarrow. Related are Krodo from the Saxon Chronicle and Chronos from Greek mythology. (See also: Yol.)
Key fragments: [14/10-11], [35/32 - 36/1], [45/9-12], [71/26-28].

Mother ~ MODER (sometimes MODAR; plur. -A or -UM)
This word is mostly used as an honorary title for the elected Folk Mother or 'mother of the people', but in some cases also for a regular mother. The Mother was chosen from the various Burg Maidens and resided at Texland in Fryasburg. The election of Mothers sometimes caused much discord as the aspiring Burg Maidens could be overly ambitious and jealous. (Also see: Burg, Maiden.)
Key fragments: [13/31 - 14/2], [15/1 - 19/7], [23/7 - 24/4], [82/19 - 85/7], [87/24 - 88/17], [91/14 - 92/29], [117/20 - 118/22], [191/17-27].

Maiden ~ FÁM (plur. FÁMNA; diminutive FÁMKE; sometimes FAM-)
Most burgs had one leading Burg Maiden (BURCH.FÁM, sometimes also called Mother or simply Maiden) and up to 21 regular Maidens (FÁMNA), as well as 7 young apprentices or students (LÉR.FAMKES or SPILLE MANGÉRTA). The Maidens role was to teach, give advice, take care of the ill, and watch over the Sacred Fire. (Also see: Burg, Mother, Sacred Fire.)
Key fragments: [15/8 - 19/6], [62/8 - 63/1], [103/27 - 106/9], [108/7-32], [151/31 - 153/13].

Reeve ~ GRÉVETMAN (sometimes GRÉVA or GRÉVE)
Sometimes GRÉVETMAN and GRÉVA are used as different titles, but sometimes the latter is used to mean the first. Also: VRSTE GRÉVE (supreme reeve). Can also be read as count or earl; the chosen male head of a region or district. Note: GRÉVA sometimes has a different meaning: plural noun "graves" or adjective "grey" (i.e. old man or veteran).
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [20/24], [23/10-17], [27/1], [87/20], [143/8], [144/19], [150/14-16].

King ~ KÉNING, KÀNING or KENING (only twice: KING; plural -GAR)
For the Fryas this was a chosen leader of an army or fleet. In foreign cultures it more had the meaning similar to that of our middle ages (inherited and ruling over the people). Some kings that are explicitly named: Wodin, Ûlysus, Wichhirte, Alexandre, Áskar.
Used in combinations SÉ-, WÉT-, WIT- (Sea-); KÉNINGK.RIK (noun: kingdom), KÉNINGLIK(-E/-A) (adjective: royal). Sometimes synonymous with Army Leader (HÉR.MAN).
Key fragments: [21/15 - 25/2], [152/8-25], [191/1-16].

Sea King ~ (see: King)
Chosen leader of a fleet. Some of the Sea Kings: Tünis, Jon, Friso.
Key fragments: [5/8-28], [27/12 - 29/14], [45/17].

Sea Warriors ~ SÉ.KÀMPAR (also without ".")
This word can also be read as "marines". It is sometimes used in a more neutral, less warlike context, sometimes for what we would call "pirates". Three fragments suggest that a group of Danish sea people took this word as their tribal name (related to Sicambri?).
Key fragments: [15/27-30], [48/27-29], [53/21-30], [131/20-23], [202/6-7].

Army Leader ~ HÉR.MAN, HYR.MAN, HÉRTOGA
Sometimes synonymous to King and may also sometimes have meant local ruler. German "Heer" still means army, as well as Dutch "heir" (obsolete). Modern cognates Du/Ge: hertog/ Herzog mean "duke".
Key fragments: [01/30 - 02/2], [3/9], [5/15-19], [16/8-12], [21/15 - 22/7], [53/25], [131/14], [209/27].

Ancestors ~ ÉTHLA, ÉTHLUM, ÉTHLON, ÉTHELA, ÉTHELUN
Sometimes this word is used for 'nobility' (Du/Ge: edelen/ Edlen). Related "odal" or "othala" rune.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [203/17-18].

Descendants ~ÀFTERKVMAND(-A/-E) (Once: -KOM-)
Literally: 'aftercoming'. Also verb: OFSTAMED (descended); noun: KOM.OF (descent); ERVNÔMA (heirs).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [192/14-31]

Princes ~ FORSTA, sometimes FORSTUM (only 4 times singular: FORST)
Modern cognates Du/Ge: vorst/ Fürst. Literal meaning is first or foremost, which is similar to the original meaning of prince or principal (from Latin primus: first).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Priests ~ PRESTERA, sometimes PRESTERUM or PRESTRUM
Often used in combination with FORSTA, mostly in a very negative sense. Singular PRESTER is only used twice and female PRESTERESSE once. HÁVED.PRESTER: 'head'- or high priest.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/]

Rede ~ RÉD (noun, derived from verb RÉDA)
Can also be read as the more common but Latin-based 'advice' or 'counsel'. However, the archaic, more native 'rede' deserves a revival. Du/Ge: raad/ Rat. The verb 'read' is a modern cognate. (see here)
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].


Allies ~ ÁTHA, ÁTHUM (ÁTHSKIP: alliance)
Singular ÁTHE does not always translate well as ally, but rather as comrade. Name Athena/ Athens would be derived from this word.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Mercenaries ~ SALT.ATH(-A/-UM)
Literally 'salt-allies'; allies paid with salt, in contrast to voluntary allies or WÉRAR: defenders of their own land or people. Modern cognate soldier (Du/Ge: soldaat/ Soldat) does not fit well as translation, since this could also be interpreted as defender. (Also see: Allies, Defenders.)
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Defenders ~ WÉRAR (from much used verb WÉRA: to defend)
Also used in combination BURCH- and LAND-. This was something honorable, in contrast to SALT.ÁTHA (see: Mercenaries).
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

Slaves ~ SLÁVONA 29, SLÁFONA 1, SLÁFONUM 2, SLÁVONENA 1 (singular SLÁF 2, SLÁV 1; female SLÁFINE 1; verb SLÁVA 1)
Often used in combination with FOLK or FOLKA(R): slave people(s). Sometimes this word literally means 'slaves', but often it refers to people who were not 'Fryas', in other words unfree people. It is not likely that Slavic peoples were meant, but it is possible that this the name of this race was derived from this word and habit of referring to them. This would be opposite of the ruling notion; that the word 'slave' is derived from the name of these people.
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [140/25-26].

RJUCHTA, ÉWA, SETMA, DOMAR
Key fragments: [/], [/], [/], [/].

MÁGÍ

... (not ready yet ~ I am having a summer holiday break)

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