17 June 2019

Varieties in use of second person

The Oera Linda-book consists of various texts, many of which written by different authors and in different times. Varieties in spelling and style have already been explored. In the following report, use of the second person ('you', 'your', singular/ plural/ pluralis reverentia [formal or polite]) is analysed.

Again a clear variety is found between the various texts (see table below).

Variety distribution addressing
THV-/THI(N)-form only 16c 11b, 13e2
,, mostly - A, 4d-2, 13d
mixed 4d-1, 9b, 14b 8b1
J-/ JO(W)-form mostly 14d -
,, only 1b, 2d, 18 -

fragments in table above

nr. of units page(s)
A Hidde to Okke 6 00a
1b Adela to audience 20 001-004
2d Frya to descendants 28 011-014
4d-1 Minerva to priests 13 034-037
4d-2 priests to Minerva 14 034-037
8b1 Magi to Wodin 10 054
9b Minerva to princes 7 071
11b Frana to Jrtha 6 084
13d Traest to man 11 104-106
13e2 girl to young man 8 112-113
14b Gosa to steersmen 9 118
14d Friso to his children 8 127
16c Gosa to audience 11 160-162
18 Rika to audience 22 189-192

second person according to Hettema's trial Old Frisian dictionary

Some (of many) examples of remarkable 'mistakes' (in our perception):
8b3) p.59 THV BIST .. SWÀRVAR (sing / plur)
14b) p. 118 I MOSTE, JOW BISTE
14d2) p. 127 twice JOW as nominative

=========== data analysis ===========

In the following chapters/ paragraphs, 2nd person is not used: 1a, c / 2b, c1, e / 3 (laws and regulations) / 4a, b, c2, e / 5 (justice) / 6 (yule, script, numbers) / 7 (before Bad Times, how Aldland sank) / 8b2, c / 9a2 / 10a / 12 (Adelbrost) / 13b2, c, e1 / 14ef / 15a, b1 / 16a, b3 / 17 (Beden) / 19b, def
The following parts, only have sporadic or scattered use of the 2nd person, too little for analysis: B (Liko) / 4c1, c3 / 10b / 13b1, b3 / 15c,d 

The following samples may were analysed (with number of units):
  • 6 --- A (Hidde)
  • 20 --- 1b (Adela-helpers)
  • 8 --- 2a, c2, c3 (three burgs, oldest history)
  • 28 --- 2d (Tex Fryas)
  • 28 --- 4d (Minno)
  • 13 --- 8a, b1, b3 (Treasureburg: 2090 bce)
  • 19 --- 9a1, a3, b, c (Walhallagara: 1630 bce)
  • 19 --- 11abc (all burgs: 590 bce)
  • 11 --- 13d (unknown on writing felt)
  • 8 --- 13e2 (Apollanja)
  • 12 --- 14a, b, c (Frethorik)
  • 18 --- 14d (Ljudgert 1)
  • 6 --- 15b2 (Dela/ Hellenja)
  • 11 --- 16b1, b2 (Konered)
  • 11 --- 16c (Gosa)
  • 5 --- 16d (Ljudgert 2)
  • 22 --- 18 (Rika)
  • 5 --- 19a, c (unkown about Askar)
Inventory of the largest samples of at least 20 units, the ones of between 10 and 20 units and between 6 and 10 (excl. various short)

1b) Adela to her audience (meeting, council)
only J-form, 20 units

2d) Frya to her descendants
only J-form, 28 units

4d) Dialogue between Minerva and the princes-priests; author Minno
both forms: little J (4), many THV (23);
ca. 1/2 Minerva to priests (mixed), 1/2 priests to Minerva (mostly THV)

8) mostly 8b1 - Magi to Wodin
8a is (2x) author to mountains (plur!) and to Frya, both: THIN(NA).
8b3 is (1x) Sidonese coast dwellers to Tunis group (THV BIST sing.!).
8b1 - Magi to Wodin: mixed inconsequent (10 units): JE, JVW, I, JV vs. THV, TE, THIN(RE).

9) various short addresses (longest is Minerva to princes); a: Walhallagara; b: Texland; c: ?
  • 9a1 - Kelta to followers (4x I/J verbs inconsequent, 1x THI)
  • 9a3 - Kelta to Britne (4: THV, THI(NA))
  • 9b - Minerva to princes (7 units, mixed: THINA SLÁVONA, BIST, WILST vs. JVW BERN, J SKOLDE, MOT.I)
  • 9c - navigators to mercinaries (3: TE, THV, THINA)
11) various short (longest is Frana to Jrtha); on all burgs ca. 590 bce
  • 11a - author to reader(s): JVWA
  • 11b - Fin to Frana (NILST/SKILST), Magi to Frana (MOST/ I BISTE), Frana to Jrtha (6 units: THV, THI(N(RA))), Frana to Magi (THIN)
  • 11c - Dane to Magi (THV, THIN)
13d) Traest to the unsociable man
mostly (9x) THV, THIN, (THAT)STE, however also (2x) MOT I, IS I THISSA RÉD...

14abc) mostly 14b - Gosa to steersmen
14a is veteran to Frethorik (2x: MOST, JOW mixed use!)
14c is dignitary from Friso's fleet to people of Staveren (1x J SKOLDE)
14b - mixed inconsequent use (4x KANST, ÁCHSTE, THI(N) vs. 5x I MOSTE!, JOW BISTE!, JOW)

14d) various short (longest is Friso to children); author Ljudgért 2
  • 14d1 - Wichhirte to Alexander & army (JOW(A) = your plur. deads/ weapons; THINA = your sing. intellect); Alexander to Wichhirte (THIN/ STV); Nearchus to Wichhirte & fleet (I, JOW)
  • 14d2 - wife Friso to random people (1x N.AST, 1x TO JOW); Friso writes his children (8 units, inconsequent, mixed: 2x JOW as nominative!, also as dative and genetive/  SKILSTV and THIN LIF next to JOW SÉLE); 1x Friso to Wichhirte & Gértmen (FON JOW)
16b) various short addresses (max. 3 units)

16c) Gosa to audience about language
consequently only THV-form: verbs WILST, ACHST.THV (2x), BIST.THV, WILSTE/ WILST.THV, DVATH.STV; 2x genitive THIN(A), 2x dative MIT THI, FON THI

18) Rika to her audience (descendants of Friso followers at Staveren Yulefeast)
very consequent, only J-form, 22 units
JY - 1e nom./ JOW(E(R)) 2e gen./ JO 3e dat./ 4e acc.
verbs plural:
1x sing.: MÉI

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