18 June 2019

Initiation in Bad Times (English / German)

books by Barthélémy d'Eyck, c. 1445

From Oera Linda-book, paragraph 14a) Frethorik: Fryasland Swamped
with my provisional English translation and the German translation by Harm Menkens (2013, somewhat adapted by me). For a word-for-word translation guide, see below.


[113/23] MIN NÔM IS FRÉTHO.RIK. TONOMATH OERA.LINDA. [...] My name is Frethorik, surnamed Oera Linda [...] Mein Name ist Frethorik, mit Zunamen Oera-Linda [...]
[114/04] IN MIN JÜGED HÉRD.IK GRÉDWIRD AL.OMME. In my youth, all I heard was grievance: In meiner Jugend hörte ich Klage überall herum:
ÀRGE TID KÉM ÀRGE TID WAS KVMEN Bad times would come or had come, Arge Zeit käme, arge Zeit war gekommen.


FRYA HÉD.VS LÉTEN. HJRA WÁK.FÁMKES HÉDE HJU ABEFTA HALDEN. Frya had left us, she had withheld her watch maidens, Frya hätte uns verlassen, ihre Wachmaiden hätte sie von uns fern gehalten,
HWAND DROCHTEN.LIKANDA BYLDA WÉRON BINNA VSA LÁND.PÀLA FVNDEN. because idolatrous images had been found within our landmarks. denn götzenähnliche Bildnisse wurden innerhalb unserer Landesgrenzen gefunden.
IK BRÔNDE FON NYS.GÍR. VMBE THI BYLDA TO BISJAN. I was burning with curiosity to see these images. Ich brannte von Neugier, um die Bildnisse anzusehen.
IN VSA BÛRT STROMPELE EN ÔLD.FÁMKE TO THA HUSA UTA IN. In our neighborhood, an old spinster stumbled in and out of the houses, In unserer Nachbarschaft ging mühsam eine Alt-Maid in den Häusern aus und ein,
IMMER TO KÉTHANDE VR ÀRGE TID. always heralding bad times. immer klagend über die arge Zeit
IK GÍRDE HJA LING.SÍDE. HJU STRIK MI OMME KIN TO. I came alongside her, she stroked my chin. Ich näherte mich ihr von der Seite. Sie strich mir um das Kinn herum.
NW WRD.IK DRIST ÀND FRÉJE JEF HJU MI ÀRGE TID ÀND THA BYLDA RÉIS WISA WILDE. Now I dared to ask her about the bad times and the images. Nun wurde ich dreist und fragte, ob sie mir die arge Zeit und die Bildnisse wohl zeigen würde.
HJU LAKTE GODLIK ÀND BROCHT MI VPPER BURCH. She smiled in a most friendly manner and brought me to the burg. Sie lachte gutmütig und brachte mich auf die Burg.
EN GRÉVA.­MAN FRÉJE MY JEF IK AL LÉSA ÀND SKRÍVA KV. NÉ SÉID.IK. An old veteran asked me if I could read and write. ‘No’, I said. Ein Obergraf fragte mich, ob ich schon lesen und schreiben könne.


THAN MOST ÉROST TO GA ÀND LÉRA SÉIDER ‘Then you must first go and learn’, he replied, "Nein", sagte ich. "Dann mußt Du erst zugehen und es lernen", sagte er,
OWERS NE MÉI.T JOW NAVT WYSEN NI WRDE. ‘or else you cannot be shown.’ "anders kann es Dir nicht gezeigt werden."
DYSTIK GVNG IK BI THA SKRIWER LÉRA. So daily I went to the scribe and studied. Täglich ging ich zum Schreiber lernen.
ACHT JÉR LÉTTER HÉRD.IK VSA BURCH.FÁM HÉDE HORDOM BIDRYVEN Eight years later, I heard that our burg maiden had been promiscuous, Acht Jahre später hörte ich, unsere Burgfrau hätte Hurerei betrieben
ÀND SVME BURCH.HÉRA HÉDON VRRÉD PLÉGAD MITH THA MÁGÍ. that some burg masters had collaborated with the magus, und einige Burgherren hätten Verrat geübt mit dem Magy,
ÀND FÉLO MÀNNISKA WÉRON VP HJARA SIDA. and that many people were on their side. und viele Menschen wären auf ihrer Seite.
WRAL KÉM TWISPALT. Division was everywhere. Überall kam Zwiespalt.
THÉR WÉRON BERN THÉR VPSTANDON AJEN HJARA ELDRUM. Children revolted against their parents. Es gab Kinder, die gegen ihre Eltern aufstanden.
INNA GLUPPA WRDON THA FRODA MÀNNISKA MORTH. Righteous folk were murdered in cowardly fashion. In ihren Verstecken wurden die getreuen Menschen ermordet.
THET ALDE FÁMK THÉR ELLA BÁR MÁKADE The old spinster who revealed it all Die alte maid, die alles offenbar machte,
[115/01] WÀRTH DÁD FVNDEN IN.EN GRUPE. was found dead in a ditch. wurde tot in einer Grube gefunden.
MIN TÁT THÉR RJUCHTER WÉRE WILDE HJA WRÉKEN HÀ. My father, who was judge, wanted her avenged. Mein Vater, der Richter war, wollte sie gerächt haben.
NACHTIS WÀRTH.ER IN SIN HUS VRMORTH. Soon thereafter, at night, he was murdered in his home. Des Nachts wurde er in seinem Hause ermordet.
THRJU JÉR LÉTTER WÉR THENE MÁGÍ BÁS. SVNDER STRID. Three years later, the magus ruled without resistance. Drei Jahre später war der Magy Herr, ohne Kampf.


THA SAXMÀNNA WÉRON FROME ÀND FROD BILYWEN. The Saxmen had remained faithful and wise. Die Sachsmannensind fromm und treu geblieben;
NÉI THAM FLJUCHTON ALLE GODE MÀNNISKA. To them all good people fled. zu ihnen flüchteten alle guten Menschen.
MIN MÀM BISTURV.ET. My mother died in the midst of it. Meine Mutter starb darüber.
NW DÉD IK LIK THA ÔTHERA. Then, I fled to the Saxmen like the others.* Nun tat ich gleich den anderen.

* The text only says ‘Now I did like the others’; changed ‘did’ into ‘fled to the Saxmen’ for clarity.

word-for-word translation guide

MIN NÔM IS FRÉTHO.RIK. (my name is Frétho-rik) TONOMATH OERA.LINDA (to-named Oera-Linda). [...] IN MIN JÜGED (in my youth) HÉRD.IK GRÉDWIRD* AL.OMME (heard-I grievance all-around). ÀRGE TID KÉM (bad time came) ÀRGE TID WAS KVMEN (bad time was come) FRYA HÉD.VS LÉTEN (Frya had-us left). HJRA WÁK.FÁMKES HÉDE HJU ABEFTA HALDEN (her wake-maidens had she behind held). HWAND DROCHTEN.LIKANDA BYLDA (because idol-alike images) WÉRON BINNA VSA LÁND.PÀLA FVNDEN (were within our land-poles found). IK BRÔNDE FON NYS.GÍR (I burnt of news-desire). VMBE THI BYLDA TO BISJAN (for these images to observe). IN VSA BÛRT (in our neighborhood) STROMPELE EN ÔLD.FÁMKE (stumbled an old-maiden) TO THA HUSA UTA IN (to the houses out-of in). IMMER TO KÉTHANDE VR ÀRGE TID (always proclaiming about bad time). IK GÍRDE HJA LING.SÍDE (I [?from context: approached?] her along-side). HJU STRIK MI OMME KIN TO (she stroked me around chin to). NW WRD.IK DRIST (now became-I bold) ÀND FRÉJE JEF HJU (and asked if she) MI ÀRGE TID (me bad time) ÀND THA BYLDA RÉIS WISA WILDE (and the images once show would). HJU LAKTE GODLIK (she laughed goodlike) ÀND BROCHT MI VPPER BURCH (and brought me up-the burgh). EN GRÉVA.MAN FRÉJE MY (an old/reeve-man asked me) JEF IK AL LÉSA ÀND SKRÍVA KV (if I already read and write could). NÉ SÉID.IK (no said-I). THAN MOST ÉROST TO GA (then you-must first to go) ÀND LÉRA SÉIDER (and learn said-he) OWERS NE MÉI.T JOW (otherwise not may-it you) NAVT WYSEN NI WRDE (not shown not be). DYSTIK GVNG IK (daily went I) BI THA SKRIWER LÉRA (with the scribe learn). ACHT JÉR LÉTTER HÉRD.IK (eight year later heard-I) VSA BURCH.FÁM HÉDE HORDOM BIDRYVEN (our burgh-maiden had whoredom committed) ÀND SVME BURCH.HÉRA (and some burgh-masters) HÉDON VRRÉD PLÉGAD MITH THA MÁGÍ (had treason committed with the magus). ÀND FÉLO MÀNNISKA WÉRON VP HJARA SIDA (and many people were up their side). WRAL KÉM TWISPALT (everywhere came two-split). THÉR WÉRON BERN (there were children) THÉR VPSTANDON AJEN HJARA ELDRUM (that stood-up against their parents). INNA GLUPPA WRDON THA FRODA MÀNNISKA MORTH (in alleys were the virtuous people murdered). THET ALDE FÁMK THÉR ELLA BÁR MÁKADE (the old maiden who all bare made) WÀRTH DÁD FVNDEN IN.EN GRUPE (was dead found in a ditch). MIN TÁT THÉR RJUCHTER WÉRE (my dad who judge were) WILDE HJA WRÉKEN HÀ (wished her avenged have). NACHTIS WÀRTH.ER IN SIN HUS VRMORTH (at-night was-he in his house murdered). THRJU JÉR LÉTTER WÉR THENE MÁGÍ BÁS. SVNDER STRID (three year later were the magus boss without conflict). THA SAXMÀNNA WÉRON FROME ÀND FROD BILYWEN (the Saxmen were devout and virtuous remained). NÉI THAM FLJUCHTON ALLE GODE MÀNNISKA (to them fleed all good people). MIN MÀM BISTURV.ET (my mom died [of] it). NW DÉD IK LIK THA ÔTHERA (now did I like the others).

* Hettema (1832) - Gredwird: klagten [complaints]

17 June 2019

Varieties in use of second person

The Oera Linda-book consists of various texts, many of which written by different authors and in different times. Varieties in spelling and style have already been explored. In the following report, use of the second person ('you', 'your', singular/ plural/ pluralis reverentia [formal or polite]) is analysed.

Again a clear variety is found between the various texts (see table below).

Variety distribution addressing
group
addressing
 individual
THV-/THI(N)-form only 16c 11b, 13e2
,, mostly - A, 4d-2, 13d
mixed 4d-1, 9b, 14b 8b1
J-/ JO(W)-form mostly 14d -
,, only 1b, 2d, 18 -

fragments in table above


nr. of units page(s)
A Hidde to Okke 6 00a
1b Adela to audience 20 001-004
2d Frya to descendants 28 011-014
4d-1 Minerva to priests 13 034-037
4d-2 priests to Minerva 14 034-037
8b1 Magi to Wodin 10 054
9b Minerva to princes 7 071
11b Frana to Jrtha 6 084
13d Traest to man 11 104-106
13e2 girl to young man 8 112-113
14b Gosa to steersmen 9 118
14d Friso to his children 8 127
16c Gosa to audience 11 160-162
18 Rika to audience 22 189-192

second person according to Hettema's trial Old Frisian dictionary

Some (of many) examples of remarkable 'mistakes' (in our perception):
8b3) p.59 THV BIST .. SWÀRVAR (sing / plur)
14b) p. 118 I MOSTE, JOW BISTE
14d2) p. 127 twice JOW as nominative

=========== data analysis ===========

In the following chapters/ paragraphs, 2nd person is not used: 1a, c / 2b, c1, e / 3 (laws and regulations) / 4a, b, c2, e / 5 (justice) / 6 (yule, script, numbers) / 7 (before Bad Times, how Aldland sank) / 8b2, c / 9a2 / 10a / 12 (Adelbrost) / 13b2, c, e1 / 14ef / 15a, b1 / 16a, b3 / 17 (Beden) / 19b, def
The following parts, only have sporadic or scattered use of the 2nd person, too little for analysis: B (Liko) / 4c1, c3 / 10b / 13b1, b3 / 15c,d 

The following samples may were analysed (with number of units):
  • 6 --- A (Hidde)
  • 20 --- 1b (Adela-helpers)
  • 8 --- 2a, c2, c3 (three burgs, oldest history)
  • 28 --- 2d (Tex Fryas)
  • 28 --- 4d (Minno)
  • 13 --- 8a, b1, b3 (Treasureburg: 2090 bce)
  • 19 --- 9a1, a3, b, c (Walhallagara: 1630 bce)
  • 19 --- 11abc (all burgs: 590 bce)
  • 11 --- 13d (unknown on writing felt)
  • 8 --- 13e2 (Apollanja)
  • 12 --- 14a, b, c (Frethorik)
  • 18 --- 14d (Ljudgert 1)
  • 6 --- 15b2 (Dela/ Hellenja)
  • 11 --- 16b1, b2 (Konered)
  • 11 --- 16c (Gosa)
  • 5 --- 16d (Ljudgert 2)
  • 22 --- 18 (Rika)
  • 5 --- 19a, c (unkown about Askar)
Inventory of the largest samples of at least 20 units, the ones of between 10 and 20 units and between 6 and 10 (excl. various short)

1b) Adela to her audience (meeting, council)
only J-form, 20 units


2d) Frya to her descendants
only J-form, 28 units

4d) Dialogue between Minerva and the princes-priests; author Minno
both forms: little J (4), many THV (23);
ca. 1/2 Minerva to priests (mixed), 1/2 priests to Minerva (mostly THV)

8) mostly 8b1 - Magi to Wodin
8a is (2x) author to mountains (plur!) and to Frya, both: THIN(NA).
8b3 is (1x) Sidonese coast dwellers to Tunis group (THV BIST sing.!).
8b1 - Magi to Wodin: mixed inconsequent (10 units): JE, JVW, I, JV vs. THV, TE, THIN(RE).

9) various short addresses (longest is Minerva to princes); a: Walhallagara; b: Texland; c: ?
  • 9a1 - Kelta to followers (4x I/J verbs inconsequent, 1x THI)
  • 9a3 - Kelta to Britne (4: THV, THI(NA))
  • 9b - Minerva to princes (7 units, mixed: THINA SLÁVONA, BIST, WILST vs. JVW BERN, J SKOLDE, MOT.I)
  • 9c - navigators to mercinaries (3: TE, THV, THINA)
11) various short (longest is Frana to Jrtha); on all burgs ca. 590 bce
  • 11a - author to reader(s): JVWA
  • 11b - Fin to Frana (NILST/SKILST), Magi to Frana (MOST/ I BISTE), Frana to Jrtha (6 units: THV, THI(N(RA))), Frana to Magi (THIN)
  • 11c - Dane to Magi (THV, THIN)
13d) Traest to the unsociable man
mostly (9x) THV, THIN, (THAT)STE, however also (2x) MOT I, IS I THISSA RÉD...

14abc) mostly 14b - Gosa to steersmen
14a is veteran to Frethorik (2x: MOST, JOW mixed use!)
14c is dignitary from Friso's fleet to people of Staveren (1x J SKOLDE)
14b - mixed inconsequent use (4x KANST, ÁCHSTE, THI(N) vs. 5x I MOSTE!, JOW BISTE!, JOW)

14d) various short (longest is Friso to children); author Ljudgért 2
  • 14d1 - Wichhirte to Alexander & army (JOW(A) = your plur. deads/ weapons; THINA = your sing. intellect); Alexander to Wichhirte (THIN/ STV); Nearchus to Wichhirte & fleet (I, JOW)
  • 14d2 - wife Friso to random people (1x N.AST, 1x TO JOW); Friso writes his children (8 units, inconsequent, mixed: 2x JOW as nominative!, also as dative and genetive/  SKILSTV and THIN LIF next to JOW SÉLE); 1x Friso to Wichhirte & Gértmen (FON JOW)
16b) various short addresses (max. 3 units)

16c) Gosa to audience about language
consequently only THV-form: verbs WILST, ACHST.THV (2x), BIST.THV, WILSTE/ WILST.THV, DVATH.STV; 2x genitive THIN(A), 2x dative MIT THI, FON THI

18) Rika to her audience (descendants of Friso followers at Staveren Yulefeast)
very consequent, only J-form, 22 units
JY - 1e nom./ JOW(E(R)) 2e gen./ JO 3e dat./ 4e acc.
verbs plural:
SEND
SKILUN
WÁNATH, VRJETTATH, WETATH, KÉRATH
MÉNE, BVWE
1x sing.: MÉI

04 June 2019

Main verbs KVMA and SEZA

Now that we have examined the auxiliary verbs most frequently used in the samples, we will continue with the two most frequently used main verbs: KVMA (to come, 92x) and SEZA (to say, 60x). Note these are frequencies in the samples (defined earlier) only.

1a. KVMA present 
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK KVME all conjug.: ich komme ik kom ik kom
THV - come du kommst 2nd/3rd: do komst
ER KVMTH* er kommt komt hy komt
WI KVMA** wir kommen plur.: plur.:
J - ihr kommt komen komme
HJA KVMA(TH)*** sie kommen

* 3 out of 13 KVMATH, 1/13 KVM
** 1/3 KVMATH
*** KVMA and KVMATH both 2/5, 1/5 KVME

1b. KVMA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK KÉM (2) all conjug.: ich kam sing.: ik kaam
THV - came du kamst kwam do kaamst
ER KÉM (38) er kam hy kaam
WI KÉMON (9) wir kamen plur.: plur.:
J - ihr kamt kwamen kamen
HJA KÉMON (28) sie kamen

perfect: KVMEN (18x), KÉMEN (1x), KÉMON (1x), KOMTH (1x), KVMA (1x)
gerund: KVMANDE, KVMANE
used as auxiliary verb 7x, supporting BIFÁRA (2x), BJADA, FALLA, HÁLJA, MÉRA, RÁWANE (all 1x)

2a. SEZA present
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK SEZ (1) all conjug.: ich sage ik zeg ik sis
THV - say du sagst 2nd/3rd.: do seist
ER SÉITH (1) er sagt zegt er seit
WI - wir sagen plur.: plur.:
J - ihr sagt zeggen sizze
HJA SEZA (1)/ SEZATH (1) sie sagen

2b. SEZA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK SÉID (1) all conjug.: ich sagte sing.: ik sei
THV - said du sagtest zei do seist(e)
ER SÉIDE* er sagte hy sei
WI SÉIDE (1) wir sagten plur.: plur.:
J - ihr sagtet zeiden seine(n)
HJA SÉIDON** sie sagten

* in 15 out of 38 cases without the ending -E, because it is followed by a vowel (mostly -ER).
** SÉIDON 11x, SÉDON and SÉIDE both 1x

perfect: SÉID (3), SÉITH (2), SÉIT (1)
gerund: SEZANDE (2)
infinitive: SEDSA (3), SEZA (2), SEZE (1)
imperative: SEG (2), SEZ (1)


other main verbs sorted by frequency (>10) in samples:
22 DVA
21 LÉIA19 SJA
17 STÁ
16 WÉTA
15 KÉTHA
14 NÉMA
14 HALDA
13 JÉVA
11 ANDERA
11 FRÉJA
11 HÉTA
11 MÁKJA

02 June 2019

Old Frisian specialists' opinion?

Jacob Grimm
Old Frisian is an Old Germanic language, most closely related to Old English. Whereas Old English is taught and studied widely, Old Frisian seems to be a well-hidden secret, studied and taught by a just a handful of experts. (course intro Universities Oxford-Groningen)

Old Frisian has been a field of study particularly since the linguistic publications by Jacob Grimm (1785–1863). It would have been interesting to hear the opinion of an Old Frisian specialist about the language of the Oera Linda-book, but the silence has been deafening. This would not make much sense, unless the topic is taboo amongst them. For if they consider the manuscript to be obviously fake, it should be easy to explain why that is so, and it would still be a worthy topic, as there is no comparable work of creative art which has Old Frisian language varieties as one of its main sources of inspiration. Not only is it not discussed, it is not even referred to (unless I have missed it).

This post will be an inventory of the most prominent specialists Old Frisian. It can be used to search for possible publications or mentions that I have missed and perhaps some of them can at some point be motivated to share their thoughts on the OLB.

(random provisional order)

Rolf H. Bremmer jr. (1950), professor of Old and Middle English, and extraordinary professor of Old Frisian, at Leiden University. Author of 'An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary' (2009).

Oebele Vries (1947), professor Old Frisian, at Groningen University (1978-2012). Editor of several publications with Old Frisian texts, notably, 'Asega, is het dingtijd?' (2007).

Henk D. Meijering (), emeritus professor Old Frisian and Old Saxon, at Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit.

Pieter Gerbenzon (1920-2009), professor (Old) Frisian language and O-F laws, at Universities Utrecht and Groningen.

still under construction

Auxiliary verb THVRA

entry for the word in De Haan-Hettema prov. dictionary 1832 ~ assuming OLB would be a 19th century creation, one would expect the varieties in it more to resemble those as suggested in the contemporary dictionaries
in Richthofen dictionary 1840
In previous posts we have taken a closer look at the auxiliary verbs most frequently used in the defined samples. Now it is time for the next in line: THVRA (modern cognates English - dare, German - dürfen*, Dutch - durven, Frisian - doarre, Swedish - tordas, Danish - turde, Icelandic - þora, Norse - tore).
*German 'dürfen' has a different meaning than the other cognates: to be allowed. While 'to dare' could be interpreted as 'to allow oneself', in the German word the one or the thing that allows lies outside of the self.

a. THVRA present
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK THVR (1) all conjug.: ich darf ik durf ik doar
THV THVRATH (1)* dare du darfst 2nd / 3rd p.: do doarst
ER - er darf durft hy doar(t)
WI THVRA (1) wir dürfen plur.: plur.:
J - ihr dürft durven doar(r)e
HJA - sie dürfen

* Considering the conjugations of the other verbs, examined so far, 2nd person sing. present would be expected to end -ST (for example THVRST, THVREST).

b. THVRA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK - all conjug.: ich durfte sing.: ik doarst
THV - dared du durftest durfde do doarst(e)
ER THVRADE (6)* er durfte hy doarst
WI - wir durften plur.:plur.:
J - ihr durftet durfden doarsten
HJA THVRADON (5) sie durften

* Also 1x THURADE, 1x THURVATH

Used in negative: 13 out of 16 = 81%.

Fragments in the Oera Linda-book (not only the samples)

1 [00b/12] B. Liko
THRVCHDA WI HJARA LJUDA TO SPRÉKE THVRA

2 [037/25] 4d. Minno
THÉRTHRVCH NE THVRADON HJA NÉN STRID WITHER AN TO SPINNANDE.

3 [047/21] 7a. all burgs
HWÉRTHRVCH THÀT FINDAS FOLK NAVT KVMA NE THVRADON.

4 [055/14] 8b1. Treasureburg
MEN LIK EN TWÍRNEWIND WENDON HJA OMME ÀND NE THVRADON NA WITHER FORSKINA.

5 [055/21] 8b1. Treasureburg
THAT I FRYA ÀND WRALDAS GÁST MISKÀNA ÀND SPOTA THVRADE.

6 [079/17] 11a. all burgs
WR A BERGA ÀND WR N SÉ NE THVRADE HI NAVT NE KVMA.

7 [122/25] 14d1. Liudgeart 1
THA HI NE THVRADE SIN TOCHT NAVT VRFATA.

8 [126/11] 14d2. Liudgeart 1
THJU MODER NE THVRADE HJRA JOI NAVT WACHTJA.

9 [126/18] 14d2. Liudgeart 1
THRVCHDAM HJU HJRA MAN NAVT WACHTJA THURADE.

10 [128/02] 14d2. Liudgeart 1
HJUD NE KV NI THVRADE NINMAN NE BILÍWA.

11 [136/31] 15b2. Dela-Hellenia
MEN HJA NE THVRADON HIM NAVT AVBÉR BIKÀNÁ AS HJARA ÀJNE BLOD.

12 [151/22] 16b2. Konered
ASTE THVRATH THENE MÉNA FJAND TO BIKÀMPANE

13 [154/03] 16b2. Konered
THACH JEF WI THÉRTHRVCH BÉTER WRDE THVR IK NAVT BIJECHTA.

14 [164/12] 16d. Liudgeart 2
THÉRVMBE NE THURVATH SE FAR HJARA SÉK NIT ÔPENTLIK UT NI KVMA.

15 [198/04] 19a. unknown about Askar
THA RIKA NE THVRADON HJARA MULA NAVT ÉPEN NE DVA.

16 [206/28] 19d. unknown about Askar
SÁ THAT THÉR AFTERNÉI NÉN MÀNNISK MÁRA KVMA NE THVRADE.

noun derived from the verb:
INNER WINNA JEFTHA MINNA MÔNATH GVNG AIDER THURVAR (one who dares) WITHER HÉMFÁRA.

29 May 2019

Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Old German etc. Texts

Traditionally, 'Old Frisian' is the term used for the language of Frisian texts until ca. 1550 CE. Frisian is assumed to have developped out of 'North Sea Germanic' or 'Ingvaeonic', together with Saxon and English.

Below I will create a list of Old Frisian and other texts (currently available to me), the language of which will be compared to that of the Oera Linda-book. This list will be updated whenever I have new sources.

My sources (books - physical copy or PDF):
  1. Old Frisian: Asega is het Dingtijd? - De hoogtepunten van de Oudfriese tekstoverlevering (2007)
  2. Old Frisian/ Middle Dutch: Thest Freske Riim / Tractatus Alvini - edited by Alistair Campbell (1952)
  3. Old Frisian: Het Rudolfsboek - proefschrift (1937 - PDF)
  4. Old High German: Das Hildebrandlied - Faksimile der Kasseler Handschrift mit einer Einführung von Hartmut Broszinski (1984)
  5. West Saxon dialect of Old English: Het Beowulf-epos - Angelsaksisch of Fries-Saksisch erfgoed van omstreeks 500 uit Frans-Vlaanderen (2006) see here newer tranliteration with English translation
  6. Middle English: Layamans Brut or Chronicle of Britain - A Poetical Semi-Saxon Paraphrase of The Brut of Wace (1847 - PDF) also see blog post
Original sources ('Asega is het Dingtijd?'/ 'Het Rudolfsboek'):
  • A - Codex Aysma
  • B1 - First Brookmer Manuscript
  • B2 - Second Brookmer Manuscript
  • D - '(Oude) Druk': only printed source; 'Freeska Landriucht' (see article J.G. Ottema in De Vrije Fries 1859 pp 364-383)
  • E1 - First Emsingo Manuscript
  • F - Fivelgo Manuscript
  • Fs - Codex Furmerius (see article P. Gerbenzon in De Vrije Fries 1948 pp 74-90)
  • H - Hunsingo Codex (1 and 2)
  • J - manuscript 'Jus Municipale Fresonum'
  • (P - Codex Parisiensis) mentioned, not used
  • R1 - First Riustring Codex
  • R2 - Second Riustring Codex
  • (Ro - Codex Roorda) mentioned, not used
  • U - Codex Unia
Note: when texts from source 1. are not dated here, dating in book was "Graventijd"

Note: it would be good to know which texts were available to whom before 1867 - I will try to add this info. At least D ('Oude Druk') and the content of Richthofen's Friesische Rechtsquellen (1840) will have been available.
UNDER CONSTRUCTION!
name original source my source
#1 De Sage van Karel en Redbad (c. 1200-1300) U (also J , D) 1
#2 Proloog op de Keuren en Landrechten R1 (also E1, F, H, J, U, D) 1
#3 De Zeventien Keuren R1 (also E1, F, H, J, U, D) 1
#4 De uitzonderingen op de Zestiende Keur E1 (also F, H) 1
#5 De uitzonderingen op de Zeventiende Keur R1 (also E1, F, H, J, U, D) 1
#6 De Vierentwintig Landrechten F (also R1, E1, H, J, U, D) 1
#7 De Overkeuren (c. 1200) H (also E1, F) 1
#8 De Willekeuren van de Opstalboom (dated 18-9-1323 CE) U (also D) 1
#9 Het Algemene (Oosterlauwerse) Boeteregister H (also R1, E1, F) 1
#10 Dit is ook Fries Recht (I en II) (c. 1150-1300) R1 (also R2) 1
#11 De Brookmerbrief (c. 1250-1300) B2 (also B1) 1
#12 De Hunsingoër Keuren van 1252 (1252 CE) H (ook F, Fs) 1
#13 Het Landrecht van Westergo (Oudere Schoutenrecht) J (also U, D) 1
#14 Het Jongere Schoutenrecht J (also U, D) 1
#15 Het Westerlauwers Zeendrecht J (also F, U, D) 1
#16 De Acht Doemen J (also F, U, D) 1
#17 De Keuren van Wininge (c. 1290?) Fs 1
#18 Het Asegarecht F 1
#19 De Vredeseed J 1
#20 De Magnuskeuren (c. 1200-1300?) U (also F, J, D) 1
#21 Van de oorsprong der Friese Vrijheid (c. 1300-1350) H 1
#22 Hoe de Friezen tot vrijheid kwamen (c. 1300-1400?) J (also A) 1
#23 Het Traktaat van de Zeven Zeelanden (1416 CE) D 1
#24 De vijftien tekenen voor de dag des oordeels R1 1



rijmkroniek 'Thet Freske Riim' (c. 1509-1515) MS II b 28 2
its adaptation: 'Tractatus Alvini' (between 1399-1512) MS Gabbema 9056 Hs D 2



Het Rudolfsboek J, D, U 3



epic poem: 'Hildebrandslied' (c. 830-840) Codex Casselanus 4



epic poem 'Beowulf' (c. 975-1025) Nowell Codex 5



Layaman's Brut / Chronicle of Britain (c. 1190-1215) MS Cott. Calig A IX / MS Cott. Otho C XIII 6




















































Preliminary note:
I do not believe every age had its own particular variety, but rather, different varieties existed alongside each other: various authors and copyists may have their own style and preference. Even within texts, often several varieties can be found.

28 May 2019

Auxiliary verb ÁCHA

The Old Frisian syntactic construct aga te (ought to, shall, must) + gerund has been subject of a study by Jelka Schilt, published in Aspects of Old Frisian philology (1990, p.391), edited by Rolf H. Bremmer et al. I intend to discuss this study, after an inventory of the use of this construct in the Oera Linda-book (not only in the samples).

Considering the exceptional use in 2d. [012/07], the best fitting Dutch translation of the word would be 'behoren' (allegedly dreived from 'horen'; to hear), which can be used in two ways:
1) 'behoren aan': belong to/ be owned by;
2) 'behoren te + inf.': ought to + inf.

Note the similarity with ÁGON - eyes, HÁCH - high.

Infinite form is not used, but might have been ÁCHA*/ HAGA (ought to, shall, must): no present-past variety.
* either with or without the accent; it is sometimes hardly distinguishable
singular:
IK/ ER ÁCH (10x)/ ER ÁGATH (1x)
THV ACHST(-E/-V) (4x)
plural:
WI/ HJA AGON (8x)/ ACHON (3x)/ HAGON (2x)/ HJA HAGATH (1x)
J HAGATH/ AGHAT (both only one)

The verb ÁCHA is used 31 times, once as a main verb and 30 times as an auxiliary verb, twice of the latter in combination with more than one main verb (fragments 20: 2 and 26: 3). The number of main verbs supported by ÁCHA, therefore, is 33.

Exceptional uses, in order frequency:

1) Verb ACHA
  • 1/31 fragment 3 (Frya's Tex): as main verb, meaning 'belong to'.
  • 1/31 fragment 4 (Frya's Tex): spelling -GH- (AGHAT); -AT instead of -ATH is also unusual..
  • 4/31 fragments 1, 2 (Adela), 20a (Helpers Adela), 21 (Primal Teachings): verb starts with H- (2x HAGATH, 2x HAGON).
  • 4/31 fragments 1, 2 (Adela), 3, 4 (Frya's Tex): conjugation ending -ath (1x -at), both for plural and singular.
  • 3/13 fragments 7 (Laws 1), 18, (Laws 2), 25 (Liudgert 1): plural form ending -ON is spelled with -CH-: ACHON; the more common form is (H)AGON.

2) Supported main verb
  • 1/33 fragment 9 (Minno): without 'TO': MÀN ACH WÉIZARJA. (In fragment 20b. LÉTA also lacks 'TO', but borrows from 20a. TO TELLA.)
  • 5/33 fragments 9 (Minno), 16, 18 (Laws 2), 20a, 20b (Helpers Adela): verb does not end with -NDE (found 7x), -NA (found 4x) or -NE (found 17x), rather it is a basic infinitive: WÉIZARJA, SÉKA, FORMYDA, TELLA, LÉTA.
The verbs more than once supported by ACHA are:
  • TO LÉTA(NE) (4x), 
  • TO WÉRANE/-A (3x) and 
  • TO NVDANDE/ NJODANE/ NJVDANE (3x.)

Fragments in the Oera Linda-book

1. [004/26] 1b. Adela
SA HAGATH J TO NVDANDE THAT (...) / you [formal or plural] ought to urge

2. [005/02] 1b
AL THISSA TÀLLINGA HAGATH DÉN TO WERTHANDE / tellings ought to be done

3. [012/07] 2d. Frya's Tex
THJUS ÁGATH WRALDAS GÁST / this belongs to (...)

4. [013/12] 2d.
ALSA AGHAT J TO HELPANE HJAM / you [formal or plural] ought to help

5. [018/10] 3a. Laws 1
SA ÁCH HJU THAM BY STONDA TO JÉWANE / she ought to give

6. [025/18] 3c3. ,,
SA ACH THA MÉNA MÉNTA (...) THAT WITHER TO HÉLÉNA / community ought to repair

7. [025/27] 3c3.
BY THA FÉSTUM ACHON HJA FORÁNA TO SITTANA / they ought to sit

8. [029/29] 4c1. Minno
SA ACH MAN THÀT RÉDER ÀFTERWÉJA TO LÉTANE / one ought to leave/let

9. [030/06] 4c1.
SA ACH MÀN THAT WÉIZARJA / one ought (to) refuse


10. [030/18] 4c1.
SA ACH MAN ALLÉNA ALDVLKERA TO KJASANE / one ought to choose/elect

11. [030/23] 4c1.
SA AGON THA ÔRA THAT TO WÉRANE / others ought to repel

12. [030/31] 4c1. ,,
AGON WY MITH HASTE HÉI TO TO SLANA / we ought to strike

13.[030/32] 4c1.
AFSKÉN WI ÉLLA AGON TO DVANDE / we ought to do

14. [037/14] 4d. ,,
THÉRVMBE ACHSTV TO BIJINNANDE / you ought to begin

15. [041/10] 5a2. Laws 2
THÉRVMBE ÁCH MÀN TO WÉRANA THÀM / one ought to repel

16. [041/13] 5a2.
JAHWÉDER JONG KERDEL ÁCH EN BRUD TO SÉKA / youngh-man ought to seek

17. [041/18] 5a2.
ACH EK MAN HIM UT SIN HUS TO WÉRANE / man ought to repel

18. [041/20] 5a2.
THA KNÁPA ACHON HIN TO FORMYDA / boys ought to avoid

19. [070/27] 9b. Walhallagara
THA AFTERKVMAND AGON TO WÉTANE THAT (...) / later generations ought to know

20a/b. [087/15] 11c. Helpers Adela
THA FÁMNA HAGON THAM NÉI HJARA WÍSA TO TELLA ÀND WEL BISKRIVE LÉTA / maidens ought to narrate and (to) have described

21. [101/18] 13c2. Primal Teachings
ALSA HÁGON THA FÁMNA HJAM FON BUTA TO LÉRANDE / maidens ought to teach

22. [111/22] 13e2. Apollonia
HO THA MÀNNISKA AN THÉRE MINNE AGON TO LÉVANE / men ought to live

23. [118/03] 14b. Frethorik
THÀN ÁCHSTE SPOD TO MÁKJANDE / you ought to make

24. [119/23] 14c. ,,
NW WI N MODER HÀVE AGON WI HJRA RÉD TO FRÉJANDE / we ought to ask

25. [128/20] 14d2. Liudgert 1
WI ACHON AL FLJUCHTANDE TO FJUCHTANE / we ought to flee

26a/b/c. [137/15] 15b2. Dela a.k.a. Hellenia
THÀT MÀN THÉR IN ÁCH TO DELVANE TO ERANE ÀND TO SÉJANE / one ought to dig, (to) plow and (to) sow

27. [144/30] 16b1. Konered
VMBE (...) ÁCH IK DUBBEL TO WAKANE THAT (...) / I ought to beware

28. [161/08] 16c. Gosa
ALSA ACHST THV (...) NÉN ÔRE TÁLE OVIR THINA WÉRA NI KVMA TO LÉTANE / you ought to let come

29. [161/11] 16c.
THÀN ACHST THV TO NJODANE TILTHJU (...) / you ought to urge

30. [195/12] 19a. unknown abt. Askar
THÉRVMBE ÁGON WI TO NJVDANE THAT (...) / we ought to urge

31. [197/16] 19a.
ALSA ÁGON THA KNÁPA (...) ÀFTERWÉIN TO LÉTANE / young-men ought to leave/let