22 May 2019

Auxiliary SKILUN

Although the following N-European varieties are all obviously cognates, they are not all used in the same way:
  • shall - English (mostly deontic modality; in past tense also epistemic)
  • sille - Frisian (mostly future tense; English: will)
  • zullen - Dutch (mostly future tense)
  • sollen - German (mostly deontic modality; also epistemic?)
  • skola - Swedish (presens all 'skall'; preteritum all 'skulle'; perfect 'skolat'; can also mean to school)

FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK SKIL I shall ich soll ik zal ik sil
THV SKILST you ,, du sollst jij zult do silst
ER SKIL he ,, er soll hij zal hy sil
WI SKILUN we ,, wir sollen wij zullen wy sille
I SKILE* you ,, ihr sollt jullie zullen/ u zult jo ,,
HJA SKILUN they ,, sie sollen zij zullen hja ,,

* only once in samples

FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK SKOL(D(E)) I should ich sollte ik zou ik soe
- you ,, du solltest jij ,, do soest
ER SKOLDE* he ,, er sollte hij ,, hy soe
WI SKOLDON we ,, wir sollten wij zouden wy soene(n)
I SKOLDE** you ,, ihr solltet jullie zouden/ u zoudt jo ,,
HJA SKOLDE*** they ,, sie sollten zij zouden hja ,,

* SKOLD in 4 out of 31 cases
** only once
*** SKOLDON in 3 out of 17 cases

In the samples, some of the verbs most often supported by SKILUN are:
  • 16x WERTHA (become)
  • 14x KVMA (come)
  • 8x HÀVA (have) 
  • 8x WÉSA (be)
  • 6x LÉTA (let)
  • 4x BILÍWA (remain, stay; Dutch/ German: blijven/ bleiben)
  • 4x NIMMA (take; Dutch/ German: nemen/ nehmen)

21 May 2019

Sample definition for database noun-verb units

In order to study verbs, grammar and syntax of the various texts within the Oera Linda-book, a database is being created, consisting of all basic sentences (incl. dependent clauses) in various samples (currently together 41% of the whole OLB). All samples have a length between 4,200 and 5,900 characters (spaces and periods excluded).

The current samples in the database are:
sample from to
4d 033/22 THÁ NYHELLÉNJA... 039/05 ... AS VNFRÁNA UT
8b12 053/15 ANDA ALDERGÁMVDE... 057/32 ... NÉF INKA NINMER
9a 062/08 563 JÉR NÉI ALDLAND... 068/18 ... NÔSE OMME LÉID
11ab 079/12 HO VSA DÉNAMARKA... 085/11 ... WÁK WÁK WÁK
13e2 108/28 ÉR EN BURCHFÁM... 113/21 ... BY THA STJURAR FÁRE
14ab 113/22 MIN NÔM IS FRÉTHORIK... 118/31 ... LIF TO BIHALDANE
14d1 120/15 NEI THÀT WI... 125/05 ... ÀND WÉPNE FÁRA
14d2 125/05 AMONG THA FÉLO... 130/20 ...N SÉEN HROPA
15b2 136/08 16 WÁRA 100 JÉR... 141/23 ... TVANG VP JRTHA SA
16b1 144/17 NV WIL IK... 150/19 ... IN SIN STÉD KOREN
16c 158/11 THÁ WRALDA BERN... 163/9 ...ÔTHER MANHIS STÁT
16d 163/15 PANGAB THAT IS... 168/19 ... JOW LJUDGÉRT
19bc 198/19 ANT NORTHENDE FON... 204/32 ... ÀND NÉDLIK WÉRE

Example of selecting noun-verb units (noun bold, verb underlined, perfect/infinitive italic):
Noun-verb units:
hellénja andere : sing. past
hi helpth hügja : sing. present / inf.
hja müge fáta : plur. present / inf.
slach dwálth : sing. present
thér frota : plur. present
thér héma : plur. present
vampíra dva : plur. present
Infinites, not part of of noun-verb unit (added in database, but not counted):
forsina, helpane, mákjande, ráwane, sûgane

(note: only the pers. prons. in noun-verb units)
(note: only counted when part of noun-verb unit)

20 May 2019

Different spelling and style of Pangab report

On page 120, Fréthorik Oera Linda introduces the report of Ljudgért, describing how king Alexander hired the service of Frya navigators and how a fleet eventually migrated back from India and Greece to the land of their forefathers (paragraphs 14d1-d2): "Liudgerd, the rear admiral of Wichard, became my ally and later my friend. From his diary I got the following history";

Later, on page 163, Fréthorik's son Koneréd adds a text (par. 16d), suggesting it was written by the same Ljudgért: "Among my father's papers, I found a letter, written by Liudgerd the Gerdman. Omitting some parts which only concern my father, I put the rest to good use here."
However, style and spelling of the two texts are significantly different, which will be demonstrated below.

In the following analysis four samples of text will be compared:
I.  'Pangab' (16d) without introduction: [163/15 PANGAB THAT IS... – 168/19 ... JOW LJUDGÉRT]
II.  'Fleet' (14d1-d2) without introduction: [120/15 NEI THÀT WI... – 130/20 ...N SÉEN HROPA]
III. 'Other': everything else
IV. 'Samples': total of other samples 1ab, 4d, 8b12, 9a, 11ab, 13e2, 14ab, 15b2, 16b1, 16c, 19bc

1) spelling differences and sometimes a common word that does not exist anywhere else in the OLB (WELKE/-A):

2) relative to number of basic sentences (units), I. 'Pangab' has of all samples:
  • lowest nr. of personal pronouns: 24% (II. 'Fleet': 46%; IV. 'Samples': 36%)
  • lowest nr. verbs in past tense: 1,6% (II: 84%; IV: 61%)
  • lowest nr. verbs in singular: 34% (II: 68%; IV: 61%)
  • lowest nr. verb + infinitive: 13% (II: 28%; 24%)
[graphics showing deviation from average of samples will be added]
[discussion will be added]

Perfect WÉSA varieties

table with number of occurrances in the whole manuscript
The new database of verbs in the Oera Linda-book makes possible stylistic varieties between its various texts more easily distinguishable. The following is an example of an exploration that was inspired by such a variety.

The perfect of WÉSA (to be) has two varieties in the Oera Linda-book: WÉST (as in Dutch and Frisian is geweest/ haw west) and WÉSEN (as in German: ist gewesen) and is combined with a conjugation of WÉSA (as in Dutch and German: ist gewesen/ is geweest) in 25/37 = 68% of the cases, with a conjugation of HÀVA (as in English and Frisian: has been/ haw west) in 12/37 = 32% of the cases.

Summary use of perfect-WÉSA:

Authors who (deliberately?) used a different perfect for singular vs. plural:
  • 13e1/e2 - Apollonia: sing. IS WÉST (2x) vs. plur. SEND WÉSEN; however, she was inconsequent twice: sing. HÉD WÉST and plur. WÉRON WÉST
  • 14d1/d2 - Liudgerd 1*: sing. HÉDE WÉST (2x) vs. plur. HÉDE WÉSEN
  • 16b1/b2/b3 - Conrad: sing. WAS WÉST(3x) vs. plur. WÉRON WÉSEN; however, he was inconsequent once: plur. HÉDE WÉST

* the other text attributed to Liudgerd (16d) was clearly written in a different style.

Authors with more than one, and consequent use:
  • 1b/c - Adela and helpers: (2x), WÉRE, WAS, IS (3x) WÉSEN (all sing.)

Authors with inconsequent use:
  • 8b1/c - Treasureburg: WAS, WÉRE WÉST vs. HÉDE WÉST (all sing.)
  • 13b1 - Bruno: HÉDE, IS WÉST / HÉDED, IS WÉSEN (all sing.)
  • 13e2 - Apollonia (see above)
  • 16b3 - Conrad (see above)

Authors with only one use:
  • B. Liko: HÀV WÉST
  • 9a1 - Walhallagara: IS WÉST
  • 12 - Adelbrost: IS WÉST
  • 13b3 - ode (by Bruno?): IS WÉST
  • 13d - on writing felt: IS WÉST
  • 14a - Frederick: HÉDE WÉST
  • 16c-1 - intro by unknown: HÉDE WÉST
  • 16c-2 - Gosa: SEND WÉST (plur.)
  • 18 - RikaHÀVON WÉST (plur.)
  • 19b - unknown: WAS WÉST
Oera Linda fragments (in order of appearance )

[00b] B - Liko
[001] 1b - Adela
[001] 1b - Adela
[003] 1b - Adela
[004] 1b - Adela
[005] 1c - helpers Adela
[005] 1c - helpers Adela
[005] 1c - helpers Adela
[053] 8b1 - Treasureburg
[055] 8b1 - Treasureburg
[060] 8c - Treasureburg
[064] 9a1 - Walhallagara
[089] 12 - Adelbrost
[091] 13b1 - Bruno
[091] 13b1 - Bruno
[092] 13b1 - Bruno
[092] 13b1 - Bruno
[095] 13b3 - ode (by Bruno?)
[105] 13d - on writing felt
[108] 13e1 - Apollonia
[108] 13e1 - Apollonia
[109] 13e2 - Apollonia
[109] 13e2 - Apollonia
[111] 13e2 - Apollonia
[116] 14a - Frederick
[123] 14d1 - Liudgerd 1*
[124] 14d1 - Liudgerd 1*
[127] 14d2 - Liudgerd 1*
[145] 16b1 - Conrad
[146] 16b1 - Conrad
[148] 16b1 - Conrad
[154] 16b2 - Conrad
[156] 16b3 - Conrad
[157] 16c-1 - intro by unknown
[161] 16c-2 - Gosa
[190] 18 - Rika
[201] 19b - unknown (Askar age)

19 May 2019

Auxiliaries HÀVE, WÉSA, WRDA

The three main verbs used as auxiliaries to support a perfect are (with English/ German/ Dutch/ Frisian version):
  • 44% HÀVA* - have/ haben/ hebben/ hawwe
  • 42% WÉSA - be/ sein/ zijn/ wêze
  • 14% WRDANE/ WERTHANE - become/ werden/ worden/ wurde
* infinitive also HÀVE, HÁ, HÀ

This is only a first exploration. More details and conclusions will be provided later.
Notes about personal pronouns: ER and HI are both used for 'he', often shortened as R aresp. I; K is short for IK. HJU is used for 'she'. Next to THV and J, also I and JO(W) are used; WI is also spelled WY. THV is often left out or merged, for example: HETHSTE, WILSTV, MOSTV, ACHSTV, SKILSTV etc.

1. HÀVA 
a) conjugation (present):
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK HÀV I have ich habe ik heb ik haw
THV HÀST* you have du hast jij hebt do hast
ER HETH he has er hat hij heeft hy hat
WI HÀVE** we have wir haben wij hebben wy hawwe
J HÀWETH*** you ,, ihr habt jullie ,, / u heeft jo ,,
HJA HÀVON**** they ,, sie haben zij ,, hja ,,

*** only once / possibly, there is no separate plural of 2nd person: sing. and plur. are the same?
**** also HÀVE

b) conjugation (past):
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK HÉD(E)* I had ich hatte ik had ik hie
THV -** you ,, du hattest jij ,, do hiest
ER HÉDE he ,, er hatte hij ,, hy hie
WI HÉDE*** we ,, wir hatten wij hadden wy hienen
J - ** you ,, ihr hattet jullie ,, / u had jo ,,
HJA HÉDE**** they ,, sie hatten zij ,, hja ,,

* only once in combination HÉD.IK which may be short for HÉDE IK.
** no data available, see note at a)
*** sometimes HÉDON
**** HÉDE 59%, HÉDON 41%

c) perfect:
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
HÉDE HÁN/ HAT* has had hat gehabt heeft gehad haw hân

* both only once

d) imperative:
Not in samples (English: have/ German: hab(t)/ Dutch: heb(t)/ Frisian: ha)

2. WÉSA 
a) conjugation (present):
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK BEN* I am ich bin ik ben ik bin
THV BIST** you are du bist jij bent do bist
ER IS he is er ist hij is hy is
WI SEND we are wir sind wij zijn wy binne
- you ,, ihr seid jullie ,, / u zijt jo ,,
HJA SEND*** they ,, sie sind zij ,, hja ,,

* also BIN, SÍ (both 2 out of 8)
** or BISTE (3 out of 6)
*** SIND in text 16d
italic: archaic

b) conjugation (past):
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK WAS/ WÉRE I was ich war ik was ik wie
- * you were du warst jij ,, do wiest
ER WAS/ WÉRE he was er war hij ,, hy wie
WI WÉRON** we were wir waren wij waren wy wienen
- * you ,, ihr wart jullie ,, / u waart jo ,,
HJA WÉRON** they ,, sie waren zij ,, hja ,,

* no data
** sometimes WÉRE

c) perfect:
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
has been ist gewesen is geweest haw west

* WÉSEN (6 out of 19) /conj. HÀVE: (6 out of 19)

d) imperative:
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian

be sei(d) wees(t) wês

a) conjugation (no clear distiction between present and past?):
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK WRD - ich werde/ wurde ik word/ werd ik wurd/ waard
- - du werdest/ wurdest jij wordt/ ,, do wurdst/ ,,
ER WÀRTH/ WRDE - er wird/ wurde hij ,,/ ,, hy wurdt/ ,,
WI - wir werden/ wurden wij worden/ werden wy wurde/ waarden
- - ihr werdet/ wurdet jullie ,,/ ,, jo ,,/ ,,

- sie werden/ wurden zij ,,/ ,, hja ,,/ ,,

b) perfect: 
IS WRDEN (German: ist geworden/ Dutch: is geworden/ Frisian: is wurden)

~ ~ ~

Variety of conjugation between the samples will later be explored.

20 April 2019

Phoenicians, Tyrians, 'Gools'

The Oera Linda-book has many references to Phoenicians, Tyrians and Gools (GOLA/-UM, GVLUM), who are defined as 'missionary priests of Sidon' and are also called 'druids' (fragments 8c and 12). Gool might be related to Gaul, Gael, Galli-priests and Gaal Sciot Ib-eir. I have decided to translate GOL as Gool here, based on the probable sound, conform POL - pool, FOL - full, WOL - wool and JOL - yule.

(theme: fragment nrs.)
  • language and script: 6, 16b2, 16c
  • migration: 8b3, 8c, 9b, 9c
  • trade: 8b3, 8c, 9a2, 19b, 19e
  • power takeover: 8c, 9a1, 9a3, 12, 19a, 19b
  • conflict, war & pirating: 9b, 9c, 14d1, 14d2, 16b1, 19a, 19b, 19c, 19e, 19f
  • abuse of women & children: 8c, 9c, 13b3, 19f

Summary of relevant information in the below fragments.

6. Script - Tyrians are listed as descendants of Finda ('yellow' root race), together with Finns and Greeks. These three peoples would have derived their scripts from the Fryas, ever more changing them in order to keep their writings illegible for the unversed.

8b3. Migration/ trade - (ca. 2000 BCE) Tunis and his crew arrive at the Phoenician coast and build Tyr's Burg. Trade route is opened (import: ships, iron weapons, amber; export: wine, honey, leather products among which horse gear), limited to seven ships per year.

8c. Invasion/ migration - Marseille becomes Tyrian and becomes the gate through which France is colonised by 'Gools': Sidon's missionary priests, later known as druids. Their merchants trade fancy copper weapons and jewelry for Fryas iron weapons and animal hides. Gradual invasion of southern lands and Britannia through moral corruption and abduction of young women and children.

9a1. Division - (ca. 1630 BCE) Kelta allies with the Sidon-priests, rules through fear and by sorcery; loss of southern lands and Britannia.

9a2. Trade - Export goods (127 ships): amber, tin, copper, iron, cloth, linen, felt, hides/furs, 'writing felt'.

9a3. Brittania - Kelta's rule (from burg Kearenek) is gradually taken over by the Sidon-priests, her followers become slaves.

9b. Migration/ conflict - A conflict between Tyrians and Jon (Ionians) is initiated. Settlement at Athens and Ionian (pirates) Islands.

9c. Migration - (ca. 1550 BCE) Tyrians attack Athens, fleet (84 ships) leaves and moves to Punjab, later joined by 30 ships from Tyre. Tyranian king tries to stop them, but is hindered by earthquake at Red Sea strait.

12. The Gools or Druids have taken control of the lands south of the Scheldt, ca. 600 BCE.

13b3. Anecdote of Phoenician sailors trying to abuse Frya children and being humbled.

14d1. Constant friction between the Ionians and the Phoenicians in Alexanders fleet, ca. 300 BCE. Alexander wanted to be more powerful than Tyrian kings had ever been. Fryas refuse to resettle on Phoenician coast.

14d2. Phoenician crew of Demetrius' battle fleet attacks Friso's fleet.

16b1. Sea wars continue between Fryas and Phoenicians/ Gallo-Kelts (and early version of 'viking' raids?)

16b2. Friso knew language and tricks of the Gools.

16c. Keltic language influenced by Gools (Sidon-priests).

19a. Threat of Gools crossing southern borders and invading Fryasland.

19b. Wars - Gools rule much of Britannia where blood is mixed. Mediterranean south-coast mostly Phoenician who are of mixed blood: conflict with Romans (Punic wars?). Romans took Massilia and southern lands from Phoenicians, who moved to North-Britannia. Kearenek taken from Gools. Plundering of Phoenician ships and cities continues.

19c. Plan to expel Gools from southern lands.

19e. Anecdote of Phoenician goods being plundered, among which purple cloth.

19f. Attempt to reconquer southern lands from the Gools fails.

[translations may be further edited and I intend to add graphics/ maps to visualise the various migrations- this blog post is not ready yet]

Oera Linda fragments (my transliteration & translation)

6. Yule, Script, Numbers [045/24] (Sandbach p. 67)
VNDER HIRA TID HETH FINDA AK EN SKRIFT [25] UTFVNDEN. MEN THAT WÉRE SA HÁGFÁRANDE ÀND FVL MITH FRISLA ÀND KROLUM THAT THA ÀFTERKVMANDA THÉROF THJU BITJVDNESE RING VRLÉREN HÀVE. In her time, Finda also designed a script, but it was so pompous and full of flourishes and curls that her descendants soon lost the meaning of it.
ÀFTERNÉI HÀVON HJA VS SKRIFT LÉRED BINOMA THA FINNA. [30] THA THYRJAR ÀND THA KRÉKA.LANDAR. They later learned our script — specifically the Finns, the Tyrians and the Greeks —
MEN HJA NISTON NAVT GOD THAT ET FON ET JOL MAKAD WAS ÀND THAT.ET THÉRUMBE ALTID SKRÉVEN [046/01] WRDEN MOSTE. MITH SON OM. but they were not well aware that it was based on the Yule and therefore always had to be written sunwise.(1)
THÉRBY WILDON HJA THÀT HJARA SKRIFT VNLÉSBÉR SKOL WÉSA FAR ORA FOLKUM. HWAND HJA HAVATH ALTID HÉMNESA. They also wanted their writing to be illegible to other peoples, as they always have secrets.
THUS TO DVANDE SIND HJA [5] HERDE FON.A WIS RAKATH. THÉR.­MÉTA THAT THA BÀRN THA SKRIFTUN HJARAR ALDRUM AMPER LÉSA EN MÜGA. This way, they very much went astray, to the extent that children could barely read the writings of their elders,
DAHWILE WY VSA ALDER ALDESTA SKRIFTUN ÉVIN RÉD LÉSA MÜGA AS THÉRA THÉR JESTER SKRÉVEN SIND. whereas we can read our most ancient scriptures just as easily as those that were written yesterday.

(1) ‘sunwise’ — We would say: clockwise. On the northern hemisphere, the sun appears to move ‘clockwise’.

8b3. Tunis and the Tyrians [058/19] Sandbach p. 83 
THA TO THA LESTA KÉMON HJA AN TO PHONISIVS [20] KÁD. THAT WÉRE 100 ÀND 93 JÉR NÉI ÁTLAND SVNKEN IS. At last they arrived at the Phoenician coast. That was 193 years after Atland sank [ca. 2000 BCE].
NÉI BI THÉRE KÁD FVNDON HJA EN ÉLAND MITH TWAM DIAPA SLINKA ALSA.T.AS THRJU ÉLANDA UTSACH. Near the coast they found an island with two deep bays so it looked like three islands.
VPP.ET MIDLOSTE THÉRA. STÀLDON HJA HJARA SKULA VP. [25] ÀFTERNÉI BVWADON HJA THÉR EN BURCHWAL OMTO. On the middle one, they established their hideout and later they built a burg wall around it.
AS HJA THÉR AN NW EN NÔME JÉVA WILDE. WRDON HJA VNÉNES. SVME WILDET FRYA.S.BURCH HÉTA. ÔRA NÉF.TÜNJA. When they wanted to give it a name, they became divided. Some wanted to call it Fryasburg, others Nef-Tunia;
MEN THA MAGJARA ÀND THA FINNA BÁDON THÀT [30] SKOLDE THÍR.HIS.BURCH HÉTE. but the Magyars and the Finns pleaded it should be called Tyr's Burg.
THÍR ALSA HÉTON HJA ÉN HJARAR DROCHTENA ÀND VPPA THAM.IS JÉRDÉI WÉRON HJA THÉR [059/01] LAND. Týr was the name of one of their gods and it was on his annual day that they had landed there.
TO WITHER.JELD WILDON HJA TÜNIS ÉVG AS HJARA KÀNING BIKÀNNA. TÜNIS LÉT IM BILÉSA ÀND THA ÔRA NILDON THÉRVR NÉN ORLOCH NE HÁ. In return, they would recognize Tunis as their eternal king. Tunis let himself be persuaded, and the others made no quarrel about it.
THÁ HJA NW GOD SÁTON [5] THÁ SANDON HJA SVME ALDE STJURAR ÀND MÁGJARA ANA WÁL ÀND FORTH NÉI THÉRE BURCH SÍDON. When they were well established, they sent some old steersmen and Magyars ashore and onward to the burg Sidon,
MEN THÀT FORMA NILDON THA KÁD.HÉMAR NAWET FON RA NÉTA. THV BIST FÉR.HÉMANDA SWÀRVAR SÉIDON HJA [10] THÉR WI NAVT HACHTA NE MÜGE. but initially the coast dwellers refused to accept any­thing from them, saying: ‘You are drifters, far from home, whom we cannot associate with.’
THA THÁ WI HJAM FON VSA ÍSERA WÉPNE VRSELLA WILDE GVNG TO LERSTA ELLA GOD. When we offered to sell them our iron weapons, however, it all ended well.
ÁK WÉRON HJA SÉR NY. NÉI VSA BÀRNSTÉNUM ÀND THÀT FRÉJA THÉR NÉI NAM [15] NÉN ENDE. They were also very interested in our amber, and the demand for it was endless.
MEN TÜNIS THÉR FÀRSJANDE WÉRE BÁRDE THAT ER NÉN ÍSERE WÉPNE NER BÀRN.STÉNE MÁR HÉDE. Tunis, who was foreseeing, declared that he had no more iron weapons or amber.
THÁ KÉMON THA KÁP.LJVD ÀND BÁDON HI SKOLDE TWINTICH SKÉPA JÉVA. THÉR HJA ALLE MITH.A [20] FINNESTE WÉRUM TO HRÉDA WILDE. Then the merchants came and urged him to give them twenty ships, which they would all pack with the finest goods,
AND HJA WILDON HIM ALSA FÉLO LJVDA TO ROJAR JÉVE AS.ER JÉRDE. and they would give him as many rowers as he would require.
TWÉLIF SKÉPA LÉT.I.TOHRÉDA MITH WIN HVNING ÀND TO­MÁKAD LÉTHER. He then had twelve ships packed with wine, honey, and leather products,
THÉR BI WÉRON TÀMAR [25] ÀND SITLUN MITH GOLD WRTÉIN SA MÀN HJA NINMER NÉDE SJAN. including bridles and saddles mounted in gold, such as had never been seen before.
MITH AL THI SKÀT FÍL TÜNIS THÀT FLÍ.MAR BINNA. THI GRÉVA.MAN FON WEST.­FLÍ.LAND. WÀRTH THRVCH AL THESSA THINGA BIGÁSTERET. With all this treasure, Tunis sailed into the Flee Lake. The reeve of West Fleeland was so impressed with all these goods,
[30] HI WROCHTE THAT TÜNIS BI THÉRE MVDE FON.T.FLÍ.MAR EN LOGE BVWA MÁCHTE. that he arranged that Tunis could build a warehouse at the mouth of the Flee Lake.
ÀFTERNÉI IS THJU STÉD [060/01] ALMANA.LAND HÉTEN ÀND THA MARK THÉR HJA ÀFTERNÉI TO WÍRING.GÁ VP WANDELJA MACHTON TOLÉT.MARK. This place would later be known as Almanland, and the market at Wieringen, where they could subsequently trade, Toletmark.
THJU MODER RÉDE THAT WI RA ELLA VRKÁPJA SKOLDE. BUTA ÍSERE [5] WÉPNE. MEN MÀN NE MELDE HJA NAVT. The mother insisted that we should sell them anything except iron weapons, but she was ignored.
THÁ THA THÍRJAR THUS FRY SPEL HÉDON. KÉMON HJA ÁLAN WITHER. TO FARAND VSA WÉRON SÁ HÉINDE AS FÉRE VSA AJN SÉ.KÀMPAR TO SKÁDNE. As the Tyrians thus had a free hand, they kept coming, transporting our goods near and far, to the detriment of our own sea warriors.
THÉR­ÀFTER IS BISLOTEN VPPER [10] MÉNA ACHT. JÉRLIKES SJVGUN THÍRJAR SKÉPA TO TO LÉTANE ÀND NAVT MÁR. It was subsequently decided at a general assembly to tolerate no more than seven Tyrian ships per year.

8c. The Idolatrous Gools [060/12] Sandbach p. 85
HWAT THÉR.OF WRDEN IS. What has become of these things:
INNER NORTHLIKSTE HERNE FON THA MIDDEL.SÉ. THÉR LÉID EN É.LAND BY THÉRE KÁD. [15] NW KÉMON HJA THÀT A KÁP TO FRÉJANDE. In the northernmost corner of the Middle Sea lies an island near the coast. The Tyrians now came and asked to buy it,
THÉRVR WÀRTH ENE MÉNA ACHT BILÉID. MODER.IS RÉD WÀRTH WNNEN. MEN MODER SACH RA LÍAST FÉR OF. for which a general assembly was called. The mother's advice was sought and she preferred them to be far away.
THÉRVMBE MÉNDE HJU THAT ER NÉN KWÁ AN STEK. [20] THACH AS WI AFTERNÉI SÁGON HO WI MISDÉN HÉDE HÀVON WI THAT ÉLAND MIS.SELLJA HÉTEN. She therefore thought it would not harm us, but as we later saw what a mistake we had made, we called the island ‘Missellia’ (Massilia*) — mis-sold.
HIR ÀFTER SKIL BLIKA HO WI THÉR TO RÉDE HÉDE. The following will explain what reason we had for this.
THA GOLA. ALSA HÉTON. THA SÀNDALINGA.PRESTERA SÍDON.IS. The Gools,(1) as the missionary priests of Sidon were called,
[25] THA GOLA HÉDON WEL SJAN THET ET LAND THÉR SKÀRES BIFOLKAD WAS ÀND FÉR FON THÉR MODER WÉRE. were well aware that the surrounding land was scarcely populated and far from the mother's reach.
VMB IRA SELVA NW EN GODE SKIN TO JÉVANE. LÉTON HIA RA SELVA IN VSA TÁL AN.A.TROW [30] E.WÍDENA HÉTA. In order to create the illusion that they were benign, they made themselves be known in our language as ‘Tro-wids’ (druids) — devotees to truth and loyalty —
MEN THAT WÉRE BÉTRE WÉST. AS HJA RA SELVA FON THÉRE TROW E.WENDENA NÒMATH HÉDE. but it would have been better if they would have called themselves deviants from truth and loyalty,
JEFTA [061/01] KIRT WÉI TRJV.WENDNE LIK VSA STJÛRAR LÉTER DÉN HÀVE. or in short ‘Tro-wends’, as our steersmen later said.
THÁ HJA WEL SÉTON WÉRON THÁ WANDELDON HJARA KÁP.LJUDA SKÉNE KÁPRE WÉPNE ÀND ALLERLÉJA SÍRHÉDON When they were well established, their merchants traded fancy copper weapons and all kinds of jewelry
TOFARA VSA ÍSERE [5] WÉPNE ÀND WILDE DIARA HUDA. WÉR FON IN VSA SÛDER.LANDA FÉLO TO BIKVMA WÉRON. for our iron weapons and hides of wild animals, which were plentiful in our southern lands.
MEN THA GOLA FÍRADON ALLERHÁNA WLA DROCHTEN LIKA FÉRSTA ÁND TO TÍANDE THA KÁDHÉMAR THÉRA The Gools, however, celebrated various vile idolatrous rites, attracting the coast dwellers
THRVCH TODVAN HJARAR [10] HORIGA MAN'­GHÉRTNE ÀND THA SWÉT.HÉD FON HJARA FININNIGE WIN. with their whorish girls and the sweetness of their poisonous wine.
WAS THÉR HWA FON VS FOLK THÉR.ET ALSA ÀRG VRBRUD HÉDE THAT SIN LIF IN FRÉSE KÉM If one of our folk had committed such a bad offense that his life was in danger,
THAN LÉNADON THA GOLA HIM HUL ÀND SKUL ÀND FORADON [15] HIM NÉI PHONISJA. THÀT IS PALM.LAND. the Gools afforded him refuge and shelter, and lead him to Phoenicia — that is Palmland.
WAS HI THÉR SÉTEN THAN MOST.I AN SINA SIBBA ÀND FRIANDA ÀND ÁTHA SKRIWA When he was settled there, they made him write his family, friends and allies
THAT.ET LAND SÁ GOD WÉRE ÀND THA MÀNNISKA SÁ LUKLIK AS NINMÀN HIN SELVA MOCHT FORBYLDE. that the land was so good and the people so happy that no one could imagine it.
[20] A BRITTANJA WÉRON RJU FÉLO MANNA THA LITH WIVA. In Britannia were plenty of men, but few women.
THÁ THA GOLA THAT WISTON. LÉTON HJA ALWÉIS MAN'GHÉRTNE SKÁKA ÀND THESSA JAVON HJA THA BRITNE VMB NAWET. When the Gools realized this, they abducted girls from everywhere and gave them to the banished men for nothing.
THACH AL THISSA MAN'GHÉRTNE WÉRON [25] HJARA THJANSTERUM All of these girls, however, had become servants of the Gools,
THÉR THA BERN FON WR.ALDA STOLON VMBAR AN HJARA FALSKE DROCHTNE TO JÉVANE. and stole the children from Wralda to offer them to their false gods.

* Ottema 1878 (p.20) refers to Stephanos Peri Poleon for alternative etymology of Massilia - see appenix below.
(1) ‘Gools’ (GOLA, elsewhere also GOLUM; GVLUM and singular GOL are both used only once) — possibly related to both Gauls and Gaels. Compare ‘Gaal Sciot Iber’ in Chronicles of Eri (1822) by Roger O’Connor.

9a1. The War of Kelta and Minerva, ca. 1630 BCE [061/28] Sandbach p. 87
NW WILLATH WI SKRIWA VR THA ORLOCH THÉRA BURCH.FÁMNA [30] KÀLTA ÀND MIN.ERVA Now we will write about the war of the burg maidens Kelta and Minerva
AND HO WI THÉR THRVCH AL VSA SÛDER LANDA ÀND BRITTANJA ANDA GOLA VRLÉREN HAVE. and how we thereby lost all our southern lands and Britannia to the Gools.
[...] [063/14] ...
AS KÀLTA SACH THÀT ER WÀRK FALIKANT [15] UT KÉM. TO GVNG HJU FON KWAD TO ÀRGER. When Kelta saw that her scheme failed, she went from bad to worse.
STOLKES LÉT HJU MÁGJARA TO HJRI KVMA VMBE TÁWERY TO LÁRANE. She secretly invited Magyars to come and teach sorcery,
AS HJU THÉR HJRA NOCHT FON HÉDE WERPTE HJU HJRA SELVA ANDA ÀRMA THÉRA [20] GOLUM. and when she thought she had learned enough from them, she threw herself into the arms of the Gools.
THACH FON AL THI MISDÉDON NE MACHT HJU NAVT BÉTRE NE WRDE All these misdeeds did not improve her position though.
AS HJU SACH THAT THA STJURAR MÁR ÀND MÁR FON JRI WÉKE THA WILDE HJU RA THRVCH FRÉSE WINNA. When she realized that the steersmen shunned her ever more, she tried to win them back through fear.
WAS [25] THA MÔNE FVL ÀND THENE SÉ VNSTUMICH THAN HLIP HJU OVER ET WILDE HEF. THA STJURAR TO HROPANDE THAT HJA ALLE SKOLDE VRGÁN SAHWERSA HJA HJRI NAVT ANBIDDA NILDE. At full moon, when the sea was stormy, she walked the wild waves, shouting at the steersmen that they would all perish if they did not worship her.
FORTH VRBLINDE [30] HJU HJRA ÁGUN HWÉRTHRVCH HJA WÉTER FORI LAND ÀND LAND FORI WÉTER HILDON. THÉRTHRVCH IS MÁNI SKIP VRGVNGEN [064/01] MITH MÀN ÀND MÛS. She also blinded their eyes so that they mistook land for water and water for land, causing many a ship to be lost with crew and cargo.*(1)

(1) ‘crew and cargo’ — lit.: ‘man and mouse’.
* As Ottema 1878 (p.21) pointed out, this subtly resonates with Pomponius Mela, book 3: see appendix.

9a2. Jon’s Revenge [065/20] (fragment included because trading goods are listed) Sandbach p. 92
JON THÀT IS JÉVA. WAS SÉ.KÀNING. BERN TO.T.ALDER.GÁ. TO.T.FLÍ.MÁR UTFÁREN MITH 100 ÀND 27 SKÉPUM. Jon — that is given — was a sea king, born at Alderga, who had sailed out of the Flee Lake with a hundred and twenty-seven ships,
TOHRÉTH FÁR EN GRÁTE BUTA RÉIS. RIK TO LÉDEN MITH BÀRNSTÉN. [25] TIN. KÁPER. ÍSER. equipped for a great sea voyage, richly laden with amber, tin, copper, iron,
LÉKEN. LINNENT. FILT. FÁMNA.­FILT FON OTTER. BÉVER ÀND KANINA.HÉR. cloth, linen, felt, and maidens felt made of otter, beaver, and rabbit fur.
NW SKOLDER FON HIR JETA SKRIF.FILT MITH NIMMA. He was also going to take writing felt from here,

9a3. Kelta and the Gools [067/09] Sandbach p. 95
KÀLTA THÉR NÉI.T SEZE. ÉVEN.BLÍD VPPET WÉTER [10] AS VPPET LAND HLÁPA MACHTE. GVNG NÉI THA FÀSTA WÁL. ÀND FORTH VPPA MIS.SELLJA OF. Kelta, who allegedly could walk as easily on water as on land, went to the mainland and on to Massilia.
THÁ KÉMON THA GOLA MITH HJARA SKÉPUM UT.A MIDDEL.SÉ KÁDIK BIFÁRA ÀND ÉL VS UTER.LAND. Then the Gools came with their ships, sailing from the Middle Sea to Kaedik (Gadir) and all of our outer lands.
FORTH FÍLON HJA VP ÀND O.VER [15] BRITTANNJA THACH HJA NE MACHTON THÉR NÉN FÀSTA FOT NE KRÉJA. Next they overran Britannia, but they could not get a good foothold there,
VMBE THÀT THA SJVRDA WELDICH ÀND THA BANNALINGA JETA FRYA.S WÉRON. because the stewards had authority and the banished were still Fryas.
MEN NV KÉM KÀLTA ÀNDE KÉTH. THV BIST FRY.BERN ÀND VMBE LITHA LÉKA HETH MÀN [20] THI TO VRWURPENE MÁKAD. But now Kelta came and spoke: ‘You were free-born, but for minor flaws they turned you into outcasts;
NAVT VMBE THI TO BÉTERJA. MEN VMBE TIN TO WINNANDE THRVCH THINA HANDA. not to better you, but to obtain tin through your hands.
WILST WÉR FRY WÉSA ÀND VNDER MINA RÉD ÀND HODA LÉVA. TJAN UT THEN. If you wish to be free again, and live under my counsel and care, then pull out!
WÉPNE SKILUN THI WRDA. ÀND IK [25] SKIL WÁKA O.ER THI. You will get weapons and I will watch over you.’
LIK BLIXEN.FJVR GVNG.ET O.ERA A.LANDA. ÀND ÉR THES KRODER.S JOL ÉNIS OMHLÁPEN HÉDE. This went over the lands like lightning, and before the Carrier's Yule had made one turn,
WAS HJU MÁSTERINE OVER ALGADUR ÀND THA THÍRJAR FON AL VSA SUDER STÁTA TIL [30] THÉRE SÉJENE. she was mistress over all of them and the Tyrians of all our southern states up to the Seine.
VMBE THÀT KÀLTA HJRA SELVA NAVT TO FÜL BITROWADE. LÉT HJU INET NORTHLIKA BERCH.LAND ÉNE BURCH [068/01] BVWA. Because Kelta did not feel secure enough, she had a burg built in the northern mountainous land,
KÀLTA.S BURCH WARTH HJU HÉTEN. HJU IS JET ANWÉSA. MEN NV HÉT HJU KÉREN.ÀK. which was named Kelta's Burg. It still exists, but now it is known as Kearenek.(1)
FON OF THJUS BURCH WELDE HJU LIK EN EFTE MODER. NAVT TO WILLE FÁR. MEN OVER [5] HJRA FOLGAR ÀND THAM HJARA SELVA FORTH KÀLTANA HÉTON. From this burg she ruled like a legitimate mother, not for, but over her followers, who thenceforth named themselves Kelts.(2)
MEN THA GOLA WELDON BÍGRÁDON OVER ÉL BRITTANJA In reality, the Gools gradually took control over all of Britannia;
THÀT KÉM ÉNIS DÉLIS. THAT HJU NÉN MAR BURGA NÉDE. TWÍAS THAT HJU THÉR NÉN BURCH.­FÁMNA [10] NÉDE firstly, because the Kelts did not have more burgs, secondly, because they had no burg maidens there,
ÀND THRÍAS THRVCHDAM HJU NÉN EFTE FODDIK NAVT NÉDE. THRVCH AL THESSA ÉRSÉKA KVN HJRA FOLK NAVT NI LÉRA. and thirdly, because they had no proper lamp. As a result of all this, her folk could not learn.
THÀT WRDE DVM ÀND DOR ÀND WRDE ENDELIK THRVCH THA GOLA FON AL HIRA ÍSERA WÉPNE [15] BIRAWATH They became dull and arid, were eventually robbed of all their iron weapons by the Gools,
ÀND TO THÀT LESTA. LIK EN BUHL BY THÉRE NÔSE OMME LÉID. and were finally led about like a bull with a ring in his nose.

(1) ‘ Kearenek’ (KÉREN.ÀK) — name seems related to ‘Carnac’ (Breton: ‘Karnag’), but that is in north-western France.
(2) ‘Kelts’ (KÀLTANA)

9b. Jon and Minerva Resettle [068/22] Sandbach p. 97
THÁ JON ANTHA MIDDEL.SÉ KÉM WAS THEN MÁRA THÉRA GOLA HIN VRAL FÁRUT GVNGEN When Jon reached the Middle Sea, the reports of the Gools had preceded him every­where,
ALSA HI AN THÉRE KÁD [25] FON THA HÉINDA KRÉKA.LANDA NARNE FÉLICH NÉRE. so that he was not safe anywhere on the coast of the near Greeklands.
HI STEK THUS MITH SINUM FLÁTE NÉI LYDJA. THAT IS. LYDA HIS.LAND. THÉR WILDON THA SWARTA MÀNNISKA FÁTA HJAM ÀND ÉTA. He therefore crossed over with his fleet to Lydia, that is Lydasland. There, the black people wanted to capture and eat them.
TO THA LESTA KÉMON HJA ET THÍR.HIS. MEN [30] MIN.ERVA SÉIDE HALD OF HWAND HIR IS THJU LOFT ÔLANGNE VRPEST THRVCH THA PRESTERA. At last they arrived at Tyre, but Minerva said: ‘Keep off, for the air has long been contaminated by the priests.’
[069/01] THI KÀNING WAS FON TÜNIS OFSTAMED. SÁ WI LÉTER HÉRDON. MEN TILTHJU THA PRESTERA EN KÀNING WILDE HÀVE THÉR ALDERLANGNE NÉI HJARA BIGRIP WÉRE ALSA HÉDE HJA TÜNIS [5] TO EN GODE VPHÉJAD. TO ÀRGNISSE SINRA FOLGAR. The king was a descendant of Tunis, as we heard later, but since the priests wanted to have a king who was entirely under their control, they had elevated Tunis to a god,* to the annoyance of his followers.
AS HJA NV THÍR ÀFTER BEK WÉRE. KÉMON THA THÍRJAR EN SKIP UTA ÀFTE.­HODA RÁWA. When they had thus left Tyre, the Tyrians came and seized one of the rearmost ships.
NÉIDAM THAT SKIP TO FÉR WAS KVNDON WI.T.NAVT WITTER.­WINA. MEN JON SWOR WRÉKA THÉRVR. As the ship was too far behind, we could not get it back again, but Jon swore to take revenge.
[10] THÁ NACHT KÉM KÉRDE JON NÉI THA FÉRE KRÉKALANDUM. By nightfall, Jon set course for the distant Greeklands.
TO LESTEN KÉMON HJA BY EN LAND THÀT BJUSTRE SKRÍL UT.SA. MEN HJA FONDON THÉR EN HAVES MVDA. At last they arrived at a land that seemed very barren, but they found the entrance to a haven there.
HIR SÉIDE MIN.ERVA SKIL BY SKIN NÉN FRÉSE TOFARA FORSTUM [15] NACH PRESTERUM NÉDICH WÉSA NÉIDAM HJA ALGADUR FETA ETTA MINNA. ‘Here’, Minerva said, ‘we might not have to fear princes or priests, for they are only interested in rich fat lands.’
THACH THÁ HJA INNER HAVE HLIPON FONTH MÀN HJA NAVT RUM NOCH VMBE ALLE SKÉPA TO BISLÛTA. ÀND THACH WÉRON MÉST ALLE [20] TO LOF VMBE WIDER TO GANE. When they entered the haven though, it turned out to be too small for all the ships, but almost all crew members were too tired to set sail again.
ALSA GVNG JON THÉR FORTH WILDE MITH SIN SPÉR ÀND FÔNE THAT JONGK.FOLK TO HROPANDE HWA WILLINGLIK BI.M SKÁRA WILDE. Then Jon, who wanted to go on, went with his spear and banner, calling the young folk that would volunteer to join him.
MIN.ERVA THÉR BILIWA WILDE DÉDE ALSA. [25] THAT GRÁTESTE DÉL GVNG NÉI MIN.ERVA MEN THA JONGGOSTE STJURAR GVNGON BI JON. Minerva who wanted to stay there, did likewise. The majority joined Minerva, but the youngest steersmen went to Jon.
JON NAM THÉRE FODDIK FON KÀLTA ÀND HJRA FÁMNA MITHA. ÀND MIN.ERVA HILD HJRA AJN FODDIK ÀND HJRA AJN FÁMNA. Jon took Kelta's lamp and maidens with him, and Minerva kept her own lamp and maidens.
[30] BITWISKA THA FÉRUM ÀND HEINDA.KRÉKA.LANDUM FAND JON SVMA É.LANDA THÉR IM LIKTE. Between the distant and the near Greeklands, Jon found some islands that pleased him.
VPPET GRÁTESTE GVNG.ER [070/01] INNA THA WALDA TWISK THÀT BERCHTA EN BURCH BVWA. On the largest he built a burg in the woods between the mountains.
FONUTA LITHA É.LANDA GVNGER UT WRÉKA THA THÍRJAR SKÉPA AND LANDA BIRÁWA. From the small islands, he went plundering Tyrian ships and lands, out of revenge.
THÉRVMBE SEND THA É.LANDA EVIN [5] BLÍD RÁWER É.LANDA AS JON.HIS É.LANDA HÉTEN. Therefore, the islands are called both Pirates' Islands and Jon's (Ionian) Islands.

* Ottema 1878 (p.23) refers to Melquart, the tutilary god of Tyre; also referred to as Tyrian Hercules - Tunis would have 'opened' the strait of Gibraltar to the Phoenicians, introducing them to the Atlantic Ocean, hence Pillars of Hercules - they would have named one of their oldest colonies on the N-Afr. coast Tunes after him. Raubenheimer 2011 (p.113) paraphrases Anthony Radford: "... it would have been unlikely for the Phoenicians to have become a sea faring nation of note without hard European oak and riverside building facilities. The quantity and quality of the Lebanon cedars would not have sufficed. It must be borne in mind that they not only acquired ships for themselves, but also sold large numbers to the Egyptians. The Oera Linda Book’s account of how they obtained these, and the skills, from the sea kings and ship builders from the Rhine, seems credible." Note also that Neptune in the Odyssey (book 13) names the Phaeacians (who were known to possess remarkable ships) his own 'flesh and blood'.

9c. The Gerdmen Move to Punjab [073/06] Sandbach p. 103
AN ÉGIPTALÁNDA THÉR WÉRE EN OVER.PRESTER. HEL FON ÁGNUM. KLÁR FON BRYN ÀND LICHT FON GÁST. There was a high priest in the Egyptian lands, bright of eyes, clear of brain, and enlightened of mind.
SIN NÁM WÉRE SÉKROPS. HY [10] KÉM VMB RÉD TO JÉVANE. His name was Cecrops. He came to give advice.
AS SÉKROPS SACH THAT ER MITH SINUM LJVDA VSA WAL NAVT BIRUNNA NE KV. THÁ SAND HI BODON NÉI THYR.HIS. When Cecrops saw that he could not surround our wall with his men, he sent messengers to Tyre.
ÀFTERNÉI KÉMON ER THRJU HVNDRED SKIPUN FVL SALT.ATHA [15] FON THA WILDE BERCHFOLKUM Thereupon, three hundred ships arrived full of mercenaries from the wild mountain-peoples,(3)
VNWARLINGA VSA HÁVA BIFÁRA DAHWILA WY MITH ALLEMANNUN VPPA WALLUM TO STRÍDANDE WÉRON. who unexpectedly sailed into our harbor while we were fighting on the walls with all of our men.
DRÉI AS HJA THJU HÁVA INNOMTH HÉDE. WILDON THA WILDA [20] SALT.ÁTHA THAT THORP ÀND VSA SKIPA BIRAWA. As soon as they had taken our harbor, the wild mercenaries wanted to plunder the village and our ships.
ÉN SALT.ÁTHE HÉDE AL EN BUKJA SKÀND. One of them had already defiled a girl.
MEN SÉKROPS NILDE THAT NAVT NE HÀNGJA. ÀND THA THÍRJAR STJÛRAR THÉR JETA FRYA.S BLOD INT [25] LIF HÉDE SÉIDON Cecrops would not tolerate that, however, and the Tyrian steersmen, who still had Frya's blood in their veins, said:
ASTE THAT DÉISTE SÁ SKILUN WI THA RÁDE.HÔNE IN VSA SKYPA STÉKA ÀND THV NE SKILST THINA BERGA NA WITHER A.SIA. ‘If you do that, we will set fire to our ships and you shall never see your mountains again.’
SÉKROPS THAM NAVT NE HILDE NI FON [30] MORTHJA NOR FON HOMMELJA SAND BODON NÉI GÉRT VMBIR THA BURCH OF TO ASKJA. Cecrops, who did not like murder and destruction, sent messengers to Gerda, claiming the burg.
HJU MACHTE FRYA UT.TOCHTE [074/01] HÁ. MITH AL HJRA DRÍWANDE AND BÉRANDE HÀVA. HJRA FOLGAR ALSA FÜL. She could have free departure, with all her floating and movable assets, and her followers the same.
THA WISTA THÉRA BURCH.HÉRUM ÉL GOD SIANDE THAT HJA THA BURCH NAVT HALDA [5] NE KVNDE The wisest of the burg lords, who saw very well that they could not hold the burg,
RÉDEN GÉRT HJU SKOLDE GÁW TO BITTA. BIFARA SÉKROPS WODIN WRDE ÀND OVER BIGVNDE. advised Gerda to quickly accept the offer, before Cecrops became furious and started all over.
THRÉ MONATHA ÀFTER BRÛDE GÉRT HINNE MITH THA ALDERBESTE FRYAS­BERN ÀND [10] SJUGUN WARA TWILF SKYPUN. Three months later, Gerda evacuated with the most supreme Children of Frya and seven times twelve ships.
THÁ HJA EN STÛT BUTA THÉRE HAVE WÉRON KÉMON THÉR WEL THRITICH SKÉPUN FON THÍRHIS MITH WIF ÀND BERN. Some time after they had left the harbor, no less than thirty ships approached from Tyre, with women and children,
HJA WILDE NÉI ATHENJA GÁ. THA AS HJA [15] HÉRDON HO.T THÉR ESKÉPEN STANDE GVNGON HJA MITH GÉRT. on their way to Athena. When they heard how things stood there, however, they joined Gerda.
THI WÉT.KING THÉRA THÍRJAR BROCH ALGADUR THRUCH THA STRÉTE THÉR VNDER THISSE TIDA VPPA THA RÁDE SÉ UT HLIP. The sea king of the Tyrians guided the whole fleet through the strait, which at those times ran into the Red Sea.
[20] ET LESTE LÁNDON HJA ET PAN'G.AB THAT IS IN VSA SPRÉKE. FIF WÉTERUM. At last they landed at Punjab,(4) which is in our language ‘five-waters’,
VMBE THAT FIF RINSTRÁMA MITH HIRI NÉI THA SÉ TO STRÁMA. because five rivers flow into the sea there as one.
HÍR SETON HJA HJARA SELVA NITHAR. THÀT LÁND HÀVON [25] HJA GÉRT.MANJA HÉTON. Here they settled, naming the land ‘Gerd­mania’.
THENE KÉNING FON THÍRHIS ÀFTERNÉI SJANDE THAT SIN ALDERBESTA STJÛRAR WÉI BRIT WÉREN. The king of Tyre, who later realized that all of his best steersmen had left,
SAND AL SIN SKIPA MITH SINA WILDE SALT.ÁTHA VMBER DÁD JEFTA [30] LÉVAND TO FÁTANE. sent all his ships with his wild mercenaries to capture them dead or alive,
MEN AS HJÀ BY THÉRE STRÉTE KÉM BÉVADON BÉDE. SÉ ÀND JRTHA. but when they approached the strait, both Sea and Earth quaked.
FORTH HÉF JRTHA HJRA LIF THÉR VPPA. [075/01] SÁ HÁG THAT AL ET WÉTER TO THÉRE STRÉTE UT HLIP. Then Earth heaved up there, so high that all the water ran out of the strait,
ÀND THAT ALLE WATA ÀND SKORRA LIK EN BURCH.WAL TO FÁRA HJAM VP RÉSON. and all mudflats and shores rose up in front of them like a burg wall.
THAT SKÉDE [5] OVER THA GÉRT.MANA HJARA DÜGDA LIK AS ALLERA MANNALIK HEL ÀND KLÁR MÉI SJA. This happened because of the virtues of the Gerdmen, as any one can see brightly and clearly.

(3) ‘mercenaries’ (SALT.ATHA) — lit.: salt-allies; mercenaries paid with salt. To emphasize the contrast to (unpaid) defenders (WÉRAR), use of the cognate ‘soldier’ was decided against.
(4) ‘Punjab’ (PAN'G.AB) – Persian: panj (five), āb (water).

12. Adelbrost: Intrigues and Division [089/11] Sandbach p. 125
THRVCH ALTHUS DÉNNERA RENKA BROCHTON HJA TWÍSPALT IN OVIRA STÁTHA ÀND TORENDON HJA THAT BAND SÁDÉNE FON ÉN Such intrigues caused division between the districts and tore the bond of union so badly
THAT ET FOLK FON THA ÉNNE [15] STÁT NÍTHICH WÉRE VPPET FOLK FON EN ORA STÁT ÀND FÁRET ALDERMINESTA LIK FÉR.HÉMANDE BISKÁWADE. that jealousy arose between the various folks and minute conflicts caused them to see each other as strangers.
THJU FÉRE THÉRA IS WÉST THAT THA GOLA JEFTHA TROWÍDA VS ALET LÁND OFWNNEN HÀVEN ALONT THÉRE [20] SKELDA ÀND THI MÁGÍ ALTO THÉRE WRSÁRA. The result of this was that the Gools or Trowids took over all our lands behind the Scheldt, and the magus the region beyond the Weser.
HO.R THÉR BY TOGVNGEN IS HETH MIN MEM VNTLÉTH. OWERS NAS THIT BOK NAVT SKRÉVEN NE WRDEN. My mother investigated how that had happened. Without that, this book would not have been written,
AFSKÉN IK ALLE HÁPE VRLÉREN HÀV THATET SKIL HELPA THA BÁTA. but I have lost all hope that it will save us.

13b3. Ode to Adela [097/04] Sandbach p. 135
THÉR KÉMOM THRÉ FONÍSJAR SKIP.LJUDA [5] THÉR HJA WRÉVELA WILDE. MEN ADELA KÉM HJU HÉDE HJARA HWOP HÉRAD. Three Phoenician sailors tried to abuse our children. But Adela heard them scream and came.
IN SWIM SLÉITH HJU THA LÉTHA ÀND TILTHJU HJA SELVA JECHTA SKOLDE THET HJA VNWÉRTHELIKA MANA WÉRON BINT HJU ALSÉMEN AN EN [10] SPINHROK FEST. She knocked the molesters unconscious, and then, to force them to admit how unworthy they were, she tied them to a distaff.
THA FÉRHÉMANDA HÉRA KÉMON HJARA THJUD ASKJA. THÁ HJA SAGON HO SKOTS HJA MISDÉN WÉRON KÉM TORN VP. Their foreign masters came to look for them and became furious when they saw how they had been humiliated.
THACH MÀN TELLADE HOT BÉRD WAS. [15] HWAT HJA FORTH DÉDON. HJA BUWGDON TO FÁRA ADELA ÀND KESTON THJU SLYP HJRAR TO HNEKKA. But we told them what had happened. And guess what they did? They bowed to Adela and kissed the fringe of her tunic.

14d1. Alexander the King [121/12] Sandbach p. 167
ALEXANDRE SÉIDE IK NIL THIN LAND NAVT NE MÁKJA TO MIN BUT NER THIN FOLK TO MINA SLAVONA. [15] IK WIL BLÁT THÀT STV MY THJANJA SKOLSTE VMB LÁN. Alexander replied: ‘I will neither take your land, nor enslave your folk. All I want is to hire your services.
[...] [121/21] ...
THÁ THI ALLE TOBEK WÉRON. HETH ALEXANDRE THI ALLE HÉRED. When they were back, Alexander hired them all.
THÉRMITHA WILDE HI SIN FOLK NÉI THA HÉLGE GÔNGGA FÁRA. THÉR HI TO [25] LAND NAVT HÉDE MÜGE NÁKA. He wanted to use them to bring his folk to the Holy Ganges, which he had not been able to reach by land.
NW GVNG.ER TO ÀND KÁS ALTHAM UT SIN FOLK ÀND UT SINA SALT.ATHA THÉR WENATH WÉRON WR.NE SÉ TO FÁRANE. Now he chose those from his folk and mercenaries who were used to seafaring.
WICH.HIRTE WAS WITHER SIAK WRDEN THÉRVMBE GVNG [30] IK ALLÉNA MITHA ÀND NÉARCHUS FON THES KENINGIS WÉGA. Wichard had fallen ill again, so I joined alone and Nearchus was sent by the king.(1)
THI TOCHT HLIP SVNDER FARDÉL TO.N.ENDE. UTHAVEDE THA [122/01] JOHNJAR IMMERTHE AN VNMIN WÉRON WITH THA PHONISJAR. The expedition failed as a result of the constant friction between the Ionians and the Phoenicians,
ALSA NÉARCHUS THÉR SELVA NÉN BÁS OVIR BILÍWA NE KV. which had undermined Nearchus' authority.
[...] [124/04] ...
THAT BISÁWD [5] VS ÀND LIKT VS BAL TO. MEN NÉARCHUS TELD.VS. SIN KÉNING WILDE THA ÔTHERA KÉNINGGAR TÁNA. We were shocked and thought it was a bad idea. But Nearchus told us that his king [Alexander] wanted to show the other kings
THAT.I WELDIGER WÉRE SÁ THA KÉNINGGAR FON THIRIS ÉR WÉSEN HÉDE. that he was more powerful than any of the Tyrian kings had ever been.
[...] [124/27] ...
THA KÉM ORLOCH AND WI NE KVSTE NAVT OMME KÉRA. War broke out and we could not return.
NÉARCHUS WILDE NW. WI SKOLDE VS [30] DEL SETTA AN PHONISI HIS KÁD. MEN THAT NILDE NIMMAN NAVT NE DVA. Nearchus now wanted us to settle on the Phoenician coast, but none of us wanted that.

(1) ‘Nearchus’ (NÉARCHUS, Greek Νέαρχος) — Alexander's 'navarch' or admiral, known from other sources for his celebrated voyage from the Indus river to the Persian Gulf in 326–324 BC. He would have lived from c. 360 - 300 BCE).

14d2. Demetrius and Friso [128/12] Sandbach p. 175
ÀFTER SEX DÉGUM SÁGON WI THA ORLOCH.FLÁTE FON DEMÉTRIUS. VP VS TO KVMA. After six days, we saw Demetrius' battle fleet [apparently with Phoenician crew] approach us.
[...] [129/09] ...
AS WI NW ARHALF KETTENG FON RA OF WÉRE [10] BIGOSTON THA PHONISIAR TO SKIATA. When we were at a cable and a half distance from them,(4) the Phoenicians started shooting,
MEN FRISO N.ANDERE NAVT BIFARA THA EROSTE PIL DEL FALDE A SEX FÁDEMA FON SIN SKIP. NW SKÁT.ER. THA ORA FOLGADE but Friso did not reply until the first arrow landed six fathoms from his ship.(5) Then he fired and the rest followed.
THET LIKTE EN FJUR.RÉIN ÀND THRVCHDAM [15] VSA PILA MITH WIND MÉI GVNGON BILÉVON HJA ALLE AN BRÔND ÀND NÁKADA SELVA THA THRIDDE LÁGE. It was like a rain of fire and as our arrows went with the wind, they all remained alight and reached even the third line.
ALLERA MANNELIK GÍRADON ÀND JÛWGADE. MEN THA KRÉTA VSAR WITHERLÁGUM [20] WÉRON SA HERDE THET.ET VS THET HIRTE BINÉPEN WARTH. Everyone yelled and cheered, but the cries of our adversaries were so horrid that it pierced our hearts.

(4) ‘a cable and a half’ — in current measure ca. 900 feet or 275 meter.
(5) ‘six fathoms’ — in current measure ca. 36 feet or 10 meter.

16b1. Friso: Alliances [145/25] Sandbach p. 197
FRISO HÉDE FÜL SJAN. BI ORLOCH WAS.ER VPBROCHT. Friso had seen much. He had been raised in wartime
ÀND FON THA HRENKUM ÀND LESTUM THÉRA GVLUM ÀND FORSTUM HÉD.ER KREK SA FÜL LÉRED AND GETH AS.ER NÉDICH HÉDE and he had learned and gathered just enough of the trickery and ruses of the Gools and princes as he required
[30] VMBE THÁ ÔRA GRÉVA TO WÉJANDE HWÉR HI HJAM WILDE. to lead the other reeves to where he wanted them.
[...] [147/05] ...
THA SÉ.LANDAR STJÛRAR THAM HJARA SELVA MITH BLÁTE FISK NAVT HELPA NER NÉRA NILDE AND THÉR EN ÀRGE GRINS HÉDE ANTHA GOLA. THAM GVNGON DÁNÁ THA PHONISJAR SKÉPA BIRÁWA. The Sealander steersmen who did not want to merely eat and trade fish, and who had a strong antipathy to the Gools, later went pirating Phoenician ships.
[10] ANTHA SUD.WESTER HERN FON SKÉN.LAND THÉR LÉID LINDA.S.BURCH TONOMATH LINDA.S.NÔSE THRVCH VSA A.POL STIFT ALSA IN THIT BOK BISKRÉWEN STÁT. In the south-west corner of Skeanland lies Lindasburg, also known as Lindasnose, founded by our Apol, as described in this book.
ALLE KÁD.HÉMAR ÀND OMME.LANDAR [15] DÁNÁ. WÉRON EFT FRÍAS BILÉVEN. All inhabitants of the coast and the surrounding region have remained true Fryas,
MEN THRVCH THA LUST THÉRE WRÉKE ÀJEN THA GOLUM ÀND ÀJEN THA KÀLTANA FOLGAR GVNGON HJA MITHA SÉLANDAR SÁMA DVAN. but out of lust for revenge against the Gools and the Kelta followers they joined forces with the Sealanders.
[...] [148/05] ...
THI KÁP.MAN THÉR MITH.SVNDEN WAS. WILDE FON VS NYA SKÉPA HÀ. The trader that had been sent with them wanted to buy new ships from us,
THÉRTO HÉDON HJA MITH.BROCHT ALLERLÉJA KESTLIKA WÉRA THÉR HJA RÁWED HÉDON FON THA KÀLTANAR LANDUM ÀND [10] FON THA PHONISJAR SKÉPUM. and for that purpose, they had brought various precious goods that they had stolen from Keltic lands and Phoenician ships.
[...] [149/20] ...
THA SÉ.LANDAR SÉIDER TO. HJA SKOLDON JÉRLIKES FIFTECH SKÉPA HÀVA. NÉI FÀSTA MÉTUM ÀND NÉI FÀSTA JELDUM. TO HRÉD MITH ÍSERE KÉDNE ÀND KRÁNBOGUM [Friso] promised the Sealanders fifty ships a year, of a fixed size and for a fixed price, equipped with iron chains and crossbows,
ÀND [25] MITH FVLLE TJUCH ALSA FAR WÉR.SKÉPA HOF ÀND NÉDLIK SÍ. MEN THA JUTTAR SKOLDON HJA THÀN MITH FRÉTHE LÉTA. ÀND ALLET FOLK THÀT TO FRYA.S BERN HÉRED. and fully rigged with what is useful and essential on warships, on condition that they would leave the Jutters in peace, as well as all the folk belonging to Frya's children.
JÀ HI WILDE MAR DVA. HI [30] WILDE AL VSA SÉ.KÀMPAR UT NÉDA THAT HJA SKOLDE MITH.FJUCHTA ÀND RÁWA. Yes, he would do more: he would encourage all our sea warriors to join them in attacking and plundering [Phoenicians, Gols, Kelts].

16b2. Friso: Praise and Suspicion [152/21] Sandbach p. 207
FRISO WÉT THA HRENKA THÉRA GOLUM HWAMHIS TÁLE HI SPRÉKTH. HI KÀN THUS ÀJEN HJARA LESTUM WÁKA. Friso knows the tricks of the Gools and he speaks their language, so he can beware of their schemes.

16c. Gosa: Purity of Language [161/16] Sandbach p. 219
THJU TÁLE THÉRA ÁST.SKÉN.LANDAR IS THRVCH THA WLA MAGJARA VRBRÛD. THJU TÁLE THÉRA KÀLTANA.FOLGAR IS THRVCH THA SMÛGRIGE GOLA VRDERVEN. The language of the East-Skean­landers was debased by the vile Magyars, and the language of the Kelta followers was debased by the rancid Gools.*

* 'rancid' is the translation I chose here for SMÛGRIGE, the only negative adjective actually used among these fragments. See blog post. It is probably related to a word for creep, crawl, sneak.

19a. Askar Prepares for War [197/08] Sandbach p. 237
JETA ÀRGER THAHWILA HJA KÀLTA ÀND PETARADE VR NÁDELÁSA PLÉGA. SEND [10] THA GOLA KVMEN ÀND HÁVON AL VSA SKÉNA SÛDARLANDA RÁWETH. Even worse, while they chattered about irrelevant customs, the Gools came and stole all our beautiful southern lands.
HÉMIS DÉGA SEND HJA MITH VSA VRBRUDA BROTHARUM ÀND HJARA SALT.ÁTHUM AL OVERA SKELDA KVMEN. VS REST THUS TO KJASÁNE TWISK.ET [15] BÉRA FON JUK JEF SWÉRD. Recently, they came over the Scheldt with our lost brothers and their mercenaries. So we are left to choose between carrying yoke or sword.
WILLATH WI FRÍ SEND ÀND FRÍ BILÍWA ALSA ÁGON THA KNÁPA THÀT LÉSA ÀND SKRÍVA FÁR.HÔNDIS ÀFTERWÉI.N TO LÉTANE ÀND IN STÉDE THAT HJA INVPPA THÉRE MÉIDE HWIP ÀND SWIK [20] SPÉLE MOTON HJA MITH SWÉRD ÀND SPÍRI SPÉLA. If we want to be and remain free, the young men must, for now, leave the reading and writing, and instead of playing games in taverns, they must play with sword and spear.
SEND WI IN ALLE DÉLA OFNED ÀND THA KNÁPA STOR ENOCH VMB HELMET ÀND SKILD TO BÉRANE ÀND THA WÉPNE TO HÔNTÉRANE THEN SKIL IK MY [25] MITH JOWER HELPA VPPA THENE FJAND WERPA. When we are fully skilled and the young men strong enough to carry helmet and shield and handle weapons, I shall, with your help, attack the enemy.
THA GOLA MÉJEATH THEN THA NITHER LÉGA FON HJARA HELPAR AND SALT.ÁTHUM VPPA VSA FJELDUM SKRÍWA MITH.ET BLOD THÀT ÛT HJARA WNDUM [30] DRJUPTH. The Gools may then write of the defeats of their helpers and mercenaries in our fields with the blood that drips from their wounds.
HÀVON WI THENE FÍAND ÉN MEL FAR VS ÛT DRÉVEN ALSA MOTON WI THÉRMITH FORTH GVNGÀ Once we have gotten the enemy on the run, we must continue driving them back,
ALHWENNE [198/01] THÉR NÉN GOLA NER SLÁVONA NACH TARTARA MÁRA FON FRYA.S ERV TO VRDRÍVANE SEND. until there are no more Gools, Slavons or Tartars to be expelled from Frya's territory.’

19b. Streams of Blood [198/19] Sandbach p. 239
AN.T NORTH.ENDE FON [20] BRITANJA THÀT FVL MITH HÁGA BERGUN IS THÉR SIT EN SKOTS FOLK. VR.ET MÁRA DÉL ÛT FRYA.S BLOD SPROTEN. In the mountainous, northernmost part of Britannia, a ‘skots’ or tough folk dwells; mostly of Frya's blood.
VR.A ÉNE HELTE SEND HJA ÛT KÀLTANA FOLGAR VR.ET ÒRA DÉL ÛT BRITNE ÀND BANNENE [25] THÉR BÍ GRÁDUM MITH TÍD FON ÛT.A TINLÔNUM THÉR HINNA FLJUCHTE. Half of them stem from Kelta followers, the rest from exiled and banned men, who, over the course of time, have taken refuge there from the tin mines.
THÉR UT.A TINLÔNA KÉMON HÀVATH ALGADUR VRLANDISKA WIVA JEFTHA FON VRLANDHIS TUK. THI ALLE SEND VNDER.ET WELD [30] THÉRA GOLUM. Those from the tin mines have wives that are altogether foreign, or of foreign descent. They are all ruled by the Gools.
HJARA WÉPNE SEND WODEN BOGA ÀND SPRÍTA MITH PINTUM FON HERT HIS HORNUM ÁK FON [199/01] FLINTUM. Their weapons are wooden bows and javelins pointed with antler or flint.
[...] [199/27] ...
THAT FOLK THAT ANDA SÛD.SIDE THÉRE MIDDEL.SÉ HÉMTH IS FÁR.ET MÁRA DÉL FON FHONÍSJA [30] WÉI KVMEN. The folk living on the south coast of the Middle Sea mostly originate from Phoenicia.
THA FHONÍSJAR SEND EN BASTRED FOLK. HJA SEND FON FRYA.S BLOD. ÀND FON FINDA.S BLOD [200/01] ÀND FON LYDA HIS BLOD. The Phoenicians are a bastard folk; a mix of Frya's, Finda's and Lyda's blood.
THÀT FOLK FON LYDA SEND THÉR AS SLÁVONA. MEN THRVCH THA VNTUCHT THÉR WÍVA HÀVON THISSA SWARTE MÀNNISKA AL.ET ÔRA FOLK BASTRED [5] ÀND BRUN VRFÀRVET. The Lyda folk are there as slaves, but the lewdness of the women allowed these black people to bastardise all other folks and dye them brown.
THIT FOLK ÀND THAM FON ROME KÀMPATH ÒLÁN VMB ET MÁSTERSKIP FON THA MIDDEL.SÉ. FORTH LÉVATH THAM FON ROMA AN FJANDSKIP WITH THA FONÍSJAR This Phoenician folk and the Romans constantly fight for rule over the Middle Sea, and they live at enmity with each other.(1)
ÀND HJARA [10] PRESTERA THÉR ET RIK ALLÉNA WELDA WILLE WR JRTHA NE MÜGON THA GOLA NAVT NE SJAN. The Roman priests, who want to rule the whole earth, cannot stand the Gools.
THÀT FORMA HÀVON HJA THA FPHONÍSJAR MIS.SELLJA OF NOMEN. DÁNÁ ALLE LANDA THÉR SÛDWARD [15] WESTWÁRD ÀND NORTHWARD LIDSA. First they took Massilia from the Phoenicians, then all lands south, west and north of it,
ÁK.ET SÛDAR.DÉL FON BRITTANJA ÀND ALLERWÉIKES HÀVON HJA THA FONÍSJAR PRESTERA. THAT HÉTH. THA GOLA VRJÁGETH. as well as the southern part of Britannia, and everywhere they expelled the Phoenician priests, known as the Gools.
DÁNÁ SIND THUSANDA GOLA NÉI NORTH [20] BRITTANJA BRIT. This way, thousands of Gools were compelled to move to North Britannia.
KIRT VRLÉDEN WAS THÉR THA VRESTE THÉRA GOLUM SÉTEN VPPA THÉRE BURCH THÉR IS KÉTHEN KÉRENÀK. THAT IS HERNE. Until recently, the supreme Gool resided there at the burg named Kearenek — or Kearenherne —,
HWANATH HI SIN BIFÉLA JEF AN ALLE ÒRA GOLA. ÁK WAS [25] THÉR AL HJARA GOLD TOGÁDUR BROCHT. from where he commanded all other Gools and where all their gold was gathered.
KÉREN.HERNE JEFTHA KÉREN.ÀK IS ÉNE STÉNE BURCH THÉR ÉR AN KÀLTA HÉRDE. (Kearenherne — ‘chosen horn or hook’ — is a stone burg that once belonged to Kelta.)
THÉRVMBE WILDON THA FÁMNA FON THA ÀFTERKVMANDE THÉRA KÀLTANA [30] FOLGAR THA BURCH WITHER HÁ. Thus, the maidens of the descendants of the Kelta followers wanted it back.
ALSA WAS THRVCH THA FÍANSKIP THÉRA FÁMNA ÀND THÉRA GOLUM. FAITHE ÀND TWIST [201/01] IN OVIR THÀT BERCH.LAND KVMEN MITH MORTH ÀND BRÔND. Due to the enmity between the maidens and the Gools, feud and strife had come into the mountainous land, bringing with it murder and fire.
VSA STJÛRAR KÉMON THÉR FÁKEN WOL HÁLJA THÀT HJA SELLADE FORI TO BIRÉDE HÛDUM ÀND LINNE. ÁSKAR [5] WAS OFTEN MITH WÉST. Our sailors used to go there to get wool in exchange for prepared hides and linen. Askar had often joined them.
AN STILNESSE HÉDER MITH THA FÁMNA ÀND MITH SVME FORSTUM ÁTH.SKIP SLOTEN. ÀND HIM SELVA FORBONDEN VMBE THA GOLA TO VRJÁGANE ÛT KÉREN.ÀK. He had secretly made an alliance with the maidens and some kings, determined to expel the Gools from Kearenek.
AS.ER THÉRNÉI [10] WITHER KÉM JÉF HI THA FORSTA ÀND WIGANDLIKSTA MANNA ÍSERE HELMA AND STÉLA BOGA. At his next visit, he brought iron helmets and steel bows for the kings and bravest men.
ORLOCH WAS MITH KVMEN ÀND KIRT ÀFTER FLOJADON STRÁMA BLOD BY THA HELLINGA THÉRA [15] BERGUM DEL. War had come with him and, before long, streams of blood flowed down the mountain slopes.
THÁ ÁSKAR MÉNDE THAT KANS HIM TO LAKTE. When Askar believed himself to have good fortune on his side,
GVNG.ER MITH FJUWERTICH SKÉPUM HIN ÀND NAM KÉREN.ÀK ÀND THENE VRESTE THÉRA GOLUM MITH AL SINE GOLD. he went with forty ships and took Kearenek and the supreme Gool, along with all his gold.
THÀT FOLK WÉRMITH HI WITH [20] THA SALT.ÁTHUM THERA GOLUM KÀMPED HÉDE HÉD.ER ÛT.A SAXANA.MARKUM LVKTH The folk with whom he fought the mercenaries of the Gools, he had lured from the Saxonmarks,
MITH LOFTE FON GRÁTE HÉRA.RÁVE ÀND BUT. THUS WARTH THA GOLA NÉWET LÉTEN. promising them great spoils of war and booty. Thus, nothing was left to the Gools.
ÀFTER NÉI NAM.ER TWÁ É.LANDA [25] TO BERCH FÁR SINUM SKÉPUM. After that, he took two islands to moor his ships,
ÀND HWÁNATH HI LÉTER ÛTGVNG VMB ALLE FONÍSJAR SKÉPA ÀND STÉDA TO BIRÁWANE THÉR.I BIGÁNA KV. from whence he later went out to plunder all the Phoenician ships and cities that he could reach.

(1) Probably referring to the Punic Wars (264 - 146 BCE).

19c. Reintia's Dream [204/11] Sandbach p. 245
NÉI TWAM JÉR OM WÉRON KÉM HJU ALINGGEN THÉRE RÉNE TO HONK. BI THA TWISK.LANDAR HÉDE HJU HJARA SELVA AS MODER ÛTJÁN After two years, she came homeward along the Rhine. Among the Twisklanders, she had pretended to be mother
ÀND [15] SÉID THÀT HJA MOCHTON AS FRY ÀND FRANKA MÀNNISKA WITHER KVMA. MEN THÀN MOSTON HJA OVER THA RÉNE GVNGGA and promised they could return as free and frank people, under the condition that they would cross the Rhine
ÀND THA GOLA FOLGAR ÛT FRYAS SÛDAR LANDUM JÁGJA. and expel the Gools' followers from Frya's southern lands.
AS HJA THAT DÉDE SÁ SKOLDE HJRA [20] KÉNING ÁSKAR OVERA SKELDA GVNGGA ÀND THÉR THAT LAND OF WINNA. If they did that, her king Askar would pass the Scheldt and reclaim the land.

19e. How Punishment Came [207/15] Sandbach p. 249
ÉNIS HÉDON HJA TO SÉMINE ÉNE ÉLE FLÁTE WNNEN. HJA KÉM FON ÛT.A MIDDEL.SÉ. Once, they conquered a whole fleet from the Middle Sea together.*
THJUS FLÁTE WAS TOLÉDEN MITH PURPERA KLÁTHAR ÀND ÔRA KOSTLIKHÉD THÉR ALLE FON OF PHONISJA KÉMON. It was loaded with purple cloth and other valuables that were all coming from Phoenicia.
THÀT WRAKA FOLK THÉRE [20] FLÁTE WÀRTH BISÛDA THÉRE SÉJENE AN WAL SET MEN THÀT STORA FOLK WÀRTH HALDEN. THAT MOS RA AS SLÁVONA THJANJA. The weak members of its crew were put ashore south of the Seine, but the strong were kept to serve as slaves.
THA SKÉNNESTE WRDON HALDA VMBE VPPET LAND TO BILÍWANE ÀND THA LÉDLIKSTA ÀND SWARTSTE [25] WRDON AN BORD HALDEN VMBE VPPA THA BENKA TO ROJANDE. The best looking were kept to serve ashore, while the ugliest and swarthiest were kept on board to row on the benches.

* Ottema 1878 (p.53) refers to Plutarch vita Pompeji: 64 BCE war against pirates. Fragment not found by me yet.

19f. Askar’s Failure [209/16] Sandbach p. 253
ÁSKAR HÉDE AL FON RÉINTJA FORNOMEN THAT THA TWISKLANDAR FORSTA MÉST ALTI IN FIANDSKIP ÀND FAITHA WÉRON. Askar already knew from Reintia that the Twisklander princes were almost always in enmity and feud with each other.
NV STALD.I HJAM TOFARA [20] HJA SKOLDE ÉNEN HÉRTOGA FON SIN FOLK KIASA So he proposed that they choose a military leader from his folk,
VMBE THAT.ER ANG WÉRE SEID.ER THAT HJA SKOLDE MITH ANLIKÔTHERUM SKOLDUN TWISTA OVIR.ET MÁSTERSKIP. because, as he said, he feared they would quarrel among each other about the reign.
ÁK SÉID.ER KVNDON SINA FORSTA MITH.A GOLUM SPRÉKA. [25] THAT SÉID.ER WÉRE ÁK MODER HIS MÉNE. He also argued that his princes could speak with the Gools and that the mother agreed to that.
THÁ KÉMON THA FORSTA THÉRA TWISK.LANDAR TO EKKÔRUM ÀND NÉI THRIJA SIUGUN ETMELDE KÉRON HJA ÁL.RIK TO RA HÉRTOGA ÛT. Then the Twisklander princes assembled and after three times seven days and nights, they chose Alrik as military leader.
ÁL.RIK WÉRE ÁSKAR HIS NÉVA. HI JEF HIM TWÉN [30] HVNDRED SKOTSA ÀND HVNDRED THÉRA STOROSTA SAXMANNA MITH TO LIF.WÉRA. Alrik was Askar's cousin. He was given two hundred Skots and a hundred of the strongest Saxmen as an escort.
THA FORSTA MOSTON THRIJA SJVGUN FON [210/01] HJARA SVNUM NÉI STÁVEREN SENDA TO BORG HJARAR TROW. The princes had to send three times seven of their sons to Staveren, to guarantee their loyalty.
TO NV WAS ALLES NÉI WINSK GVNGEN MEN THÁ MÀN OVIRE RÉNE FÁRA SKOLDE. Thus far, all had gone as hoped, but when they were to pass the Rhine,
NILDON THENE KÀNING THÉRA [5] FRANKA NAVT VNDER AL.RIKIS BIFÉLA NAVT NE STVNDA. THÉRTHRVCH LIP ALLES IN THA TÍS. the king of the Franks refused to be under Alrik's command, which resulted in chaos.
ÁSKAR THÉR MÉNDE THÀT ALLES GOD GVNG. LANDE MITH SINA SKÉPA ANNA THA ÔRE SÍDE THÉRE SKELDA. Askar, assuming that all had gone well, landed with his ships on the other side of the Scheldt.
MEN THÉR WAS MÀN LÔNG FON SIN [10] KVMSTE TO LJUCHT ÀND VPPA SIN HOD. HJA MOSTON ALSA RING FLJUCHTA AS HJA KVMEN WÉRON ÀND ÁSKAR WRDE SELVA FATH. But his army was already expected there, so it was forced to flee without success, and Askar himself was caught.
THA GOLA NISTON NAVT HWA HJA FENSEN HÉDE ÀND ALSA WARTH HI ÀFTERNÉI ÛTWIXLATH [15] FORI ÉNNEN HÁGE GOL THÉR ÁSKAR HIS FOLK MITH FORATH HÉDE. The Gools did not know who he was, so he was later exchanged for a high-ranking Gool that Askar's army had taken prisoner.
THAHWILA THÀT.ET ALLES BÉRADE HLIPON THA MÁGJARA JETA DRÍSTER AS TO FÁRA OVIR VSA BÛRA RA LANDA HINNA. Meanwhile, the Magyars were traversing the lands of our neighbors more boldly than ever before.
BY EGMVDA HWÉR TO [20] FÁRA THÉRE BURCH FOR.ÁNA STÁN HÉDE LÉTON HJA ÉNE CHERKA BVWA JETA GRÁTER ÀND RIKAR AS ÁSKAR TO STÁVEREN DÉN HÉDE. Near Egmuda, where the burg Forana once stood, they built a temple, even larger and richer than Askar had built at Staveren.
ÁFTERNÉI SÉIDON HJA THAT ÁSKAR THJU KÀSE VRLÉREN HÉDE [25] WITH THA GOLA They later said that Askar had lost the clash with the Gools
THRVCHDAM ET FOLK NAVT LÁWA NAVT NILDE THAT WODIN HJAM HELPA KVSTE ÀND THAT HJA HIM THÉRVMBE NAVT ANBIDDA NILDE. because the folk would not believe Wodin could help them, and therefore would not worship him.
FORTH GVNGON HJA TO ÀND SKÁKTON JONGA BERN THAM HJA [30] BY RA HILDON ÀND VPBROCHTON IN THA HÉMNISSA FON HJARA VRBRUDA LÉRE. Moreover, they kidnapped young children, whom they kept and raised in the secrets of their depraved doctrine.


  • ad 8c. Stephani Byzantii (reissue 1678) - De Urbibus et Populis, p.447: the suggested eytmology is 'masai' - to bind / 'asieus' - fisherman; a sailor would have thrown a rope to a fisherman asking him to bind it to the shore...
  • ad 9a1. Pomponius Mela (III.48): Galizena - translation F.E. Romer, 1998 - source
Sena in Britannico mari Ossismicis adversa litoribus, Gallici numinis oraculo insignis est, cuius antistites perpetua virginitate sanctae numero novem esse traduntur: In the Britannic Sea, opposite the coast of the Ossismi, the isle of Sena [Sein] belongs to a Gallic divinity and is famous for its oracle, whose priestesses, sanctified by their perpetual virginity, are reportedly nine in number.
Gallizenas vocant, putantque ingeniis singularibus praeditas maria ac ventos concitare carminibus, seque in quae velint animalia vertere, sanare quae apud alios insanabilia sunt, scire ventura et praedicare, They call the priestesses Gallizenae and think that because they have been endowed with unique powers, they stir up the seas and the winds by their magic charms, that they turn into whatever animals they want, that they cure what is incurable among other peoples, that they know and predict the future,
sed nonnisi dedita navigantibus, et in id tantum, ut se consulerent profectis. but that it is not revealed except to sea-voyagers and then only to those traveling to consult them.