12 July 2018

SIAK, SIAKTE ~ sick, sickness

Gabriël Metsu, "The sick child"
ca. 1665 (cropped)
Modern cognates:
sick, sickness - English
ziek, ziekte - Dutch
siek, siekte - Afrikaans
siik, sykte - Frisian
siech, siechthum - German
syg, sygdom - Danish
syk, sykdom - Norse
sjuk, sjukdom - Swedish

Varieties in Oera Linda:


adjective: sick/ ill
SIAK (ill) - 3,4,5
SÍAKA FJA (sick cattle) - 1
noun (plural): the sick (people)
THA SJAKA TO LÉVANDE (to nurse/cure? the sick) - 2
noun: sickness/ disease
LVNG.SÍAKTE (lung disease) - 1

Fragments in Oera Linda:

1 [003/24]
THÀNK ÍNES. THÉR WAS HÍR WÉSEN EN HÀRDE LVNG.SÍAKTE AMONG.ETH FJA
ÀND THÀT.ER THÉR JETA ÀRG WDE.
SKOLDE J.ETH THÀN WEL WÁGJA
VMBE JVW HÉLENA FJA TO FARANDE AMONG HJARA SÍAKA FJA.

Imagine if our cattle had been plagued by a serious lung disease,
which was still raging badly there.
Would you then risk
mixing your healthy animals with their sick ones?



2 [038/20]
INSTÉDE FON THA FÁMKES WIS TO MÁKJANDE.
ÀND AFTERNÉI ÉMONG THÀT FOLK TO SENDA.
THA SJAKA TO LÉVANDE. ÀND THA BÀRN TO LÉRANDE.

instead of properly educating these maidens
before sending them among the people,
to nurse the sick and teach the children,


3 [090/05]
MIN TÁT THÉR SIAK LÉIDE IS FON SKRIK VRSTURVEN.
My father was already ill and died of shock.

4 [120/29]
WICH.HIRTE LÉIDE SIAK TO BEDDE.
Wichard lay ill in bed.

5 [121/28]
WICH.HIRTE WAS WITHER SIAK WRDEN
Wichard had fallen ill again,

27 June 2018

BLOD ~ blood

still from marriage scene in Hvíti víkingurinn (1991)
blod - Danish, Norse, Swedish
blóð - Icelandic, Faroese
blood - English
bloed - Dutch, Frisian, Afrikaans (pronounced as in German:)
Blut - German

Some of the very different words in other languages:
sanguis - Latin
haema (αίμα) - Greek
veri - Finnish

Various contexts (fragment nrs.):
bloodbath (mass conflict): 1,12,13,18,22,23,25,28,29

Frya's blood (white race): 8,9,15,21,26,27
contaminated (bastard) blood (mixed race): 2,4,15,16,17,27
foreign (Finda or Lyda) blood (yellow and black race): 5,27
blood-tie, genes in general: 19,20,21

other (energy, life force): 3,14
its red colour: 6

SWART BLOD (black blood): 11

BLODSÛGAR (leaches, 'bloodsuckers'): 10
BLOD.THORSTICH (bloodthirsty): 24

BLODICH (bloody): 7

(Illustrating the symbolic significance of blood in the German Reich:)
"German woman!
Keep your blood pure"
"Blood and Soil"
"Alike blood, alike
duty, alike honour"
(idem in the Netherlands:) Fragments of Dutch National anthems (both 1st line): (1) "Wilhelmus", written ca. 1570, Nat. anthem since 1933; (2) "Wien Neêrlands bloed", Nat. Anthem between 1817 and 1933.
(1) "... am I of Dutch/German blood"
(2) "... Dutch blood ... uncontaminated"

Fragments [page/line]:

1 [009/13]  
THA WÀRTH JRTHA FVL BLOD.
ÀND THA HAVEDA THÉR MÀNNISKA MÀJADON THIN BÀRN LIK GÀRS.HÀLMA OF.
Then earth overflowed with blood,
as your children mowed down the heads of people like blades of grass.

2 [012/20]  
THÉR SIN ÀJN FRYDOM VRSELLATH. THAM N.IS NAVT FON JVW FOLK.
HI IS EN HORNING MITH BASTERD BLOD.
(...) who sells his own freedom, he is not of your folk.
He is a product of adultery and has bastard blood.

3 [035/11]  
TILTHJU HJA THAM TO BÉTRE MÜGE FÁTA VMBER SLÁVONA FON TO MÁKJANDE
ÀND HJARA BLOD UT TO SÛGANE. ÉVEN AS VAMPÍRA DVA.
so they can more easily seize and enslave them,
and suck their blood like leeches [lit. 'belly-worms'?].

4 [043/02]  
HWA (...) NIS NÉN FRYA.S. HI IS EN HORNING MITH BASTERDE BLOD.
He (...) is no Frya; he is the product of adultery and has contaminated blood.

5 [043/29]  
THAM WÉRE ALLÉNA WROCHT UT FINDA.S BLOD.
he can only have sprung from Finda's blood.

6 [048/12]  
WARTH ER ÉROST EN B TO FARA HIARA STÀR PRIKED.
THA BANA MITH RÁDE. BLOD. FARVE ÀND THA ÔRA MISDÉDAR MITH BLÀWE FARVE.
a ‘B’ was tattooed on their foreheads first;
murderers with blood-red dye and other criminals with blue dye.

7 [051/30]  
AFSKÉN HJARA FÉRSTA ALGADUR DROV ÀND BLODICH SEND
although their feasts are altogether dreary and bloody

8 [073/23]  
THA THÍRJAR STJÛRAR THÉR JETA FRYA.S BLOD INT LIF HÉDE
the Tyrian steersmen, who still had Frya's blood in their veins

9 [076/13]
FON THISSE KÉNING IS HÍR EN SKRÍVER AFTER BILÉWEN FON RÉN FRYA.S BLOD
From this king a writer of pure Frya's blood remained here

10 [079/07]
BLODSÛGAR POGGA ÀND FENINIGA SNÁKA
leeches [lit. 'bloodsuckers'], toads and poisonous snakes

11 [082/29]
THISSE NAM SIN SWÉRD ÀND HIF THENE FIN THRVCH SINA HOLE.
THÉRUT FLÁT SWART BLOD ÀND THÉRVR SWÉFDE.N BLÁWE LOGHA.
He took his sword and split the Finn's head.
The blood that ran out of it was black and produced a blue flame. [lit. 'from it black blood ran and...']

12 [084/03]
JETA THÛSEND JÉR SKIL THJU SPÉKE THEN DEL NÍGA ÀND AL MARA SÍGA ANDA THJUSTERNESSE
ÀND IN BLOD. OVIR THI UTSTIRTH THRVCH THA LÁGA THÉR FORSTA ÀND PRESTERA.
Another thousand years the spoke shall descend and ever more sink into darkness
and blood, shed over you when princes and priests deceive.

13 [084/16]
THAT BLOD THÉRA ÀRGUM SKIL OVIR THIN LIF STRÁMA
MEN THV NE MÜGTH ET NAVT TO THI NÉMA.
TO THA LESTA SKIL THAT FENINIGE KWIK THÉR VP ÁSA ÀND THÉROF STERVA.
Blood of the villains will flow over you, [O earth,]
but you must not absorb it.
Toxic creatures will drink it and perish.

14 [100/29]
GÍRIGA DROCHTNE FVL NÍD ÀND TORN.
THAM ÉRATH ÀND THJANATH WILLATH WÉSA. THRVCH THA MÀNNISKA.
THÉR BLOD ÀND OFFER WILLA ÀND SKÀT ASKJA.
greedy divinities, full of envy and wrath,
who want to be honoured and served by the people,
who want blood and sacrifice and demand rich offerings.

15 [118/16]
AS RÉK SKIL HJARA BLOD VRFLJUCHTA. TIL ER TO THA LESTA
NAVT OWERS AS FRYA.S BLOD IN HJARA ÀFTERKVMANDE SKIL BILÍWA
their [Lyda's] blood will dissolve like smoke, until eventually
only Frya's blood will remain in their descendants.

16 [125/21]
THIT HÉDE WI DÉN THRVCH ATH.SKIP TOFARA NÉARCHUS.
WAND WI HIM FAR BASTERD BLOD BIKÀNDE
THRVCH SIN FRISKA HUD AND BLÁWA ÁGON MITH WIT HÉR.
We had done this as allies of Nearchus,
since we knew he was partly of our blood (lit. 'bastard/mixed blood'),
having a fair skin, blue eyes and white hair.

17 [131/12]
THÉR WÉRON FON BASTERDE BLODE. THISSA MACHTON BILIWA.
Those of mixed blood were allowed to stay

18 [136/04]
JRTHA HETH HJARA BLOD DRONKEN.
MITH THÀT BLOD FODE HJU FRÜCHDA ÀND NOCHTA ÀND ALLE THAM THÉR OF ÉTON WRDON WIS.
Earth drank their blood.
From that blood she grew fruits and grains and all who ate thereof became wise.

19 [136/16]
VMB SKÔM TO VNKVMA MOSTON HJA HJARA ÀJEN BLOD VNKVMA.
To avoid shame, they had to deny their own blood.

20 [136/31]
MEN HJA NE THVRADON HIM NAVT AVBÉR BIKÀNÁ AS HJARA ÀJNE BLOD.
but they still dared not openly acknowledge him as their own blood.

21 [140/25]
THISSA SKILUN WÉSA UT FORSTA BLOD. FON PRESTERUM BLOD
FON SLÁVONUM BLOD ÀND FON FRYA.S BLOD.
They will be of royal blood, of priestly blood,
of slaves' blood and of Frya's blood.

22 [141/03]
BLOD SKIL STRÁMA. MEN THÉRUT SKILET FOLK NYE KRÀFTA GÁRA.
Blood will flow, but from it the folk will gather new strength.

23 [142/11]
SÁ FÉLO LÉD SKIL HJU BRODA.
THÀT JRTHA.T BLOD ALGÁDVR NAVT DRINKA NE KÀN. FON HJRA VRSLÉJANA BERNUM.
It will breed so much suffering
that earth cannot drink all the blood of her slain children.

24 [157/10]
THÉRFON SEND THA TWISK.LÁNDAR ALSA BLOD.THORSTICH WRDEN
This is how the Twisklanders have become so bloodthirsty.

25 [197/26]
THA GOLA MÉJEATH THEN THA NITHER LÉGA FON HJARA HELPAR AND SALT.ÁTHUM
VPPA VSA FJELDUM SKRÍWA MITH.ET BLOD THÀT ÛT HJARA WNDUM DRJUPTH.
The Gols may then write of the defeats of their helpers and mercenaries
in our fields with the blood that drips from their wounds.

26 [198/21]
THÉR SIT EN SKOTS FOLK. VR.ET MÁRA DÉL ÛT FRYA.S BLOD SPROTEN.
a ‘skots’ or tough folk dwells; mostly of Frya's blood.

27 [199/30]
THA FHONÍSJAR SEND EN BASTRED FOLK.
HJA SEND FON FRYA.S BLOD. ÀND FON FINDA.S BLOD ÀND FON LYDA HIS BLOD.
The Phoenicians are a bastard folk;
a mix of Frya's, Finda's and Lyda's blood.

28 [201/12]
ORLOCH WAS MITH KVMEN ÀND KIRT ÀFTER
FLOJADON STRÁMA BLOD BY THA HELLINGA THÉRA BERGUM DEL.
War had come with him and, before long,
streams of blood flowed down the mountain slopes.


29 [203/04]
BOPPA FRIA.S LANDUM SWABBERT RANP MITH JUK ÀND KÉDNE OMME
THÉRVMBE MOTON ALLE FOLKAR THÉR ÛT FRIA SPROTEN SEND
HJARA TONÔMA WÉI WERPA ÀND HJARA SELVA ALLÉNA FRIA.S BERN JEFTHA FOLK HÉTA.
FORTH MOTON ALLE VPSTONDA ÀND ET FINDA.S FOLK FON FRIAS ERV DRÍVA.
NILLATH HJA THAT NAVT NE DVA ALSA SKILUN HJA SLÁVONA BENDA VMBE HJARA HALSA KRÉJA.
ALSA SKILUN THA VRLANDASKA HÉRA HJARA BERN MISBRUKA ÀND FYTRA LÉTA
TILTHJU THÀT BLOD SÍGATH INNA JOWRE GRÉVA.
THÀN SKILUN THA SKINNA JOWRE ÉTHLA JO KVMA WEKJA ÀND JO BIKÍVJA VR JO LEFHÉD ÀND VNDIGERHÉD.
‘Disaster hovers over Frya's lands carrying yoke and chains,
so all tribes that have sprung from Frya's blood
must cast aside their nicknames and only call themselves Frya's children or folk.
You must all rise and expel Finda's folk from Frya's domain.
If you do not, you shall find slave chains placed around your necks.
The foreign masters will abuse your children and have them lashed
until their blood seeps into your graves.
The spirits of your ancestors will come to wake you up and blame you for your cowardice and carelessness.’

~ ~ ~

Possibly related: BLODE, BLODHÉD (timid, timidity)

[165/28]
THA HINDOS SIND IVIN BLODE ÀND FORFÉRED FROM HJARA FORSTUM (...) 
MÁR FON HJARA BLODHÉD WÀRTH AFGRISLIKA MISBRUK MÁKTH.
The Hindus are just as timid and fearful before their princes (...) 
Their timidity is terribly taken advantage of.

25 June 2018

HÁCH.FÁRANDE, HÁCH.FÁRENHÉD

HÁCH
hege - Frisian
high - English
hoch - German
hoog - Dutch
hög - Swedish
høj - Danish
høy - Norse

FÁRA
fara - Swedish
fahren - German
varen - Dutch
farre - Frisian
'fare' (travel, sail) - English

~ ~ ~

HÁCH.FÁRANDE (fragments 1-2) - haughty, cocky, (too) proud, lit. 'high-faring' (travelling/sailing high)

HÁCH.FÁRENHÉD (fragments 3-4) - haughtiness, cockiness, (excessive) pride, lit. 'high-faringness'

1 [031/15]  
FÉLO SLACHTA FINDA.S SEND SNOD ENOCH.
MEN HJA SEND GÍRICH. HÁCH.FÁRANDE. FALSK. VNKUS ÀND MORT.SJOCHTICH.
Many of Finda’s tribes are clever enough,
but they are greedy, haughty, false, unchaste, and murderous.


2 [053/03]  
KÁT WAS STOLTE ÀND HÁCH.FÁRANDE
THÉRVMBE NE LÉT HJU NÉN RÉD NI FOLLISTAR ANDA MODER NE FRÉJA.
Kate was proud and haughty,
which kept her from asking the mother for advice or assistance.


3 [063/10]  
THENE HÔNA NETH FAR NIMMAN FRJUNDSKIP.
ÀND THRVCH SIN VNTOCHT ÀND HÁCH.FÁRENHÉD.
IS ER VAKEN THENE BÁNA SINRA NÉISTA SIBBA WRDEN.
The rooster, however, has no friendship for anyone,
and his lechery and cockiness
has often made him kill his nearest relatives.



4 [100/13]  
HJARA FALXE RÉDNE ÀND HJARA TÀMLÁSE HÁCH.FAREN.HÉD
HETH RA VPPEN DWÁLWÉI BROCHT.
their false reasoning and ungovernable pride
have caused them to stray from the righteous path.


~ ~ ~
More or less synonymous: OVIRMODICHHÉD

[124/20]  
THÉRVMBE VRDRONK.ER INNA WIN ÀND IN SINA OVIRMODICHHÉD.
in his arrogance, he drowned himself in wine
(lit.: ‘therefore, he drowned in wine and in his overconfidence)

18 June 2018

Index of personal names

(including mythological names)

For introduction and explanation, see previous post.
For chapter and paragraph division see here.

translation original chapter/ paragraph
Abelo ÁBÉLO 1c
Adel ADEL 16b3c/ 17/ 19a
Adelbrost ADELBROST 12/ 13ab2
Adelheart ADELHIRT 13a
Alexander ALEXANDRE/ -ER 14d1
Alrik ÁLRIK 19f
Antigonus ANTIGONUS 14d2
Apol ÁPOL 1bc/ 12/ 13ab1/ 16b1
Apollonia APOLLÁNJA 13ae1-2/ 15a/ 16b3
Askar (also: Black Adel) ÁSKAR 19abcdef
Atharik ÁTHARIK 16b3
Bede BÉDEN 17
Bertholda BERTHHOLDA 16b3
Black Adel (also: Askar) SWARTE ADEL 19a
Bouda (also: Yesus, Fo, Krisen) BÛDA 15b2
Bruno BRUN(N)O 13b1/ 16b2
Calyp KÁLIP 10a
Cecrops SÉKROPS 9c/ 10b
Conrad KONERÉD 15a/ 16a/ 17
Cornelia KORN(H)ÉLJA 16b1
Dela DELA A/ 7b/ 8b2-3/ 14a/ 15b2
Demetrius (nicknamed ‘Besieger of Cities’) DEMÉTRIUS 14d2
Diana THJANJA 14f
Diwek DÍWEK 1c
Dunerose DUNRÔS 1c
Enoch ENOCH 1c
Finda FINDA see geography list
Fo (also: Yesus, Krisen, Bouda) 15b2
Foppo FOPPO 1c
Frana FRÁNA 11b/ 15ac
Frederick FRÉTHORIK 14af/ 15a/ 16a
Frethogunsta FRÉTHOGUNSTA 19d
Friso FRISO 14cd2/ 16b1-2-3c/ 18/ 19a
Frulik FRULIK 15a
Frya FRYA see geography list
Gerda GÉRT 9c
Godfreyath GODFRÉJATH 6
Gosa (surnamed ‘Makonta’) GOSA (MAKONTA) 14bc/ 15ad/ 16b1-3c
Heahgan HÁCHGÁNA 15a/ 17
Helena (also: Nyhellenia) HELLÉNJA 4d/ 9c/ 14f/ 15ab1-2
Helprik HELPRIK 9a2
Hetto HETTO 16b1
Hidde HIDDE A
Ifkja JFKJA 16b3c
Inka INKA 8b1-2
Jon/Jôn/John/Jan J(H)ON/ JÁN 9a2b
Kate/ Katherine, KÁT(ERINNE) 8ab1/ 10a
Kauch/ Kaep KÁVCH/ KÁP 16b1
Kelta KÀLTA 9a1-2-3b/ 19b
Koneread – see Conrad

Krisen (also: Yesus, Fo, Bouda) KRISEN 15b2
Liko LIKO B
Liudgerd LJÛDGÉRT 12/ 14d1/ 16d
Lyda LYDA see geography list
Makonta – see Gosa

Medea MÉDÉA 14f
Minerva MINERVA 4d/ 9a1-2bc
Minna MINNA 8a
Minos MINNO 4ac1de
Nearchus NÉARCHUS 14d1-2
Nef-Tunis – see Tunis

Nocht NOCHT 15a
Nyhellenia (also: Helena) NYHELLÉNJA 4d/ 9a1c
Oera Linda OERA/ OVIRA/ OVERA LINDA A/ B/ 13a/ 14a
Okke OKKE A
Ovira/ Overa Linda – see Oera Linda

Pier PIRE 9c
Prontlik PRONTLIK 19de
Ptolemy PTHOLEMÉUS 14d2
Reintia RÉINTJA 19cdf
Rika RIKA 18
Rosemouth/ -mond RÔSAMVDA/ -MOND 9a12
Siuchtheart SJUCHTHIRTE 16b1
Sterik STERIK 8b1
Storo STORO 1c
Suobene SVÔBENE 16b3
Sweetheart SWÉTHIRTE 16b3
Syrhed SÍRHÉD 9a1a2
Sytia SYTJA 1c
Thyr- – see Tyr-

Tonia TÜNTJA 1b/ 13b1/ 15c
Traest TRÁST 13d
Tunis/ Nef-Tunis (NÉF) TÜNIS 8b1-2-3/ 9b
Tutia TUTJA 8b2
Týr THÍR 8b3 (also see geography list)
Ulysses ÛLYSUS 10a
Vesta FÀSTA 2ad/ 2e1-2/ 4d/ 6/ 13d/ 14f/ 16d
Weamod WÉMOD 16b1
Wichard WICHHIRTE 14cd1-2/ 16b1
Wilfrid WILFRÉTHE 16b1
Wilhim WILHIM 16b1
Wilyo WILJO(W) 15a/ 16a
Witto WITTO 16b1
Wodin WODIN 8b1/ 11a/ 19f
Yaltia JALTJA 1c
Yesus (also: Fo, Krisen, Bouda) JESUS 15b2

Index of geographical-, burg- and tribal names

The greatest dilemma in translating the Oera Linda-book is how to deal with personal and geographical names. Sometimes it seems better to keep the original spelling, while at other times a more well known, modern spelling is more appropriate. Sometimes a name can be literally translated, as it is actually (also) a description. For these reasons, the following lists (personal names index in next blog post) are not to be considered absolute, complete or final. They may still be helpful though.

For chapter and paragraph division see here.

Note: in original spelling column, no distinction was made between A, Á, À / E, É / I, Í, J, Y and V, U, Û, Ü. Also, separating dots were left out.

translation original chapter/ paragraph
Adelings/ Adela Followers ADELLINGA/ ÁDELA FOL(LI)STAR 1a/ 13ac1/ 16b3c
Aken AKEN 1c/ 16b3
Alderga ALDE(R)GÁ 8ab1/ 9a2/ 11c/ 13e2/ 14ac/ 16b1-3
Aldergamouth – see Alderga

Aldland/ Atland ALDLAND/ ÁTLAND A/ 3c1/ 7b/ 8ab2-3/ 9a1/ 10a/ 11ab/ 14a/ 15b2
Alkmarum AL(I)KMÁRUM 13e2/ 14a
Allemanna ALLEMANNA 19f
Almanland ALMAN(A)LAND 4c1/ 8b3/ 10a
Angelara ANGELARA 7a
Athena ATHENJA 4e/ 9bc/ 10ab/ 14d1-2
Atland – see Aldland

Attica ATTIKA 9b
Balda/ Baltic Sea BALDA SÉ 16b1/ 19ce
Beachcombers – see Jutters

Britannia BRIT(T)ANJA 7a/ 8c/ 9a1-2-3/ 14d2/ 19be
Brokmen BROKMANNA 14f
Buda BVDA 1c
Coast-dwellers – see Kaedhomer

Creil Woods KRÍL(INGER) WALD 11c/ 19d
Crete/ Cretans KRÉTA// KRÉTAR 4c1e
Denmarks (or: low marks)/ Danes DEN(N)E/-A MARKA/ -UM// DÉNE/-A MARKAR 7a/ 8ab1-2/ 9a1/ 11abc/ 14ae/ 16b1-3/ 19cd
Distant-Greeklands – see Greeklands

Dokhem DOKHÉM 12
Druids – see Trowids

Ealands – see Sealands

Eamouth ÉMVDE/ -A 8b1/ 14c
East Fleeland – also see (West/ Southern) Fleeland(s) ÁSTFLÍLÁND 1c/ 8ab1
East Sea ASTER SÉ 7a
East-Skeanlanders ÁST SKÉNLANDAR 16c
Egmuda EGMVDA 19f
Egypt/ Egyptian(s) ÉGIPTALAND(-UM/-A/-E)// ÉGIPTISKA// ÉGIPTALANDAR 8ab2/ 9c/ 10b/ 14d2
Euphrates ÉUPHRAT 14d1
Finda/ Finda's Folk FINDA (LAND/ FOLK/ SLACHTA) 2bc2d/ 3c1/ 4c2-3e/ 5a2b2/ 6/ 7ab/ 8ab2/ 9b/ 13c2e2/ 15b2/ 16b3cd/ 19bc
Findasland FINDASLAND 8b3/ 15b2
Finns FINNA/ -UM (sing. FIN) 1b/ 6/ 8ab1-3/ 11abc/ 14f
Five Waters – see Punjab

Flee FLÍ 4e/ 13e2/ 16b1/ 19e
Flee Lake FLÍMAR(E) 8b3/ 9a1-2b/ 11c/ 14ac/ 16b2
Fleeburg FLÍBURCH 9a1-2
Fleeland – also see West, East and Southern Fleeland(s) FLÍLÁND 2c3/ 8b2
Fleemouth – see (mouth of the) Flee

Forana FORÁNA 1c/ 13e2/ 14b/ 19f
Franks FRANKA 16b3/ 19f (also see 19c)
Frees (or Franks) FRÍA 16b3
Frya(s)/ Frya's Folk etc. FRYA(S) (FOLK/ BERN/ BÀRN) B/ 1b/ 2abc2-3de1-2/ 3abc1-2-3/ 4bc1-2-3d/ 5a2b1-2c/ 6/ 8ab1/ 9a1-3bc/ 10ab/ 11abc/ 13b1-3c1-2de2/ 14abd1-2ef/ 15b1-2c/ 16ab1-2-3c/ 18/ 19abcdf
Fryasburg (incl. Old-/ New-) (ALD/ NY) FRYAS BURCH 1c/ 2a/ 8b3/ 10a/ 12/ 13e1-2/ 14a/ 16c
Fryasland FRYAS LAND/ LÔND 13b1/ 14ad1-2/ 16d
Gadir – see Kaedik

Ganges GONGGA 14d1/ 16d
Gedrosians (Gedrostne) GEDROSTNE 16d
Gerdmania/ Gerdman/ -men – also see New Gerdmania GÉRTMAN(N)JA// GÉRTMAN(N)(A) 9c/ 14cf/ 16b1-3d
Godaburg GODA (HIS) BURCH 8a/ 13b1
Gols GOLA/ -UM/ GVLUM 8c/ 9a1-3b/ 12/ 16b1-2c/ 19abcf
Gols' followers – see Gols

Greanega GRÉNEGÁ 12/ 19de
Greeklands/ Greeks (sometimes distinguished ‘near’and ‘distant’) KRÉKA/-E LANDA/ -UM// KRÉKALANDER/ -AR 4d/ 7a/ 8b3/ 9b/ 10ab/ 13e2/ 14cd1-2f/ 16b1/ 19b
Hals HALS 19cd
Helena followers HÉL(L)ÉN(J)A FOLGAR 14c/ 16c
Hellingers (Hellenes) HELLINGGAR 9b
Highmarks HÁGA MARKA 7a
Himalaya HIM(M)ELLÀJA 16d
Hindus HINDOS 16d
Holt-dwellers (in “Holt or Wood-dwellers”) HOLTSÁTA 7a
Ionians – see Jon's Islands

Ira ÍRA 16d
Jon's (Ionian) Islands J(H)ON HIS ÉLANDA/ -UM// JO(H)NJAR 9b/ 10a/ 14cd1-2f
Jutterland/ Jutters JUTTAR LÁND/ JUTTAR 7a/ 16b1/ 19de
Kaedhomer (coast-dwellers) KÁDHÉMAR 7a
Kaedik/ Gadir KÁDIK 8b2
Kashmir KASAMÍR 15b2
Kate's Gate KÁT (HI)S GAT 8b1/ 16b1
Katsburg KÁTS/ KATTA BURCH 1c/ 16b1-2
Kearenek (Kearenherne) KÉRENÀK (-HERNE) 9a3/ 19b
Kelta's Burg KÀLTAS BURCH 9a3
Keltic lands KÀLTANAR LANDUM 16b1
Kelts/ Kelta followers KÀLT(AN)A FOLGAR 9a3/ 16b1c/ 19b
Krékalanda – see Greeklands

Lake-dwellers/ Marsata MÁRSÁTA 7a/ 13e2/ 16b3
Land-dwellers LÁNDSÁTON 7a
Lets/ lefts LÉTNE 7a/ 16b1
Lindaheim LINDAHÉM 1c/ 4c1/ 16a
Lindasburg/ Lindasnose LINDAS BURCH/ NÔSE 13a/ 14e/ 16b1
Lindashores LINDA WRDA 1c/ 4c1/ 12/ 14a/ 16a
Lindasnose – see Lindasburg

Lindawards – see Lindashores

Lindawood LINDA WALD 13b2e1
Lithauers (Lithuanians) HLIT(H)HÁWAR 19cf
Liudburg LJVDBURCH 1c
Liudgarda LJVDGÁRDA/ -GÁRDNE 1c/ 13e1/ 14a/ 16a
Liudwerd LJUDWERD(E)/ -WARDJA/ LJUWERT/ -WRD A/ B/ 14a/ 16a/ 19d
Low Marks – see Denmarks

Lumkamakia LUMKAMÁKIA 8b1
Lyda/ Lyda's Folk LYDA(S FOLK/ BERN) 2bc1-2d/ 4c2/ 13e2/ 14b/ 15b2/ 16c/ 19b
Lydasburg LYDA ((HI)S) BURCH 13e2/ 14ab/ 16b3
Lydasland/ Lydia LYDA HIS LAND/ LYDJA 7a/ 8b3/ 9b
Magyars MAGÍARA/ -UM 1b/ 8ab1-3/ 9a1/ 13b2/ 16b1c/ 19cdf
Mannagardaforda/ Mannagardawaerda MANNAGARDAFORDA/ -WRDA 1c/ 13e2/ 16b2
Marsata – see Lake-dwellers

Massilia – see Missellia

Medea-mei-lakkia MÉDÉA MÉI LAKKIA 11c
Medeasblik MÉDÉAS BLIK 1bc/ 2a/ 8a/ 11c/ 15c
Middle Sea MIDDEL SÉ 7a/ 8b2-3c/ 9a3b/ 14d1/ 19be
Missellia (Massilia) MISSELLJA 8c/ 9a3/ 19b
Near-Greeklands – see Greeklands

Nef-Tunia NÉFTÜNJA 8b3
New Fryasburg – see Fryasburg

New Gerdmania – also see Gerdmania NY GÉRTMANJA 14d1
Northland/ Northmen – also see Skeanland(ers) NORTHLÁND// NORTHLJUD 14e
Old Fryasburg – see Fryasburg

Oryetten (Oritae) ORJETTEN 16d
Over-Scheldt/ the other side of the Scheldt – see Scheldt

Palmland PALMLAND 8c
Pang-ab – see Punjab

Phoenicia FH-/ PHONISJA 8c/ 19be
Phoenician coast PHONISIVS/ PHONISI HIS KÁD 8b3/ 14d1
Phoenician(s) F(H)-/ PHONISJAR 13b3/ 14d1-2/ 16a1/ 19b
Pirates' Islands RÁWER ÉLANDA 9b
Punjab (or: Five Waters) PANGAB (FIF WÉTRUM) 9c/ 14d1/ 16d
Red Sea RÁDE SÉ 9c/ 14d1
Rhine/ Rhine dwellers (H)RÉNE/-UM/-A// RÉNHÉMAR 7a/ 9a1/ 13b2de2/ 16b3/ 19cf
Rhodes HRODUS 14d2
Rome ROME 19b
Salamis SALÁMES 14d2
Sandfal SANDFAL 7a/ 9a1
Saxonmarks/ Saxman/ -men SAX(S)(A)N(N)A(R) MARKA/ -UM// SAX(ANA) MAN/-((N)A) 1c/ 7a/ 12/ 13b2e2/ 14ab/ 15a/ 16b1-2-3/ 19bcef
Scheldt SKELDA 7a/ 9a1-2/ 12/ 19acf
Seakampar (sea warriors) SÉKÀMPAR 7a/ 14e
Sealands/ Sealander(s) SÉLANDUM/ ÉLANDUM// SÉLANDAR 16b1
Seine SÉJENE 9a3/ 19e
Seven Islands SJVGON/-UN É-/ÀLANDA 1c/ 9a1/ 14c
Sidon SÍDON 8b3c
Skeanland/ Skeanlanders – also see Northland/ Northmen SKÉNLAND// SKÉNLANDAR/ -ER 8ab1/ 11a/ 13ab1e2/ 14e/ 16a1c/ 19e
Skelda – see Scheldt

Skots (tough) folk SKOTS(-E/-A) (FOLK) 19bf
Slavs (or slaves) SLÁVONA 19a
Southern Fleelands – also see (East/ West) Fleeland SÛDAR FLÍLÁNDA 1c
Staveren/ Stavia STÁV(E)RE(N)/ -ORA/ STÁVJA 1c/ 2ab2/ 8b2/ 11c/ 13de2/ 14bc/ 16b1-2-3/ 18/ 19acdf
Suobaland SVÔBALÁND 16b3
Swetsar (neighbors) SWETSAR 13e2
Tartars TARTARUM/ -A 16b3/ 19ac
Texland TEXLÁND 1c/ 2ac3/ 3a/ 4d/ 8a/ 9b/ 10a/ 11b/ 13b1e1/ 14abe/ 15a/ 16b1-3c/ 19ad
Thioth's Sons THJOTH HIS SVNA 19f
Toletmark TOLÉTMARK 8b3
Treasureburg WARABURCH 1c/ 6/ 8ab2/ 13e2
Trowids (Druids)/ Trowends (AN A) TROW (E)WÍD(EN)A/ TRJVWENDNE 8c/ 12
Troy TROJA/ -E 10a/ 19b
Twiskland(s)/ Twisk(land)ers TWISKLÁND(A)// TWISK(LÁND)AR 7ab/ 8a/ 13b1e2/ 15b1/ 16b3/ 18/ 19cf
Tyre/ Tyr's Burg/ Tyrians THÍR (H)IS (BURCH)// THÍRJAR 6/ 8b3/ 9a3bc/ 14d1
Upsalands VPSALÁNDUM 1b
Walhallagara WALHALLAGÁRA 1c/ 9a1/ 10a/ 14c/ 16b3
Weser WRSARA 1ab/ 12/ 13b1
West Fleeland – also see (East/ Southern) Fleeland(s) WEST FLÍLÁND 1c/ 8b3/ 14ab/ 16b3
Westland WESTLAND 7a
Wieringen WÍRINGGA 4c1/ 8b3
Wood-dwellers WODSÁTA 7a
Wralda's Sea WRALDAS SÉ 7a

27 May 2018

Saxons from Alexander's Army in other old sources

Cronecken der Sassen, printed 1492 in Mainz, Germany (source) - image nr. 16.


Transcript:
Ick vinde In der schrifft dat de Sassen syn ghekomen van dem here// des groten Allexandersz - etlicke holden dat se syn komen van dem brita// nischen volke - Itlicke holden dat se komen syn van den denen - wo dem// allen is dat lath ick In synem werde stan - wente dat finde ick in der hy// storia des groten allexander - do he starff do delde sich syn here ouer alle// de warlt. Do warent de saxen langhe tyde van landen to landen - vnd// krigende to water langhe tyde mit dem Romischen keyser Valentino -// Alsus qwamen oer eyn tayls in Prussen - eyn tayls in dusselanndt dat// man nu sassenlanndt nomet vnd hebben sich alsus bewortelt vnd vor// meret.

Repeated (in modernised language) in a newer version:
Chronica Der Sachsen vnd Nidersachsen, printed 1589 in Magdeburg, Germany (source) - page 9.


Transcript:
Ich finde in der Schrifft - das die Sachsen vom Heer des// grossen Alexandri gekommen sein. Etliche wollen - sie sein vom Britanischen Volcke - an-// dere / das sie von den Denen entsprossen sein. Wie aber dem allen - das lasz ich in seinem// werd. Dis aber find ich in dieser Historia des grossen Alexandri - das nach seinem Todt// sich sein Heer in alle Welt zertheilt - do schweifften die Sachsen lange zeit von einem// lande zum andern - vnd kriegten zu Wasser lange mit dem Römischen keyser Valentino - // also kam ir eins theils in Preussen - eins theils in diese Landt - das man nun Sachsenlandt// nennet - vnd haben sich also bewurzelt vnd vormehret.

English translation:
I find written, that the Saxons have come from the army of Alexander the Great. Some suggest they descended from the Britannic people, others from the Danes. However all that may be, it has its value. I find in the history of Alexander the Great, though, that after his death his army split and spread all over the world, so the Saxons may have wandered about for a long time, and fought sea battles against the Roman emperor Valentino[1], until part of them arrived in Prussia, and another part here in this country which is now called Saxony, and thus rooted and multiplied.
[1] probably Valentinian I (321-375).

25 May 2018

1699 book review of "De Frisiorum Antiquitate"

Transcription (made by me, JO) of a 1699 English book review about De Frisiorum Antiquitate (Ancient Frisian History) by Suffridus Petrus (1527-1597), as found on pages 78-84 of
The History of the Works of the Learned. Or, An Impartial Account of Books Lately Printed in all Parts of Europe. With a Particular Relation of the State of Learning in each Country.

Dr. Suffridus Petrus (1527-1597)


The following part being of special interest in relation to the Oera Linda-book:
"Freso [...] came from an Indian Province called Benedicta Fresia; where having served under Alexander the Great, and not daring to stay in the Country after his Death, took Shipping with what they could bring off [...] the Saxons were some Remains of the Macedonian Army; and that before they came into Germany, they were called Macedonians, for this he quotes the German Chronicle, printed at Mentz, in 1482, the Annals of Freezland, and others. His next Proof for this is Ancient Rhimes, Constant Tradition, and the Universal Opinion of the Frisons, who have entertained it from Father to Son Successively, and convey'd it to one another by Rhimes, a Custom, says he, which the most prudent Nations have made use of, as the readiest Preservative against Oblivion. [...] As a further Proof of this, he alledges, that the Frisons were constantly great Lovers of Learning, and therefore could easily preserve their Origin and Antiquities from Oblivion. He says also, that Freso, their Founder, was versed in all the Learning of the Greeks, and erected a fort of Academies in many places, where Youth were instructed in Learning, and the Art of War; and that he erected one particularly at Stavren, near Stavo's Temple, and placed a great Library in the Temple it self."

[for scans of original, see below]
[p.78] De Frisiorum Antiquitate; & Origine Libri tres. In quibus non Modo ejus Gentis propriae, fed & Communis Germaniae totius Antiquitates Multae, hactenus incognitae, produntur; & obscuri Veterum Scriptorum Loci plurimi illustrantur. Autore Suffrido Petro. Leovardensi Frisio U.J.C. Franequerae 1698. 12° pag. 574.

_ The learned Author hath published this Book as a Proemium to a larger Work of 60 Books, wherein he designs to comprehend all the History and Antiquity of Freezland.
_ He hath divided this Book into three Parts. In the first, he confutes the erroneous Opinions concerning the Origine of the Freezlanders. In the second, he answers some Objections against what he advances; and in the third, he confirms his own Opinon by Arguments. [p.79]
_ The Antiquity of the Freezlanders is demonstrable from this, that they are mentioned in the oldest Greek and Latin Authors, by the same Name they now enjoy. And Strabo, Ptolomy, Tacitus and others assign them the same Country which they now possess. But the rest of the Germans have all of them changed their Antient Habitations or Names: for that Country called Saxony, is not the same which Ptolomy assigns to the Antient Saxons, and the Names of Holland, Over-Issel, Gelderland, Westphalia, and other Neighbouring Countries are new, and no where to be found in Antient Writers. Our Author thinks it very considerable, that the Freezlanders have Annals of 2000 Years standing, that they can produce from their Archives, which, he is of Opinion, are not only sufficient to prove the Antiquity of the Freezlanders, but may give great Light to the affairs of the Romans, transacted in Germany; and also to those of the Danes, French, Saxons and Dutch. He begins the Freezland Aera 313 Years before Christ, since which their Commonwealth hath undergone 4 considerable Changes; so that they can give the Express number of Years,that they were govern'd by Princes, Dukes and Kings, till the time of Charlemagne, how long they were govern'd by States, till the time of the Anarchy, how long by Factions, till the time of Charles V. and how long they have been govern'd by Lords, till this day. He says the Origin of the Town of Stavren is as Ancient as that of their Princes, that it was formerly the Capital of the Kingdom of Freezland, and enjoys this prerogative above all the Han's Towns, that their Ships must be allowed the first Passage through the Sound, and others must wait till they be passed.
_ Our Author in his Enquiry, Whether the Freezlanders be Indigene or Advenae, first distinguishes betwixt the Acceptation of those Words by the Heathens and Chtistians. The Heathen, when they could not trace the Origine of Nations, used to call them Terrigenae, i.e. Earth-born, as if they had at first sprung up out of the Land they inhabited. And those who transplanted themselves from other Countries they called Advenae, or Strangers. But Christians being better informed by the Holy Scriptures, know that the Origin of all Nations must be derived from Noah and his Family, and therefore call those Indigenae, who have still possessed those Countries they inhabited first after the Flood, and those who have transplanted themselves into other Countries they call Advenae. In the former sense Crantzius, Rhenanus, Nuenarius and many others, call the Germans Indigenae, and Guicciardin calls the Freezlanders so upon [p.80] the same Account, but our Author proves the contrary as to the latter from their own Archives.
_ He confutes the Opinion of these who think the Country took its Name from an Accident, as that the Emperour Valentinian called it Freezland, because of its Cold, it being ridiculous that he should call it so in their own common Dialect. He rejects also the Opinion of those that derived the Name from the Phrygians, which is Synonimous with that of the Francs, and that they were fo called, for asserting their Liberty, because then, says he, other Nations who shook off the Yoke of Slavery, would have been called by the same Name; and therefore he is of Opinion, that the Country was so called from Friso, the Founder of the Nation.
_ In the ninth Chapter of his first Book, he gives a succinct Chronology of Freezland, from the beginning of the Nation, to the time of Charlemagne, which in brief is thus; Friso landed in Germany in the year 313 before Christ, and possess'd himself of that part of the Northern Coast, betwixt the Chersonesus Cimbrica, and the lowest Branch of the Rhine, those Countries he divided betwixt his 7 Sons, and called them Zeelands from their Situation. Our Author thinks that the care of restraining Inundations by Banks, Bulwarks, Water-Mills, &c. was committed to him by the People of the North, whence it came to pass that the Freezlanders gain'd a great part of the Land they now possess out of the Sea. Our Author thinks likewise that he was intrusted by those of the South, with the care of the Passes and Publick Roads from Jutland to the Rhine, and that by Garrisons of his Frison's he defended Merchants and Travellers from Thieves and Robbers; and hence they had Tolls and Customs allowed them as a Compensation, a power of making their own Laws, and Freedom from Foreign Wars; so that they were not obliged to send Soldiers out of their own Country. They had likewise many other Priviledges and Immunities allowed them, of which some were confirmed by Augustus Caesar, afterwards by Charlemagne, then by Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain.
_ The Freezlanders were at first governed by 7 Princes, whose Reigns amounted in the whole to 443 Years, to them succeded 7 Dukes, who governed 262 Years. They were followed by 9 Kings, who reigned 383 Years; in the whole 1088 Years. Stavren continued to be the Metropolis of the Country for 193 Years, there the Prince fixed the Seat of his Government, and administred the same, over his 7 Zeelands by Governours and Judges. About the Year [p.81] before Christ, 120. Friso, Jun. Son to Grunus, the Founder of Groningen, married the Daughter of Ubbo, Prince of Freezland, and receiving Forces from his own Father, and his Father-in-Law, planted a Colony in a desolate Island, Westward, beyond the most Easterly Branch of the Rhine, and called it New Freezland, after his own Name, and chose a Seat for himself in it, which was about a Mile from that place, where afterwards Alcmaer was built. There he laid the Foundation of a City, and called it after his Wife's Name Froungast; and by some it was called Vrongeist and Vrontegeist. Afterwards this City encreased wonderfully, and became a great Mart-Town, and the Romans called it Verona, by. reason of the Affinity between its Name, and that of Verona in Italy. And our Author saith, that this may solve the difficulty that is found in the Story of the 11000 Virgins. For some, when they read that the Virgins loosed from Britain, and were driven by Tempest into Verena, knowing no other Verona but that in Italy, did groundlesly put Bonne initead of Verona. This is the truth of that History, which our Author says ignorance hath corrupted; it being no ways incredible that they were driven into Verona in Freezland, when there was an easie Passage from Britain into that Port.
_ Our Author says, that those things which Tacitus, l. 4. mentions as done by the Freezlanders, are to be referred to this West Freezland; as the nearness of Freezland to Battavia, which Tacitus insinuates, seems to require: For about 150 Years after the planting that Colony, the Romans made Olennius, a Noble Man, and one skilled in Military Affairs, Governour of Freezland. This Olennius, as our Author says, was called in the Language of his Country Holle, which signifies a Jolt-head, for the Freezlanders call the Head en Holle. Their Annals likewise give us the following Account why about those times the Name of Freezland was changed, which had alfo been imposed on this Country. Olennius, above mention'd, collecting the Tribute with too much rigor, did thereby force the Freezlanders to rebel, and brought them into great Calamities, whereupon they called this Country Holle Landt, by way of contempt, and from thence came the Name of Holland.
_ He adds, that those New, or Western Freezlanders continued 420 Years under an Aristocratical Government; so that during this interval very few or none of their Princes are mentioned. However, they enlarged their Territories westward towards Brabant and Flanders. But afterwards about the 300 Year of Christ, and the 2d of Haro, Duke of Old Freezland, Didericus, Haro's Nephew, taking [p.82] with him four others of his Kinsmen, he carried a new Colony into that part of West Freezland, now called Waterland, and which at that time was not habitable, because of the frequent Inundations, and wild Woods. Didericus built Medemblick, which was the Metropolis of New Freezland, and this Colony joining with the other, they enlarged their Dominions so far towards the West, that they grew equal almost to a duly proportioned Kingdom. Bur when Didericus, whose Ambition advanced with his Fortune, assumed a Crown and the Title of King, instead of that of Duke, Haro, Duke of East Freezland looking upon it as absurd, that the Vassal should seem to be of greater Dignity than his Lord, made War with him, and deposed him. His Successors however did afterwards reassume the Royal Diadem, about the Year of Christ 392. from which time it began to be called the Kingdom of Freezland, and was divided into two Sovereignties, the Metropolis of East Freezland being Stavren, and that of West Freezland Medenblick. The Race of Didericus, the West Freezland King failed not long after in Elinus, who adopted Beroald Son to the King of East Freezland, and soon after died; so that about the Year of Christ 533. Beroaldus succeeded to both, and after having reign'd happily for about 60 Years, was deprived of his Life and Kingdom by Clotharius II. King of France, about the Year of Christ 593. His Son Adgill succeeded, and after him there reigned four other Princes, who sometimes agreed, and at other times differed with the French, till the time of Charlemagne, who overcame Radbod the Second, and restored the Freezlanders to their Ancient Liberty.
_ Our Author in the next place makes a large Digression about the Origin of the German Name. He differs from Tacitus, who thinks that Name was given them but a little before his time, and says, it rather grew obsolete not long after. He is also of opinion, that the Name of Teutons is still much later, and derives the Name from Togarma, mentioned in the 10th of Genesis, by taking away the first Syllable, changing Gorma into Germa, and thence forming Germanus.
_ He confutes those who derive the Origin of the Freezlanders from the Hyperboreans, or from a Colony ot Jews, sent to Freezland by Vespasian after the Destruction ot Jerusalem, and says this last Fable is more applicable to part of Pomerland, where the Country-men at Plow constantly sing one Note, like the Cuccow, and cry, Jeru Vespa, Jeru Vespa, Jeru Vespa, in remembrance [p.83] of their Antient Country, destroyed by Vespasian, as they alledge.
_ He likewise confutes the Opinion of their being descended from Frisius, Son to Clogio, King of France, and that his Posterity paid a Tribute of 260 Oxen to the French, as a Token of Homage, and thinks it rather true, that the French derive their Origin from the Freezlanders, according to Beatus Rhenarus and Adrianus Junius.
_ Then he attacks the Opinion of those who say, the Frison's are descended from Grunius the Trojan, the Builder of Groningen, and therefore writ them Phrysii, as nearer the Phryges their Progenitors, and at last tells us his own Sentiments, that Freso, the Founder of their Nation, with his Brethren Saxo and Bruno, came from an Indian Province called Benedicta Fresia; where having served under Alexander the Great, and not daring to stay in the Country after his Death, took Shipping with what they could bring off, and landing in this Country, called it Fresia, after his own Name.
_ This he insists upon at large in his Third Book, and thinks it the more probable, because the Story of Saxo, the Founder of the Saxon Nation, agrees with it. He says all Authors, Crantzius excepted, agree, That the Saxons were some Remains of the Macedonian Army; and that before they came into Germany, they were called Macedonians, for this he quotes the German Chronicle, printed at Mentz [Mainz], in 1482[#1], the Annals of Freezland, and others.
_ His next Proof for this is Ancient Rhimes, Constant Tradition, and the Universal Opinion of the Frisons, who have entertained it from Father to Son Successively, and convey'd it to one another by Rhimes, a Custom, says he, which the most prudent Nations have made use of, as the readiest Preservative against Oblivion. He tells us moreover, that all the Freezland Historians he hath seen, give their Suffrage this way.
_ As a further Proof of this, he alledges, That the Frisons were constantly great Lovers of Learning, and therefore could easily preserve their Origin and Antiquities from Oblivion. He says also, that Freso, their Founder, was versed in all the Learning of the Greeks, and erected a fort of Academies in many places, where Youth were instructed in Learning, and the Art of War; and that he erected one particularly at Stavren, near Stavo's Temple, and placed a great Library in the Temple it self. [p.84]
_ In the next place, he acquaints us, that both Frison and Saxon Historians agree as to Saxo, and that the People of Freezland, Saxony and Brunswick had formerly one and the same Language, and form of Government.
_ Then he gives us an Account of the Arms of the Saxons and Frisons, from the Heraulds Books, and says, that when Friso had the Defence of the German Ocean committed to his Charge, his Arms were in a blue Field, three Silver Bars, oblique from the right to the left, betwixt them 7 red Leaves of a Water Rose, 4 betwixt the Dexter and the middle Bar, and 3 betwixt that and the Sinister. These, says our Author, were the most Ancient Arms of the Frisons, and proves that they were used by their Princes, Dukes and Kings, and that the 7 Leaves signified 7 Islands, into which Freezland was formerly divided. Saxo's Coat, he tells us, was also a blew Field, divided in the middle by a cross Line, from the right to the left, under the same; at the dexter Point, there was a Lion, and at the sinister Point a Draggon, their Heads almost joined, and looking upon one another, with a pleasant Aspect. In the upper part there was an Eagle flying with expanded wings, looking upon both. In this place, he confutes Crantzius, who says, that those are but New Bearings, and that Wittekind, Duke of Saxony, who was overcome by Charmagne, carried in his Ensigns a black Colt, but when he turn'd Christian, changed it into a white one. He proves from Methodius, who is many Centuries elder than Wittekindus, that the Saxons in his time impressed a Lion upon their Coin. He observes, that Wittekindus was not King of the Saxons, but one of those twelve Princes (or Great Men) that governed Saxony by turns; and therefore bore the Arms of the Country, and not his own. He also quotes Wittikind the Monk, who in his 1st Book of Hatthagar, D. of Saxony, says, that when he encouraged his Men to Battle, he took up the Standard or Ensign (which they account Sacred) impressed with a Lion and Dragon, and an Eagle hovering over them, by which he would represent Fortitude and Prudence, and their Efficacy, and express constancy of Mind by the Motion of the Body.
_ In the rest of his Book he enquires after the Indian Fresia, and thinks it to be the Pharrasii mentioned by Curtius, beyond the Ganges. He pretends to trace Freso's Genealogy, as far as Shem, one of Noah's Sons, and gives an Account of the Travels of Freso and his Brethren, &c. all which is submitted to the Readers Censure, it being applicable to Antiquaries better than to any other sort of Men.

Qui bene conjexit Vatem hunc perhibebo optimum.

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Note #1 - probably Cronecken der Sassen, 1492 Mainz, by Cord or Hermann Bote - online facsimile - see next blog post.




Downloadable PDF of these pages here.