04 February 2020

Ottema's OL publications and where to find them

Dr. J.G. Ottema, ca. 1875
In Chronological order

Used abbreviations:
  • FG - Friesch Genootschap (Frisian Society)
  • GAO1/ GAO2 - Geschiedkundige aanteekeningen en ophelderingen bij Thet Oera Linda Bok (Historical notes and clarifications to the OLB) 1st (1873) and 2nd (1878) extended edition
  • HC - Heldersche Courant (newspaper)
  • LC - Leeuwarder Courant (newspaper)
  • OLB1/ OLB2 - Thet Oera Linda Bok 1st (1872) and 2nd (1876) corrected edition
  • NS - Nederlandsche Spectator
  • SB - Sandbach translation of OLB1 (1876)
(one more text to be translated)
date d/m/y
title and description
NL
EN
Feb. 1871
Der Friezen herkomst volgens het boek van Adela (Origin of the Frisians according to Adela's book) - lecture FG, partly in LC (29-8-1871) and as Inleiding (introduction) in OLB1 and OLB2
yes 
10-9-1871
Eene reis langs den Rijn in de zesde eeuw voor Christus (A journey along the Rhine in the 6th century BC) - LC [this was merely a fragment of Ottema's transliteration p. 108-118 (Apollania’s Journey), without any commentary]
-
-
19-9-1871
Thet Bok thêra Adela folstar (The book of Adela's followers) - reply to mr. Colmjon in LC
27-9-1871
Friesch handschrift in het bezit van den Heer C. Over de Linden te Helder (The Frisian manuscript of mr. C. Over de Linden, Helder) - HC [this article is identical to the one in LC of 19-9 (reply to Colmjon), only the title is different]
-
-
14-10-1871
Adela's boek. Brief aan mr L. Ph.C. van den Bergh (Adela's book. Letter to mr vd Bergh) - NS [original not found yet]
1872
Thet Oera Linda Bok (1st edition translation + transcript, incl. list of improvements) - * please use 2nd corrected edition (1876)
*
SB
1872
Vergelijkende taalproeve van de Oud Friesche wetten, en de taal van het handschrift (Experimental comparison of the manuscript-language relative to that of the Old Frisian laws) - in OLB1 and OLB2
-
-
1873
Geschiedkundige aanteekeningen en ophelderingen bij Thet Oera Linda Bok (Historical notes and clarifications to the OLB) 1st edition - * please use 2nd extended edition (1878)
*
-
1873
Germanen (Germanic peoples) - addendum to GAO1 and GAO2 (5 pages)
May 1874
De Koninklijke Akademie en het Oera Linda Boek (The Royal Academy and the OLB) - brochure 20 pages
yes!
16-3-1876
De Deventer Courant en het Oera Linda Boek (The Deventer Newspaper and the OLB) - lecture FG, later brochure 29 pages (june)
yes!
Sept. 1876
Voorbericht (preface) to OLB2
Oct. 1876
Leeuwarden, de Middelzee en het Oera Linda Boek - brochure 5 pages [this short essay is included in GAO2; p.34-37 "Van den beginne af ... ter plaatse heeft bevonden."]
-
-
5-10-1876
Het handschrift van Thet Oera Linda Bok heeft al langen tijd vóór het jaar 1600 bestaan (The OLB manuscript existed long before 1600) - FC, later added to OLB2 (4 pages)
Oct. 1876
Thet Oera Linda Bok (2nd edition translation + transcript)
-
29-3-1877
reply to Wie heeft het Oera Linda Boek geschreven? (Who wrote the OLB) - FC, later added to GAO2 (2 pages)
13-9-1877
reply to De Pandschâb Kolonie van het Oera Linda bok (The Punjab colony of the OLB) - FC, later added to GAO2 (3 pages)
1878
Geschiedkundige aanteekeningen en ophelderingen bij Thet Oera Linda Bok (Historical notes and clarifications to the OLB) 2nd extended edition
to do

30 January 2020

Ottema 1876 (2nd) edition of Oera Linda translation...

... can now be searched through and copied from!

Oera Linda researchers who know (some) Dutch, will want to have access to the second Dutch edition (1876) of Dr. Ottema's Oera Linda translation. They will probably have found the version on the 'Gutenburg' website, but as I pointed out earlier, this is NOT the full 1876 edition, although it suggests it is. The translation and transliteration it contains are the 1872 (1st) versions and one of Ottema's essays (about page numbering) is missing (accessible here).

Earlier I made available a scanned version (PDF) of a 1971 facsimile reprint of the 1876 edition.

Now, the full text is also made available digitally (through OCR and meticulously corrected), including notes about the most significant differences between the 1st and 2nd edition. Note that it was the 1st edition Sandbach used for his English translation, thereby including many mistakes that were later corrected by Ottema.

To access the new 1876 translation, go here.
For Ottema's improved Historical Notes and Clarifications (1878), go here.

fragment of the new online version

21 January 2020

Sail (noun/ verb)

Fishing boat running before the wind (cropped) - Pieter Mulier, ca. 1630 (source)

'Zeil' in Weiland dictionary (1811)
That the Dutch for long have been a seafaring nation, is substantiated by the long list of expressions with the word sail (see Weiland 1811). If the Oera Linda-book had been a 19th century creation, it would have been very tempting, if not hardly avoidable for its author(s) to make ample use of an (assumed) old version of this word. Also, he or they would probably have chosen a variety of segil, segel or seghel, as the form with -g- is considered to be older by conventional etymologists.

However, only twice a variety of sail is to be found in the OLB, and without a -g-; once as verb (VRSÉILDE - Dutch verzeilde) and once in a compound noun (SÍL.MÁKAR - Dutch zeilmakers).

[040/01]
THA AS ER ÉNIS EN SKIP FON.T FLÍ BY VS VRSÉILDE
So on one occasion, when a ship from the Flee sailed among us


[153/23]
WAS HÉR OVIRFLOD TO FARA SKIPMÁKAR. SMÉDA. SÍL.MÁKAR RÉP.MÁKER ÀND TO FARA ALLE ÔRA AMBACHTIS LJUD
there was prosperity for shipbuilders, smiths, sail makers, rope makers, and for all other craftsmen


In my translation I often used the verb sail (and twice its derivative sailors), mostly for FÁRA (Dutch: varen), since cognate fare is less commonly used in English in this context. Also, in some cases sail as paraphrase for the literal go or come will improve clarity. All of these fragments are listed below.

Some modern cognates (noun/ verb):
sail/ (to) sail - English
zeil/ zeilen - Dutch
sejl/ sejl - Danish
seil/ seil - Norse

- / seilata - Finnish
Segel/ segeln - German
segel/ segel - Swedish
segl/ siglingu - Icelandic
seol/ seoltóireacht - Irish
seòl/ seòladh - Scots Gaelic
hwyl/ hwylio - Welsh
żagiel/ żeglowanie - Polish


Fragments of OLB with varieties of sail in their current translation

[030/13]
MITH.E FLÁT TO FÁRANE
to sail with the fleet

[053/29]
THA STJURAR GVNGON THÁ NÉI THA DÉNNA.MARKA FÁRA
The navy then sailed to the Denmarks [lit. the navigators went sailing...]

[057/04]
THÉRVMBE GVNGON HJA THES NACHTIS THA LANDA BIRÁWA ÀND FÁRA BI DÉI
Therefore, they went robbing the lands by night and sailing by day

[057/14]
VMBE TO FÁRANE FÁR THA RIKA KANING FON ÉGIPTA LANDUM
in order to go and sail in the service of the rich king of the Egyptian lands

[058/01]
NÉF.TÜNIS FOR ALLINGGEN THÉR KÁD
Nef-Tunis sailed along the coast

[058/13]
ÀND FON THÉR UT FAR.A RIKKA FORSTA FÁRA
from which he could sail in service of the rich princes [lit. and from there sail for the...]

[059/26]
MITH AL THI SKÀT FÍL TÜNIS THÀT FLÍ.MAR BINNA
With all this treasure, Tunis sailed [lit. fell/ lunged] into the Flee Lake

[065/22]
TO.T.FLÍ.MÁR UTFÁREN MITH 100 ÀND 27 SKÉPUM
(who had) sailed out of the Flee Lake with a hundred and twenty-seven ships

[066/30]
FOR JON TOBEK. NÉI.T.FLÍ.MAR
Jon sailed back to the Flee Lake

[067/12]
THÁ KÉMON THA GOLA MITH HJARA SKÉPUM UT.A MIDDEL.SÉ KÁDIK BIFÁRA
Then the Gols came with their ships, sailing from the Middle Sea to Kaedik (Gadir)

[068/19]
KÉMON HÍR THRJU SKÉPA IN.T FLÍ.MAR FALLA
three ships sailed [lit. came to fall/ lunge] into the Flee Lake

[069/19]
ÀND THACH WÉRON MÉST ALLE TO LOF VMBE WIDER TO GANE
but almost all crew members were too tired to set sail [lit. to go] again

[073/13]
ÀFTERNÉI KÉMON ER THRJU HVNDRED SKIPUN FVL SALT.ATHA FON THA WILDE BERCHFOLKUM VNWARLINGA VSA HÁVA BIFÁRA
Thereupon, three hundred ships arrived full of mercenaries from the wild mountain-peoples, who unexpectedly sailed [lit. came... to fare] into our harbor

[076/09]
HWAND ASER IN SÉ KÉM IS SIN SKIP VRGVNGON
as when he set sail [lit. came in sea], his ship was wrecked

[085/16]
FORTH GVNGER THAT FLÍMÁR VP
Then he sailed [lit. went] towards the Flee Lake

[085/24]
NW GVNGON HJA TO ÀND FORON MITH HJRA LITTIGE FLÁTE
Now they went and sailed with a small fleet

[086/22]
ÀND FOR RJUCH TO RJUCHT AN NÉI VSE FLÁTE
and sailed straight to our fleet

[086/26]
THA HJA VPPA VNFORDEN SKÉPA HÉRADON THAT THENE MÁGÍ VRDRVNKEN WAS BRÛDE HJA HINNE
When the news of the drowned magus reached the enemy ships that were still intact, they sailed away

[090/07]
THÁ IS APOL MIN JUNGERE BROTHER FON HÍR NÉI THÉRE WEST.SÍDE FON SKÉNLÁND FÁREN
My younger brother Apol decided to leave and sail to the west coast of Skeanland

[097/04]
THRÉ FONÍSJAR SKIP.LJUDA
Three Phoenician sailors

[117/01]
THA STJURAR ÀND ÔR FÁRANDE FOLK
The steersmen and other sailors

[119/04]
HJA FORON TIL STAVERE
They sailed to Staveren

[122/09]
MITH ÉL SIN HÉR THJU GONGGA VPFÁRA
sail up the Ganges with his whole army

[122/18]
JAHWÉDER STAND RÉD VMB SÉ TO KJASANE
(we) were all prepared to set sail [lit. all stood ready to choose sea]

[125/29]
DÉMÉTRIUS WAS NÉI ÁTHENJA FÁREN
Demetrius had sailed to Athena

[127/29]
MITH ALLE MÀN NÉI FRYAS LAND FÁRA
to sail with all his men to Fryasland

[130/04]
FRISO THÉR FÜL MITHA JOHNJAR FAREN HÉDE
Friso, who had often sailed with the Ionians

[148/19]
WÉRON SVME JUTTAR NÉI TEX.LAND FÁREN
some Jutters had sailed to Texland

[168/10]
IS MÀN THEN MITH SIN SKIP ÉL FÉR SÛDLIK FÁREN
If you then sail [lit. has one sailed] very far to the south by ship

[208/04]
MITH THA JUTTAR FOR HJU NÉI SKÉNLAND
with the Jutters it sailed to Skeanland

20 January 2020

Slaves, slave people, Slavs

Relief from Smyrna (present-day Izmir, Turkey)
The English and Dutch online etymology databases both claim that the word 'slave' is derived from the Slavic people, for so many of them would have been subject to slavery. Their name is ...
"usually considered a derivation from slovo ("word"), originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)", i. e. people who understand each other" (wiki)
This does not make much sense to me. The cognates below would all have to be derived from medieval Latin, although the concept of slavery must be much older. Would all these languages not have had their own word for it? Or would they all have exchanged it for the Latin variety?

The German online etymology database is more precise and less certain about how the words are related.

The Oera Linda-book suggests that the word slave came first. SLÁVONA is a common word in the OLB and it simply means slaves. The people that the authors of the Oera Linda texts belonged to considered themselves free (FRY; FRYA was not only the name of their primal Mother, it also means the free); this was their highest value, the most sacred part of their identity. They saw people who did not value their own freedom, who needed masters to be ruled over, as slaves.

Some modern cognates (sing./ plur.; masculine form only):
slave, slaves - English
slaaf, slaven - Dutch, Frisian
slaaf, slawe - Afriakaans
slave, slaver - Danish, Norse
slav, slavar - Swedish
sclav, sclavi - Romanian
skllav, skllevër - Albanian
Sklave, Sklaven - German
schiavo, schiavi - Italian
esclave, esclaves - French
esclavo, esclavos - Spanish
esklabo (sing. and plur.?) - Basque
σκλάβος, σκλάβοι - Greek 
sclábhaí, sclábhaithe - Irish
asclau, esclaus - Catalan 
escravo, escravos - Portuguese

Varieties used in OLB: (fragment nrs.)
noun - plural (slaves)
SLÁVONA - 4, 9, 11-16, 20, 24-25, 27, 29-30, 32-35
. SKIN.SLÁVONA (apparent slaves) - 2
. SLÁVONA.BANDA/ -BENDA (slaves chains) - 7, 31
. SLÁVONA FOLK(A(R)) (slave people/ folk) - 10, 21, 26, 28, 36
. SLÁVONA KÉNINGGAR (slave kings) - 17
SLÁFONA - 19
SLÁFONUM - 1
SLÁVONUM BLOD (slaves' blood) - 23
SLÁVONENA - 8
noun - singular (slave)
SLÁF - 3, 5
SLÁV - 22
(female slave:) SLÁFINE - 6
verb (to slave, i.e. work like a slave)
SLÁVTH - 18

Fragments in OLB:

1 [002/07]
HÀVON HJA FRYA.S RÉD MIN.ACHT ÀND SE TO HJARA SLÁFONUM MAKAD
they ignored Frya's advice and used them as slaves

2 [003/08]
THÁ THA SKIN.SLÁVONA VSA TÁL MÀCHTICH WÉRON
When these apparent slaves had learned our language

3 [008/05]
THÉR.ER ANSACH WÀRTH SLÁF
whoever looked at her became enslaved [lit. became slave]

4 [010/07]
JO TO SLÁVONA TO MAKJANDE
make you into slaves

5 [011/16]
THÉR NÉN SLÁF IS FON ÉN ÔTHER
whom is neither the slave of another

6 [012/28]
MOT IK ANDA BÀRN.TAM ÉNER SLÁFINE FÁRA LÉTA
must be paraded with collar and leash like a slave girl [lit. I must let them be walked on a slave girl's leash]

7 [033/20]
SLÁVONA.BANDA OM JAHWELIKES FRYA HALS
bonds of slavery [lit. slaves chains] over every Frya's neck

8 [034/01]
ALSA BEN.IK É.LIK ANTHA MINNISTE JWAR SLÁVONENA
I would be like the lowest of your slaves

9 [035/12]
VMBER SLÁVONA FON TO MÁKJANDE
enslave [lit. make slaves of] them

10 [050/29]
SLÁVONA FOLKA STAPPATH VPPA THIN KLÁT
slave folk step upon your clothing

11 [052/03]
HJA SEND SLÁVONA FON THA PRESTERUM
they are slaves of the priests

12 [054/26]
WI ALLA WILLATH THIN SLÁVONA WÉSA
we shall willingly be your slaves

13 [070/31]
THAT WI NÉN SLÁVONA HÉDE
that we had no slaves

14 [071/02]
HO BIST WEL AN THINA SLÁVONA KVMEN
How did you get your slaves then?

15 [071/08]
SÁ MOT.I THINA SLÁVONA FRY LÉTA
you must set your slaves free

16 [078/12]
ET SULVER THÀT THA SLÁVONA UTA SULVER.­LÔNA WNNON
the silver that their slaves gathered in the silver mines

17 [088/31]
WELDA É.LIK THA SLÁVONA KÉNINGGAR
rule like the slave kings

18 [100/19]
HJARA GÁST SLÁVTH HIM SELVA IMMER OF
their minds always work like slaves [lit. their mind always 'slaves itself off']

19 [121/09]
WY NE MÜGON NÉNE SLÁFONA NAVT NE WRDE
We can never be slaves

20 [128/27]
THRVCHDAN WI NÉNE SLÁVONA NAVT NÉDE
as we had no slaves

21 [134/25]
NISTON THA SLÁVONA FOLKAR NÀWET FON FRYHÉD
the slave peoples knew nothing of freedom

22 [137/05]
THÉR AS SLÁV THJANADE
who had been enslaved [lit. who served as slave]

23 [140/25]
THISSA SKILUN WÉSA UT FORSTA BLOD. FON PRESTERUM BLOD FON SLÁVONUM BLOD ÀND FON FRYA.S BLOD 
They will be of royal blood, of priestly blood, of slaves' blood and of Frya's [or: free man's] blood

24 [142/22]
FON THRJU WORDA SKILUN VSA ÀFTERKVMANDE AN HJARA LJUDA ÀND SLÁVONA THA BITHJUTNESSE LÉRA
Of three concepts, our descendants will teach the meaning to their people and to slaves

25 [160/19]
ALLE SEND SLÁVONA WRDEN
All have become slaves

26 [160/31]
THAT ALLE SLÁVONA FOLKAR MANLIKÔTHERA LIK ÔRA MÀNNISKA BISKOJA
that all slave folks consider each other as strangers

27 [190/04]
SÁ SKILUN JY THÉRTHRVCH SLÁVONA WERTHA
that will make you into slaves

28 [190/07]
HO T. BÍ THA SLÁVONA FOLKAR TO GVNGEN IS
how this has affected the slave peoples

29 [197/32]
ALHWENNE THÉR NÉN GOLA NER SLÁVONA NACH TARTARA MÁRA FON FRYA.S ERV TO VRDRÍVANE SEND
until there are no more Gols, Slaves or Tartars to be expelled from Frya's territory

30 [200/01]
THÀT FOLK FON LYDA SEND THÉR AS SLÁVONA
The Lyda folk are there as slaves

31 [203/12]
ALSA SKILUN HJA SLÁVONA BENDA VMBE HJARA HALSA KRÉJA
they shall find slave chains placed around their necks

32 [207/10]
SÁ THAT HJA TO THA LERSTA WEL SLÁVONA NIMMA MOSTE
so in the end they had to use slaves

33 [207/21]
THÀT STORA FOLK WÀRTH HALDEN. THAT MOS RA AS SLÁVONA THJANJA
the strong were kept to serve as slaves [lit. the strong folk was kept, that had to serve them as slaves]

34 [208/02]
HWÉR SLÁVONA JEFTHA GOD KÉM
wherever slaves or goods arrived

35 [208/17]
AS.ER WLA SLÁVONA INBROCHTE
than he had brought foul slaves in

36 [209/01]
LÉTAR HÀVON HJA FON.ET SLÁVONA FOLK WIVA RÁVATH
Later they stole wives from the slave folks

19 January 2020

Translation improvements explained

from Sandbach title page (1876)
In a recent Youtube video, Robert Sepehr read two fragments of the Oera Linda-book in the version of Sandbach (1876). As I have pointed out before, this was a translation of the first Dutch translation (Ottema, 1872). It contains many misinterpretations and other flaws, which is why I felt compelled to make a new translation (proofread and edited by several native English writers).

From each of the two fragments Sepehr used, I will give three examples below of improvements I made and a detailed explanation.

Fragment 1 - examples underlined [translation/ title/ page]
Sandbach: How the Bad Time came (p.71) Ott: 7b. How Aldland Sank, ca. 2190 BCE (p. 049)
How the Bad Time came

During the whole summer the sun had been hid behind the clouds, as if unwilling to look upon the earth. There was perpetual calm, and the damp mist hung like a wet sail over the houses and the marshes. The air was heavy and oppressive, and in men's hearts was neither joy nor cheerfulness. In the midst of this stillness the earth began to tremble as if she was dying.

The mountains opened to vomit forth fire and flames. Some sank into the bosom of the earth, and in other places mountains rose out of the plain. Aldland, called by the seafaring people, Atland, disappeared, and the wild waves rose so high over hill and dale that everything was buried in the sea. Many people were swallowed up by the earth, and others who had escaped the fire perished in the water.

It was not only in Finda's land that the earth vomited fire, but also in Twiskland (Germany). Whole forests were burned one after the other, and when the wind blew from that quarter our land was covered with ashes. Rivers changed their course, and at their mouths new islands were formed of sand and drift.

During three years this continued, but at length it ceased, and forests became visible. Many countries were submerged, and in other places land rose above the sea, and the wood was destroyed through the half of Twiskland (Germany). Troops of Finda's people came and settled in the empty places. Our dispersed people were exterminated or made slaves. Then watchfulness was doubly impressed upon us, and time taught us that union is force.
How the bad times came:

During the whole summer, Sun had hidden behind clouds, as if she did not want to see Earth. Wind rested in his bags, causing smoke and steam to stand like pillars over houses and pools. This made the air become dreary and dull, and neither joy nor pleasure were in the hearts of people. In the midst of this stillness Earth began to tremble as if she was dying.

Mountains split open to spew out fire and flames, while others sank into her bowels; and where there had been plains before, mountains rose up. Aldland — or ‘Atland’ as the steersmen say — sank down and the foaming waves tread over mountain and valley in such a way that everything was submerged. Many people were buried alive, and many who had escaped the fire later perished in the water.

Not only in the lands of Finda did mountains spew fire, but also in the Twiskland. As a result, forests burned one after the other, and when Wind came from there, our lands were covered with ashes. Rivers changed their course, and at their mouths new islands were formed of sand and drowned animals.

Earth suffered like this for three years, but when she recovered, one could see her wounds. Many lands were submerged, others had risen out of the sea, and half of the Twiskland had been deforested. Bands of Finda's folk came roaming across the empty spaces, and our dispersed people were exterminated or became their allies. This forced us to be twice as vigilant and time taught us that unity is our strongest burg.

example 1a
WERTHRVCH RÉK ÀND STOM LIK SÉLA BOPPA HUS ÀND POLON STAND
translit. [049/14] Ottema (1872) Sandbach (1876) Ott (current)
WIND RESTON IN SINA BÛDAR De wind rustte in zijn holen, There was perpetual calm, Wind rested in his bags,
WERTHRVCH RÉK ÀND STOM [*] STAND waardoor rook en damp [*] stonden and the damp mist hung causing smoke and steam to stand
* LIK SÉLA BOPPA HUS ÀND POLON * als zeilen boven huis en poelen like a wet sail over the houses and the marshes like pillars over houses and pools

For the first section, Sandbach chose to interpret Ottema, rather than translate literally, for that would have been: The wind rested in his holes. 'Holes' was an interpretation by Ottema, for BÛDAR means 'bags'. The concept of wind-bags however, is known from Homer's Odyssey (see blogpost). The verb RESTON is in plural form, which does not match with the subject WIND and SINA (his). This is a common phenomenon in some of the Oera Linda texts. Winds rested in their bags would also be a plausible translation.

Similarly, in the second section Sandbach changed the meaning, as Ottema had whereby smoke and steam stood, which is a literal translation of the original. I paraphrased this into causing smoke and steam to stand. Note that the verb STAND is singular form, again not matching the plural subject (RÉK and STOM).

In the third section, Ottema mistook SÉLA for sails (zeilen), it may also have been a printing error. This should have been zuilen (pillars/ columns), which was corrected in Ottema's second edition of 1876. Sandbach changed like sails into like a wet sail. If there is no wind at all, smoke form chimneys and vapor/ steam from pools will go straigt up and this will look like pillars. It is thus clear that the sail metaphor totally misses the point.

example 1b
MEN THÁ HJU BÉTER WÉRE MACHT MÀN HJRA WNDA SJA.
translit. [050/07] Ottema (1872) Sandbach (1876) Ott (current)
THRJU JÉR WAS JRTHA ALSA TO LYDANDE Drie jaren was de aarde zoo lijdende, During three years this continued, Earth suffered like this for three years,
MEN THÁ HJU BÉTER WÉRE maar toen zij herstelde, but at length it ceased, but when she recovered,
MACHT MÀN HJRA WNDA SJA. kon men hare wouden* zien. and forests became visible. one could see her wounds.
* printing error ('woods'), in second edition of 1876 corrected into 'wonden' (wounds)

Except for the printing error in section 3, my translation is identical to that of Ottema. Sandbach totally misses the personification of Earth and forests should have been wounds.

example 1c
ÀND TID LÉRD.VS THÀT ÉNDRACHT VSA STÀRIKSTE BURCH IS.
translit. [050/15] Ottema (1872) Sandbach (1876) Ott (current)
THÁ WARTH WÁKANDOM VS DVBBELD BODEN. Toen werd waakzaamheid ons dubbel geboden, Then watchfulness was doubly impressed upon us, This forced us to be twice as vigilant
ÀND TID LÉRD.VS en de tijd leerde ons, and time taught us and time taught us
THÀT ÉNDRACHT VSA STÀRIKSTE BURCH IS. dat eendracht onze sterkste burgt is. that union is force. that unity is our strongest burg.

The first section was translated literally by Ottema, and Sandbach left this unchanged. I chose to paraphrase it. Sandbach's union is force misses a relevant metaphor. The burg or stronghold (Sandbach: citadel) is one of the main concepts of the OLB. The Frya people had several of them, but they were aware that without unity, they could easily be conquered and loose their sacred freedom (FRYDOM).

Fragment 2 - examples underlined [translation/ title/ page]

Sandbach: Hail to all true Frisians (p.183) Ott: 15b1. Hellenia: Princes and Priests p. 134
Hail to all true Frisians

In the olden times, the Slavonic race knew nothing of liberty. They were brought under the yoke like oxen. They were driven into the bowels of the earth to dig metals, and had to build houses of stone as dwelling-places for princes and priests.

Of all that they did nothing came to themselves, everything must serve to enrich and make more powerful the priests and the princes, and to satisfy them. Under this treatment they grew gray and old before their time, and died without any enjoyment; although the earth produces abundantly for the good of all her children. But our runaways and exiles came through Twiskland to their boundaries, and our sailors came to their harbours.

From them they heard of liberty, of justice, and laws, without which men cannot exist. This was all absorbed by the unhappy people like dew into an arid soil. When they fully understood this, the most courageous among them began to clank their chains, which grieved the princes.

The princes are proud and warlike; there is therefore some virtue in their hearts. They consulted together and bestowed some of their superfluity; but the cowardly hypocritical priests could not suffer this.

Among their false gods they had invented also wicked cruel monsters. Pestilence broke out in the country; and they said that the gods were angry with the domineering of the wicked. Then the boldest of the people were strangled in their chains. The earth drank their blood, and that blood produced corn and fruits that inspired with wisdom those who ate them.
All true Fryas, hail!

In early times, the slave peoples knew nothing of freedom. Like oxen they were brought under the yoke. Into Earth's bowels they were driven to dig metal, and into the hard rock of the mountains, they were compelled to chisel out plush residences as homes for princes and priests.


Of all their work, nothing was for themselves; all was to be for the princes and priests, to make them ever more rich and powerful, to their own detriment. Working in such a way, they turned gray and rigid in their early years and they died without ever experiencing joy in life, despite the fact that Earth offers an abundance to all her children. But our migrants came: our exiles passed through the Twisklands into their territories and our steersmen arrived in their harbors.

From them, they heard talk of the common freedoms, justice, and laws that no one should do without. All of this was absorbed by the wretched and troubled people like dew by arid fields. When they were saturated, the most daring began to clank their chains until it hurt the princes.

However, the princes were proud and heroic, so there was still some virtue in their hearts. They deliberated and shared some of their surplus wealth. But the cowardly and pseudo-pious priests could not stand that.

Among their invented gods, they had also created bitter-cruel idols. A pestilence broke out in the lands and they claimed that the gods were furious about the disobedience of the protesters. Then the most rebellious were strangled with their chains. Earth drank their blood. From that blood she grew fruits and grains and all who ate thereof became wise.

example 2a
IN ÉRA TIDA NISTON THA SLÁVONA FOLKAR NÀWET FON FRYHÉD.
translit. [134/25] Ottema (1872) Sandbach (1876) Ott (current)
IN ÉRA TIDA In oude tijden In the olden times, In early times,
NISTON THA SLÁVONA FOLKAR NÀWET wisten de Slavonische volken niet the Slavonic race knew nothing the slave peoples knew nothing
FON FRYHÉD. van vrijheid. of liberty. of freedom.

Section 1 and 3: Where possible I prefer trasnslations that are etymologically related: early for ÉRA and freedom for FRYDOM.

The most significant difference is that I translate SLÁVONA FOLKAR with slave peoples, not the Slavonic race. SLÁVONA is a common word in the OLB and it simply means slaves. The people that the authors of the Oera Linda texts belonged to considered themselves free (FRY; FRYA was not only the name of their primal Mother, it also means the free); this was their highest value, the most sacred part of their identity. They saw people who did not value their own freedom, who needed masters to be ruled over, as slaves. It is commonly assumed that the word slave is derived from the Slavs or Slavonic race, but the OLB suggests it is actually the other way around. The next blog post will discuss this in more detail.

example 2b
HJARA SELVA TO S[K]ADENE.
translit. [134/32] Ottema (1872) Sandbach (1876) Ott (current)
BI AL HWAT HJA DÉDON. THÉR NAS NAWET TOFARA HJARA SELVA Bij alles wat zij deden was niets voor hun zelven, Of all that they did nothing came to themselves, Of all their work, nothing was for themselves;
MEN ELLA MOSTE THJANJA VMBE THA FORSTA AND PRESTERA JETA RIKER ÀND WELDIGER TO MÁKJANE maar alles moest dienen, om de vorsten en priesteren nog rijker en geweldiger te maken, everything must serve to enrich and make more powerful the priests and the princes, all was to be for the princes and priests, to make them ever more rich and powerful,
HJARA SELVA TO SKADENE.* om zich te verzadigen. and to satisfy them. to their own detriment [or: harming themselves].
* SADENE in original was corrected, conform:
[022/18] TILTHJU HI NAVT BIKLÍWA NE MÉI VSA FRYDOM TO SKADANE
in order that he does not get entrenched, which would harm [or: to the detriment of] our freedom
[033/14] DÁHWILA WI TO DVANDE SEND EKKORUM TO SKÁDANE
While we are busy damaging each other
[060/08] VSA AJN SÉ.KÀMPAR TO SKÁDNE
to the detriment of our own sea warriors

Section 1-2: Although all that they did is a more literal translation of AL HWAT HJA DÉDON, all their work is more accurate. Likewise in the second section I chose to leave out must serve and paraphrase, in order to improve clarity.

In section 3, Ottema read SADENE as satisfy and thus interpreted HJARA SELVA (themselves) to refer to the princes and priests. With the K added and themselves referring to the slave peoples, the whole fragment makes much more sense.

example 2c
TORNICH OVIRA OVERHÉRICHHÉD THÉRA BOSA.
translit. [135/32] Ottema (1872) Sandbach (1876) Ott (current)
NW SÉIDON HJA. toen zeiden zij and they said and they claimed
THA DROCHTNA SEND TORNICH dat de goden toornig waren that the gods were angry that the gods were furious
OVIRA OVERHÉRICHHÉD THÉRA BOSA. over de overheersching der boozen. with the domineering of the wicked. about the disobedience of the protesters.

In his fist edition (1872), Ottema had translated OVERHÉRICHHÉD as overheersching (domination), but in the second edition (1876) he had changed this into ongehoorzaaamheid (disobedience), which was indeed a better choice. Dutch bozen can have a negative meaning (wicked, evil), but it can also be neutral (angry). Since it is clear from the context that BOSA refers to the most courageous/ daring, I chose to translate as protesters.

16 January 2020

1970s newspaper articles

In 1978, G.J. van der Meij published Kanttekeningen bij het Oera Linda Boek in which he presented examples of what he thought could be evidence for Halbertsma's involvement in the creation of the OLB.
I dismiss theories about 19th century authorship, but as the 1970s were a period in which the OLB got much new attention (with reprints by publishing house Minerva), I add the main articles here. They can be interesting for other reasons. Note that the 'pages' of the OLB that were printed in the first two articles in both cases were not photo's of the original manuscript, but of a handmade copies (without mentioning this important fact). The articles were reorganised to better fit on a computerscreen.

The four articles below were all published in the Leeuwarder Courant (in Dutch).

1.  6-1-1970 "Is Joast Hiddes maker van Oera Linda Boek?" (in 4 parts)





2. 18-1-1971 "Grandioze practical joke blijft toch boeien"


3. 24-3-1972 "Opzet van het Oera Linda Boek is zeer intelligent"


4. 18-10-1974 "Prof. Böttcher zegt: het was Halbertsma"

06 January 2020

2004 Jensma about the blank sheets of paper

In addition to the two previous posts, here is the relevant part of "De Gemaskerde God" (p. 256-257) by G.Th. Jensma (2004), with my English translation below.

= = = =

 In de jaren twintig ontdekte [dr. M. de Jong] dat in de nalatenschap van Over de Linden een stapeltje onbeschreven papier, dat voor het grootste deel in hetzelfde formaat geknipt en ook precies zo met potlood gelinieerd was als het papier van het Oera Linda-boek.* Dit papier was (nog) niet bruin gemaakt. Deze bladzijden zijn echter – De Jong gaf dat ook toe – in potlood gepagineerd in het handschrift van Over de Linden en het blijkt, dat de paginanummers alle vallen in de hiaten in het Oera Lindaboek (waaruit immers de bladzijden 192 tot 195 en 168 tot 189 missen). De Jong nam ook hier ter verklaring zijn toevlucht tot een gekunstelde redenering, namelijk dat Over de Linden later deze hiaten in het handschrift had willen opvullen. Anders dan hij (die deze bladzijden beoordeelt als minder knap gemaakt dan de 'echte' pagina’s van het manuscript), concludeer ik eens te meer dat Over de Linden de man is geweest die het papier heeft klaargemaakt en die de tekst heeft afgeschreven. Bovendien wijst deze vondst er nog eens op dat er bij het maken van het tweede deel inderdaad haast is betracht, slordiger is gewerkt en bovendien dat men klaarblijkelijk niet alle geplande tekst ook daadwerkelijk heeft gebruikt. De hiaten lijken achteraf een bewuste poging om het handschrift zo echt mogelijk en dus lacuneus aan te bieden, en waarschijnlijk is van de nood van de haast wel de deugd van het hiaat gemaakt; de beste verklaring voor de hiaten, zo blijkt nu, is dat men in tijdnood raakte.

* De Jong, Geheim, 358-362; dit papier wordt bewaard bij het origineel van het manuscript; TPBL OLB C 1; vgl. ook Miedema, Codicologische beschrijving, 15.

ENGLISH TRANSLATION

 In the 1920s [dr. M. de Jong] learned that the legacy of Over de Linden contained some blank sheets of paper, most of which were cut in the same size as the paper of the Oera Linda-book [OLB] and likewise lined with pencil.* This paper had not (yet) been colored brown. However, as De Jong admitted, these pages are numbered with pencil in the handwriting of Over de Linden and these page numbers all fill the gaps (missing pages 192-195 and 168-189) of the OLB. To explain this, De Jong again resorted to far-fetched reasoning: Over de Linden would have wanted to fill these gaps in the manuscript later. Unlike him (he considers these pages to be less well made than the 'real' pages of the manuscript), I once again conclude that Over de Linden was the man who prepared the paper and copied the text. Moreover, this discovery indicates that the second part was indeed made in a more hurried, sloppy way, and that apparently not all of the prepared text was actually used. The gaps seem to be a deliberate, subsequent attempt to make the manuscript as realistic as possible by including lacunae. Out of the necessity of haste, the virtue of the gaps was made; The best explanation for the gaps, it now appears, is that the creators ran out of time.

* See fragment in previous post (not translated yet); these blank sheets are kept together with the OLB manuscript.