17 May 2018

12 May 2018

Second video, discussing four topics


Four examples of discussion, about themes surrounding the Oera Linda-book:
(time in video:)
1.
01:00 Alleged suicide of Dr. Ottema and his supposed reason for that; possible motives for cultural establishment to have silenced him and discourage possible followers.
2.
06:05 Theoretical involvement of Joost Halbertsma and Ernst Stadermann in the alleged 19th century creation of the manuscript; some reasons why this is not plausible.
3.
09:34 Wheel-based symbols; why it does not make sense that they were designed by an assumed 19th century forger.
4.
13:08 Plausibility of overseas trade and contacts between Mediterraneans and Northern Europeans, long before our year zero.

Notes may be added here later.

05 May 2018

Video reply about four OLB words

WR.ALDA ~ JRTHA ~ DÉNE (MARKA) ~ KRÉKA (LANDA)


~ ~ ~

 Additional information about ('near and far') Greece / Krékalanda:

Southern Italy used to be called Great-Greece (similar to Great-Britain versus Brittany).

The Griko people (Greek: Γκρίκο), sometimes spelt Grico, Greco in Calabria, and also known as Grecanici, are an ethnic Greek community of Southern Italy.

Note that Γκρίκο transliterated is Gkriko. (Credits for this info to Karel Anker!)



More notes may be added here later.

04 May 2018

WR-ALDA related to Orotalt or Ruldai (and varieties)?

In 2013 I posted on a discussion forum about a possible link between Wralda ('the most ancient', God, world) of Oera Linda and the pre-Islamic Arabian god Orotalt or Ruldai (and varieties). As I think this can be an important clue for future reference, I reorganised the various sources, sorted by year.

1) Thaleia III-8 by Herodotus (440 BCE) and translations

ὀνομάζουσι δὲ τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον Ὀροτάλτ,
τὴν δὲ Οὐρανίην Ἀλιλάτ.


(George Rawlinson, 1860)
Bacchus they call in their language Orotal,
and Urania, Alilat.

(George Campbell Macaulay, 1890)
Now they call Dionysos Orotalt
and Urania they call Alilat.

(Shlomo Felberbaum, 2003)
And they name Dionysus Orotalt
and Urania Alilat.

2) Sources 17th - 19th century

1682 - Curieuse Aenmerckingen der bysonderste Oost en West-Indische Verwonderens-waerdige Dingen, Deel IV, Simon de Vries p. 1023
"By d'Arabiers salfden de Bond-verwanten seven Stenen met haer eygen Bloed; roepende daer by den Urotalt en Alilat: Welcke eenige voor Dionysius en Urania houden" source

c. 1690 - Draft chapters of a treatise on the origin of religion and its corruption, Isaac Newton
"Bacchus was the proper god of the Arabians & therefore their common father. ffor Herodotus (lib 3 initio) tells us Arabes Dionysium quem Vrotalt & Vraniam quam Alilat appellant [id est Bacchum et Venerem] solos Deorum esse arbitrantur: ..." source

1728 - De Diis Germanis, Elias Schedivs, p.157
"Arabes alias, teste Herodot. in Clio, Solem dixerunt Vrotalt, id est, Lucis Deum, itemque Dusarem, vel Daisarem, id est, perlustrantem Deum." source

1741 - Algemeene histori van het begin der wereld af tot den tegenwoordigen tyd toe, Volume 2, translated from English by Kornelis Westerbaen, p.423
"Een hedensdaegsch Schrijver (1) meent, dat d'Arabiërs en Ismaëliten eertijds Bacchus en Urania of Venus in dien tempel dienden: want Herodotus verhaelt, datze geene andere godheden, dan deeze hebben aengebeden, d'eerste van welke zij Urotalt, en de laetste Alilat noemen (2); hoewel andere laeter Schrijvers zeggen, datze ook Jupiter, de zon, maen, en de demons aenbaden (3). Hoe het hiermede gelegen zij, of niet, het is allerwaerschijnlijkst, dat d'altaer en het bosch, van Abraham te Berseba opgerecht (4), d'eerste gelegenheid tot deeze verziering heeft gegeeven, dat die tempel door hem gebouwd is." source

1769 - Maandelyksche berichten uit de andere waereld of de sprekende dooden (February), p.122
"Zo is door den geleerden Calmet aangetoond, dat de Arabiers en Ismaëliten, eertyd Bacchus en Urama of Venus in dien tempel dienden; zo verhaalt ook Herodotus, dat ze geene anderen Godheden dan deeze hebben aangebede, de eerste van welke zy Urotalt, en de laatste Alilat noemden; hoe wel Strabo, een later schryver, verzekerd, dat ze, in vervolg van tyd Jupiter, de Zon, Maan en Demons aanbaden; doch hoe ze aan het verdichtsel zyn gekomen, dat Abraham dien tempel heeft gebouwd, weet mogelyk niemand te zeggen." source

1792 - Bijbel der natuur - Twaalfde deel, Johann Jacob Scheuchzer, vertaling L. Meijer, p.623
Register: "Uranus Urotalt, de Zon. III.1109. IX.657" source

1811 - Buch des Kabus oder Lehren des persischen Königs Kjekjawus für seinen Sohn Ghilan Schach, Kaika'us Ibn-Iskanda, translated by Heinrich F. von Diez, p.211
"Zu Zeiten Hiobs aus Esaus Geschlecht nemlich haben die Araber, wie obgedacht, Gott in der Wahrheit erkannt, und wenn wir die Abfassung dieses Buchs ins Jahr der Welt 2300 oder, wie einige wollen, noch etwas weiter zurück näher an die Zeiten Jacobs setzen, der im Jahre der Welt 2255 starb: so müssen wir urtheilen, dass sie zwölf Jahrhunderte vor Herodot noch im Besitz der unverfälschten Offenbarung gewesen. Wir müssen ferner annehmen, dass sie vom rechten Wege noch nicht abgewichen waren im Jahre der Welt 2952, als die Königin von Saba nach Jerusalem kam, welches 548 Jahre vor Herodot geschehen. Allein zur Zeit des letztem waren die Araber schon Götzendiener geworden, denn dieser Geschichtschreiber, welcher seine Geschichte ums Jahr der Welt 3500 schrieb, folglich 1112 Jahre zuvor, ehe Muhammed zu lehren angefangen, meldet, dass die Araber den Bacchus und die Urania verehrten. Den erstem nennt er mit einem verdorbenen arabischen Worte Urotalt und die letztere heisst er Alitta und Alilat. Urotalt soll wahrscheinlich Utarid (...) seyn, welches sonst Mercurius bedeutet, der vom Stamme Asad verehrt ward ." source

1831 - Geographie der Griechen und Römer aus ihren Schriften dargestellt, Konrad Mannert, p.24-25
"... nennen den Dionysus Urotalt (Ουροταλτ) ... Urotal erklärt er für Erat-allah, Gott des Feuers...
Ob der Gott Urotalt, welchen Herodot so wie die Allita blos dey den nördlichern Arabern hatte kennen lernen, einerley mit der Hauptgottheit der südlichern Länder ist, weiss ich nicht zu sagen. ...
... Sonne und Mond (welches immer noch Urotalt und die Alitta bezeichnen kann), ... Zuverlässig aber wurde Bacchus, welchen Herodot Urotalt nennt, in der Legend von Mecca auch unter dem Namen Dusares oder Dysares verehrt; ..." source

1880 - Das orakelwesen im Alterthume, Franziska Hoffmann, p.20
"Das Bakidische Orakel auf Creta.
Wenn man den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Orient und Griechenland, zwischen dem Mysterien- und dem Orakelwesen festhalten will, so ist es nöthig die Verknüpfung zu kennen, in welcher der orientalische Bakis oder Bacchos zu dem griechischen Apollo stand. Im Anfange hatten die Griechen nur ausländische Götter, welche sie nationalisirten, später durch einheimische ersetzten und deren verschiedene Mythen mit einander verschmolzen. So auch gab es zwei Bacchosgötter. Der zweite Bacchos war Dionysos, Sohn der Semele; der erste war nach Herodot der arabische Gott Ourotalt, dessen Dienst von den Syriern und Phöniziern angenommen worden war, ehe er durch Melampus und Cadmos den Griechen bekannt wurde. Er ist der eigentlich mystische Bacchos, Mittelpunkt der Zagreusmythe, Mittelpunkt der Sabaziusfabel, die mit dem Dienst von Samothrake verknüpft war; von ihm stammen die Eleusinischen Mysterien mit der Jacchosmythe; von ihm stammen die bacchischen Orgien, wobei die Bacchantinnen bekanntlich ein Rehkalb zerrissen und das rohe Fleisch davon assen." source

1892 - The Archaeology of the District - The Finds at the Great Zimbabwe Ruins, J.T.Bent, p.189-191
"... the creative powers of mankind.
A curious confirmation of this is found in the pages of Herodotus (Herod.Bk.III.par.8), who tells us:'The Arabians of all the gods only worshipped Dionysus, whom they called Ourotalt, and Urania;' that is to say, they worshipped the two deities which, in the mind of the father of history, represented in themselves all that was known of the mysteries of creation, pointing to the very earliest period of Arabian cult, prior ro the more refined religious development of the Sabaeo-Himyaritic dynasty, when Sun-worship, veneration for the great luminary which regenerated all animal and vegetable life, superseded the grosser forms of nature-worship, to be itself somewhat superseded or rather incorporated in a worship of all the heavenly luminaries, which developed as a knowledge of astronomy was aquired." source1 ; source2

3) Other sources

wikipedia/Orotalt
"According to the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, Orotalt was a god of Pre-Islamic Arabia whom he identified with Dionysus [...]
Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions states that Orotalt is a phonetic transcription of the name of the sun god Ruda."

wikipedia/Ruda (deity)
"Ruda is a deity that was of paramount importance in the Arab pantheon of gods worshipped by the North Arabian tribes of pre-Islamic Arabia. [...]
The oldest reference to Ruda is found in the annals of Esarhaddon who ruled over the Assyrian empire from 681 to 669 BC. The name is transliterated into English from the original Akkadian as Ru-ul-da-a-a-ú and he is mentioned among the gods of the Arabs."

The Esarhaddon Prism (Neo-Assyrian, c. 672 BC), Library of Ashurbanipal (found Nineveh, North Iraq 1927) source1 ; source2
Inscription column 4 transliteration(9) aš-šu na-dan ilâni{pl}-su u-ṣal-la-an-ni-ma ri-e-mu ar-ši-šu-ma (10) {ilu}A-tar-sa-ma-a-a-in {ilu}Da-a-a {ilu}Nu-ḫa-a-a (11) {ilu}Ru-ul-da-a-a-u {ilu}A-bi-ri-il-lu (12) {ilu}A-tar-ḳu-ru-ma-a ilâni{pl} ša {am}A-ri-bi (13) an-ḫu-su-nu ud-diš-ma da-na-an {ilu}Aššur bêli-ia (14) u ši-ṭir šumi-ia eli-šu-nu aš-ṭur-ma u-tir-ma ad-din-šu
Translation
(9) For the return of his gods he prayed me and I showed him favour and (10) the gods Atarsamain, Dai, Nuhai, (11) Ruldaiu, Abirillu, (12) Atarkuruma, the gods of the Arabians, (13) their ruined (effigies) I restored and the might of Ashur, my lord, (14) and the writing of my name upon them I wrote and gave them back to him.

wikipedia/Ruldaiu
"Ruldaiu was a god featured in Arab mythology according to the Annals of Sennacherib (eighth century BC). Arabic inscriptions mention a god called Ruda. Herodotus calls him Ortalt."
~
http://nabataea.net/kedar.html (Dan Gibson)
Regarding their religion, Assyrian inscriptions tell us that Sennacherib captured of several Arabian deities in the Kedarite city of Dumah. The chief deity was Atarsamain, or the morning star of heaven. (the counterpart of Mesopotamian Ishtar). The tribal league led by the Kedarites was known as "the confederation of Atarsamain, and their cult was led by a series of queen-priestesses in Dumah. The rest of their pantheon of gods consisted of Dai, Nuhai (Nuhay), Ruldai (Ruda), Abirillu, and Atarquruma. Rock graffiti in the Thamudic language reveals that Ruda was known as the evening star, and Nuhay was the sun-god, and they were worshiped in addition to Atarsamain 'the morning star.' Herodotus, in the fifth century BC identified two deities worshiped among the Arabs, as a fertility god called Orotalt (perhaps Ruda, as identified by Macdonald in North Arabian in the First Millennium BC, 1360), and a sky goddess know as Allat. (Herodotus III,3.) Later Allat became referred to in the masculine form as Allah)

More about Rulaiu / Orotalt, possibly relevant, for later study:

From The Pagan God, Javier Teixidor (1977):




From The Pantheon of Palmyra, Javier Teixidor (1979):




28 April 2018

How did it sound? #7: E and É

One thing that becomes very clear when comparing the two probe texts, is that the copyist has been much less precise writing the letter to Okke than when he copied the primal history, as the E's are sometimes hardly recognisable. It looks like he wrote his intro in a hurry, which is also indicated by inconsistencies in spelling and choice of words (HÀB IK THAM vs. HÀB IK RA; SKRÉVEN vs. SKRÉVVEN).

As for the É and E, there is less mix up than with some of the other vowels, but there is some still, both between E and É, as with other sounds, for example:
SKÉDNIS - SKÍDNIS
KRÉION - KRYEN
ÉTA - YTA
KRODER - KRODAR
MODER - MODAR
etc.
Also, as we already saw, À is often interchangable with E:
ÀFTER / EFTER, -DÀRVA / -DERVA, BÀRN / BERN, THÀT / THET, GÀRS / GERS.


The probe texts have enough examples to give a good impression of how the various words have changed or been preserved in our modern languages:

normal short and unstressed E (as in 'the' or 'written')

verb tenses ending -E (same in modern Dutch):
BÀRDE === (D) baarde, (E) birthed
ERVE === (D arch.) erve, (G) erbe
GLÍANDE === (D) gloeiende, (E) glowing
MAKADE === (D) maakte, (E)made
SKOLDE === (D) zoude, (E) should
SPISDE === (D) spijsde, (E) spised
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought

past perfect verb ending -EN (same in modern Dutch):BVNDEN === (D) gebonden, (E) bound
KÉMEN === (D) gekomen, (E) come
SKRÉVEN === (D) geschreven, (E) scribed/written
SVNKEN === (D) gezonken, (E) sunk
VRLÉDEN === (D) verleden (E: past)
WRDEN === (D) geworden (E: become)

adjective ending -E (same in modern Dutch):
ALLE === (D) alle, (E) all
ÀRGE === (D) erge, (G) arge
ÉLE === (D) hele, (E) whole
NIMMERTHE === (E: never)
-TIGOSTE === (D) -tigste, (E) -tiest
TWILIFTE === (D) twaalfde, (E) twelfth
WARME === (D) warme, (E) warm

two male names and other words ending -E:HIDDE === (name)
OKKE === (name)
FÉRSTE === (D) feest, (G) Feier, (E) fest
NE === (French:) ne (negative)
SE === (D) ze, (G) sie (E: they)
SÉLE === (D) ziel, (F) siel, (G) Seele, (E) soul
SKÉDNISE === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history)
VMBE === (D arch.) omme, (G) um

ending -ER:
ÀFTER === (D) achter, (E) after
(verb)-ER === (G) er (E: he)
FJVWER === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
MODER === (D) moeder, (G) Mutter, (E) mother
NIMMER === (D/G) nimmer, (E) never
TOGHATER === (D) dochter, (G) Tochter, (E) daughter

other:EK === (D) elk, (E) each
-ET === (D) het
ERV- === (D) erv-, (G) erb-
HRED === (D) gered, (G) gerettet
-HWERSA
HVNDRED === (D) honderd, (F) hûndert, (E) hundred
KERSTEN === (D/G) Christen, (E) Christian
MÀNNESKA === (D) mensen, (G) Menschen, (E) men (m/f)
OERA === (short for OVER-A/OVIR-A)
SEND === (D) zijn, (G) sind
SEX === (D) zes, (F) seis, (G) sechs, (E) six
THES === (D/G) des (E: of the)
-WERT
WET === (F) wiet, (E) wet

long stressed É (ay/ea/ee/ei/ie)

É has in Dutch often become long ee/ie; in German ei/ee, in English ay/ea; sometimes it has remained e, become a or disappeared:
ALLÉNA === (D) aleen, (G) allein, (E) alone
DÉGUM === (D) dagen, (G) Tage, (E) days
ÉLE === (D) hele, (E) whole
ÉTHLUM === (E: ancestors)
ÉVG === (D) eeuwig, (G) ewig (E: eternally)
FÉRSTE === (D) feest, (G) Feier, (E) feast
HÉTA === (D) hete, (G) heisse, (E) hot
JÉR === (D) jaar, (F) jier, (G) Jahr, (E) year
KÉM- === (D) kwam/-kom-, (G) kam/-komm-, (E) came/come
KRÉION === (D) kregen, (G) kriegen
MANGÉRTA === vero: (D) -geerte
NÉI === (D) na, (F) nei, (G) nach, (E: after)
RÉKNONG === (D) rekening, (G) Rechnung, (E) reckoning
SÉLE === (D) ziel, (F) siel, (G) Seele, (E) soul
SKÉDNISE === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history)
SKRÉVEN === (D) geschreven, (F) skreaun
THÉR === (D) daar, (G) da, (E) there
TVÉLF (must be TWELF) === (D) twaalf, (F) tolve, (G) zwölf, (E) twelve
TWÉN === (D) twee-, (G) zwei-/zwi-, (E) twin
VRLÉDEN === (D) verleden
WÉI === (D) weg, (F) wei, (G) weg, (E) away
WÉRON === (D/G) waren, (E) were
WÉSA === (D-dialect) wezen (E: be)

=================
Disclaimer: The modern-word examples are never complete and rather serve to give a general idea ~ it would have been interesting to include Scandinavian varieties.

Note: the letter É on itself means water.
ÉWA SÉIT AK. É.LIK WÉTER.LIK. RJUCHT ÀND SLJUCHT
AS WÉTER THAT THRVCH NÉN STORNE.WIND JEFTA AWET OWERS VRSTOREN IS.
WARTH WÉTER VRSTOREN SA WARTH.ET VN.ÉWA. VNRJUCHT.
MEN.ET NÍGTH ÉVG VMBE WITHER ÉWA TO WERTHANDE.
É.LAND === (D) eiland, (E) island, literally water-land (perhaps also used for peninsula)

27 April 2018

How did it sound? #6: I, J, Y and Í

As the other vowels, these letters -- transliterated by me as I, J, Y and Í -- are used far from consequently, but some rules of thumb will be listed.

The I-dot or J must have been like y in 'year' (German/ Dutch: j as in Jahr/ jaar). It is mostly used in the article THJU (the), in personal pronouns HJU (she), HJA (they), HJAM (them), HJARA (their), J (you, also spelled: I), and at the end of verbs (e.g. WÁRJA, WÉJA, FOLGJA).

Other personal pronouns also have an I-sound, for example: IK (I), MY, MIN (my), THIN (your), HI/HY/Y (he), HIM, HIS, (his/her), SIN/SYN (his, their, its), WI/WY (we).

The normal I is also used in articles THI (the), prepositions BI (by, also spelled BÍ or BY), IN, MITH (with), verb IS. Pronunciation will have been like i in is: short, unaccented.

The regular Y, with the spoke pointing up-left, has in many cases become the stretched Dutch 'ij'/'ei' or German 'ei' (this sound does not exist in English but is a bit like ai or eigh or i in 'side'), for example:
FRY ==== (D) vrij, (F) frij, (G) frei, (E) free
BRYN === (D/F) brein, (E) brain
BILYVA (also with Í) === (D) blijven, (F) bliuwe, (G) bleiben
YDEL === (D) ijdel, (F) idel, (G) eitel, (E) idle

However, in many Dutch and German dialects, these vowels are pronounced as a long ee in English free.

The Í with the spoke pointing right-up seems to often have more become a stretched ie in Dutch and German (ee in free or ea in tea):
FLÍ === (D arch.) vlieden, (G) fliehen, (E) flee
VRLÍSA === (D) verliezen, (F) ferlieze, (G) verlieren, (E: loose)
However, also often Dutch 'ij'/'ei' or German 'ei', just like the Y.

It is sometimes a variety of the long É:
SKÍDNIS for SKÉDNIS === (D) geschiedenis, (F) skiednis (E: history).
Or of the J:
LÍAF for LJAF === (D) lief, (F) leaf, (G) lieb, (E: dear).
Or the
I: SÍDE for SIDE === (D) zijde, (G) Seite, (E/F) side

Some more randomly chosen examples:

BINNA === (D/F) binnen
FIFTIGOSTE === (D) vijftigste, (F) fyftichste, (G) fünfzigste, (E) fiftiest
FINDA === (name, meaning:) (D) vinden, (F) fine, (G) finden, (E) find
KRÉION (also: KRYEN) === (D) kregen, (F) krije, (G) kriegen
KWIK === (D) kwiek/kwik, (F) kwyk/kwik, (E) quick
-ISK === (D/G) -isch, -ish
LIF === (D) lijf, (F) liif, (G) leib, (E) life
-LIK === (D) -lijk, (F) -lik, (G) -lich, (E) -like
LINDA
RIP === (D) rijp, (F) ryp, (G) reif, (E) ripe
SPIS- === (D) spijs-, (F) spiis, (G) speis-, (E) spise-
THINGA === (D,F) dingen, (G) Dinge, (E) things
THISSA === (D) deze, (F) dizze, (G) diese, (E) these
THRIA/THRJA === (D) drie, (F) trije, (G) drei, (E) three
TID === (D) tijd, (F) tiid, (G) Zeit, (E) tide
TWILIF- === (D) twaalf, (F) tolve, (G) zwölf, (E) twelve
WÉI === (D/G) weg, (F) wei, (E) away

DJARA === (D) dieren, (G) Tiere (vero: deer, dear)
FJANDA === (D) vijanden, (G) feinde
FJVWER === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
JÉR === (D) jaar, (F) jier, (G) Jahr, (E) year
JÉRDE === (D/F) -geerde/-gearde, (G) -gehrte
JESTER === (D) gisteren, (F) juster, (G) gestern, (E) yester-
JETA === (E) yet
JOL === (D) joel, (G) jul, (E) yule
JRTHA === (D) aarde, (F) ierde, (G) Erde, (E) earth
LJAWA === (D) lieve, (F) leave, (G) liebe
LJU(D) === (D) lied-, (F) lju, (G) leut-
NJUGON === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RJUCHT === (D/G) recht, (F) rjocht, (E) right
SJAN === (D) zien, (F) sjen, (G) sehen, (E) see

-TÍZA === (D) -tijgen/-tichten, (F) -tichtsje
BLÍ(D) === (D) blij(d)-, (F)bliid
DÍWEK === name Dieuwke
DRÍST === (D) driest, (F) dryst
DRÍVA === (D) drijven, (F) driuwe, (G) treiben, (E) drive
FÍAND === (D) vijand, (F) fijân, (G) Feind
FÍL === (D) viel, (F) foel, (G) fiel, (E) fell
FÍRJA === (D) vieren, (F) fiere, (G) feiern
FÍT (also Y) === (E) feet
GÍR === (D/F) gier, (G) Geier
GLÍANDE === (D) gloeiende, (F) gleone, (G) glühend, (E) glowing
HÍR === (D/G) hier, (F) hjir, (E) here
-HÍV === (D) -hief
ÍN- === (D) een, (F) ien, (G) ein, (E) one
ÍSER === (D) ijzer, (F) izer, (G) Eisen, (E) iron
KÍASA === (D) kiezen, (F) kieze, (E) choose
-KLÍWA === (D) -klijven
NÍG- === (D) nijg-, (G) neig-, (E) nigh
NÍTHER === (D) neder, (G) nieder, (E) nether
PAMPÍER === (D/F/G) papier, (E) paper
SKRÍVA === (D) schrijven, (F) skriuwe, (G) schreiben, (E) scribe
SPLÍTON === (D) splijten, (F) spjalte, (G) spalten, (E) split
SWÍRMJA === (D) zwermen, (F) swaarmje/swermje
THAWÍLA === (D) terwijl, (F) wylst, (G) weil, (E) while

BYLD === (D) beeld, (F) byld, (G) Bild
HLY === (D) luwte, (F) lijte, (G/E) Lee
HYR- === (D) her-/heir-, (G) Heer- (army)
KNY (also Í) === (vero:) (D/G) knie, (E) knee

KY === (F) kij (cows)
LYDA === (D) lijden, (F) lije, (G) leiden
NY === (D) nieuw, (F) nij, (G) neu, (E) new
SYTJA === name Sijtje
VRFYA === (D) verfoeien, (F) ferfije
VRSLYNNA === (D) verslinden

YTA === (D) eten, (F) ite, (G) essen, (E) eat

25 April 2018

How did it sound? #5: U varieties

The U with dot was transliterated by me as Û; most modern Dutch cognates are spelled with "ui", a sound that is not used in German or English (pron. like French fauteuil).
The less common U with one spoke in the middle was transliterated by me as Ü; most modern Dutch cognates are spelled with "eu", a sound not used in English, but similar to the Nordic "ø" or German "ö".

Like with the other vowels, the use is in many cases not consequent. For example, UT / ÛT, BÛTA / BUTA, BÛRA / BÜRA, FÛL / FÜL etc.

The most common word with Ü is the verb MÜGE (to may). Common words with Û are STJÛRAR (steersmen or navigators) and THÛSAND (thousand). Most common use of the regular U is in HJU (she), THJU (the), TILTHJU (so that), in plurals ending -UM, and verbs ending -UN or -UM. It is remarkable that in the modern versions of the words with the regular U, the sound has often changed into totally different directions.

The probe texts had too few examples, so I made lists below, taken from the whole text. The list with the regular U is not complete, but the other two lists are, more or less. They are meant to give an idea of how the modern versions of the words (if applicable) are.


With normal U, besides HJU, THJU, TILTHJU, plurals -UM and verbs -UN, -UM: a short u as in luck:
(in words with more syllables ending -UR: unstressed -er:)
ADDUR === (D/E) adder
ALGÁDUR === (archaic D) altegader, allegaar, (E) altogether (1x -ER)
SÉKUR === (D) zeker, (D) sicher, (E) sure
(other, accentuated:)
BURCH === (D) burcht, (G) Burg
BUTA (also Û) === (D) buiten, (F) bûten
BUWGJA === (D) buigen, (G) biegen
DUBBEL === (D) dubbel, (F) dûbel, (G) doppelt, (E) double
DUN === (D) duin, (F) dún, (G) Düne, (E) dune
FJUR === (D) vuur, (F) fjoer, (G) Feuer, (E) fire
FJUWER vier === (D/G) vier, (F) fjouwer, (E) four
FLUX === (D) vlug, (F) fluch
HUS (also Û) === (D) huis, (G) Hause, (E) house
KRUPA === (D) kruipen, (E) creep
LJUD === (D) lieden, (G) leute
LUK === (D) geluk, (F) lok, (E) luck
LUST- === (D/E) lust
NJUGON (also V) === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RJUCHT === (D/G) recht, (F) rjocht, (E) right
RUN === (D) ren-, (F) run/rin-, (G) renn-/rann-, (E) run/ran
SJUGUN/-ON === (D) zeven, (G) sieben, (E) seven
SMUK- === (D) smuk-, (D) schmuck
STURF === (D) stierf/storf, (G) starb/storb
SUSTER === (D) zuster, (G) Schwester, (E) sister
THRJU === (D) drie, (G) drei, (E) three
UT (also Û) === (D) uit, (F) út, (G) aus, (E) out

With Û (U-dot): a long ui as in French fauteuil:
BISLÛTA === (D) besluiten
BJÛSTRE === (D) bijster
-BRÛDA === (D) bruiden/bruien
BRÛWSENDE === (D) bruisende
BÛDA === (D) buidel, (G) Beutel
BÛGJA === (D) buigen
BÛTA === (D) buiten (also U)
BÛRA === (D) beuren (also Ü)
BÛRA === (D) buren
BÛRT === (D) buurt
DJÛRA
FÛL === (D) veel (also Ü)
GÁDÛRAD
GRÛSICH
GRÛWEL
GÛLDE === (D) huilde
HLÛD === (D) luid
HÛD === (D) huid
HÛNING === (D) honing (mostly Ü)
HÛS === (D) huis (also U)
JÛWGADE === (D) juichten
KRÛDON === (D) kruiden
LJÛCHT (mostly LJUCHT)
LJÛD.GÉRT (mostly LJUD)
LÛD === (D) luid
MÛS === (D) muis
SKÛRUM
SMÛGRIGE === (D) smuigerig
STJÛRAR === (D) sturen
STÛT === (D) stuit
SÛD- === (D) zuid
SÛGANE === (D) zuigen
THJÛSTER === (D) duister
THÛSOND === (D) duizend
TJÛGANDE === (D) betuigend
TRÛLED
ÛLYSUS
ÛT (also U) === (D) uit, (F) út, (G) aus, (E) out
VRTJÛGAD === (D) overtuigd
WÁKENDÛM (exception, mostly -DOM)

With Ü (U-spoke): a long eu as in German Köln:
BÜR- (also Û) === (D) beuren
DÜGED === (D) deugd, (G) Tugend
DÜRE === (D) deur, (F) doar, (G) Tür, (E) door
FRÜ === (D) vreugde, (G) Freude
FRÜCHDA === (D) vruchten/vreugde, (G) Früchte/Freude
FÜGEL === (D/G) vogel
FÜL === (D) veel (also Û, dialect veul), (G) viel
FÜR === (D) voor (exception, mostly FÁR), (G) für
GÜR === (D) geur
HÜGJA === (D) heugen
HÜNING (1x Û) === (D) honing, (F) huning, (G) Honig, (E) honey
JÜGED === (D) jeugd, (G) Jugend
MÜGE/-A/-ON === (D) mogen, (E) may
SIN.TÜGA === (D) zintuigen
SÜMER (1x) === (D) zomer, (F) simmer, (G) Sommer, (E) summer
TÜNIS === (D) name Teunis
TÜNTJA === (D) name Teuntje

24 April 2018

How did it sound? #4: O, Ô and ʘ

On the page that shows how the various letters are derived from the Wheel, the ʘ (O with central dot, transliterated by me as Ó) is not listed, but it is used 23 times in the manuscript for words, many of which also occur spelled with Ô (O with two lowest spokes or A inside). I think it is not actually a separate letter, but rather another way of making the Ô or OA. In the following list some varieties (bolded) and modern versions (Dutch, Frisian, German, English) are added (not all). It would be interesting to see how the varieties are distributed among the various authors or parts of the manuscript. To artificially create this non-random spelling variety (in order to create the 'illusion of authenticity', as the hoax-conspiracy theorists call it) would have been a hell of a job.

BÓSMA === (D) boezems, (G) Busen, (E) bosoms
BÓT- (also BÔT) === (D/G) boot, (E/F) boat
FÓ === (D) fout (French: faux)
HÓLA === (D) holen, (F) hoalen, (G) Höhlen, (E) holes
LÓFT === (D) lucht, (F) loft, (G) Luft
MÓN (MÔN, MAN, MÀN) === (D) men, (G) man
MÓNATH/ -A (also with Ô) === (D) maand, (F) moanne, (D) Monat, (E) month
NÓM- (more common with Ô) === (D) naam-/noem-, (F) namme, (E/G) name
NÓS (also NÔS) === (D) neus, (F) noas, (G) Nase, (E) nose
ÓL- (ÔL-, AL-, ÁL-)
ÓN- (ÔN)
ÓNI === (G) ohne
ÓRA (mostly Ô) === (F) oare, (D/G) andere, (E) other
ÓWERS (mostly Ô)
SNÓRANE (also with Ô or Á) === (D) snoeren
TÓNGAR === (D) donder, (F) tonger, (G) Donner, (E) thunder
WÓLKA  === (D/F/G) wolken

The list above already has examples of words that also occur with A, Á or À in stead of Ó or Ô. The same variety is common in the list of words with Ô (again, list may not be complete):

BLÔS- === (D) bloos-, (E) blush-
-BÔGE === (D) boog, (F) bôge, (E) bow, (G) Bogen
BÔM- (BÁM-) === (D) boom, (F) beam, (G) Baum
BÔT- === (D/G) boot, (E/F) boat
BRÔND === (D) brand, (F) brân
FÔNE (FÁNE) === (D) vaan, (F) fane, (G) Fahne
FÔR- === (D) voor-, (F) foar-, (G) vor-, (E) for-
HÔND- (HÁND) === (D/G/E) hand, (F) hân
HÔNE/ -A === (D) haan, (F) hoanne, (G) Hahn
"JON. JÔN. JHON ÀND JÁN" (varieties of name John, Jan, Jon)
KRÔN- === (D) kroon, (F) kroan, (G) krone
LÔMERA (LÀMKES) === (D) lammeren, (F) lammen, (G) Lämmer, (E) lams
-LÔN- (-LÁN-) === (D) laan, (F) leane/loane, (E) lane
LÔNG- (LANG) === (D/G/F) lang, (E) long
LÔS (LÁS) === (D) los/loos, (F) los/loas, (G) los/lose, (E) loose
-MÔN- (-MÀN-/-MAN-) === (D/E/F) man, (G) Mann
MÔNE/MÔNATH === (D) maan/maand, (F) moanne, (G) Mond/Monat, (E) moon/month
MÔRNE (MORNE) === (D/G) morgen, (F) moarn, (E) morning
-NÔM-, (-NÁM-, NOM) === (D) naam-/noem-, (F) namme, (E/G) name
NÔSE === (D) neus, (F) noas, (G) Nase, (E) nose
ÔGON, ÔGNUM (ÁGNUM/ÁGNE/ÁGA) === (D) ogen, (F) eagen, (G) Augen, (E) eyes
ÔL- (AL-, ÁL-) [note: ÔLLERWECHS, ÔLLERLÉJA only on pp. 164-166 by Ljudgeart the Geartman; elsewhere: ALLERWÉIKES, ALLERLÉJA]
ÔLD- (ALD-, OLD) === (D) oud-, (F) âld, (G) alt-, (E) old-
ÔN (only 1x) (AN) === (D) aan, (F) oan, (G) an, (E) on
-ÔR-, -E, -A, -UM, ÔTHER-, ÔWERS === (F) oare, (D/G) andere, (E) other
PLÔNK (PLANK-) === (D/E) plank, (F) planke
RÔS- === (D) roos, (F) roas, (E/G) rose
SKÔNDA (SKANTHA) === (D/G) schande, (F) skande
SNÔRA- (SNÁRA) === (D) snoeren
VNTHÔNKES === (D) ondanks

This variety of spelling suggest that also in the distant past there already was a variety of pronunciation. The Ó or Ô wil have been a long, open sound somewhere on the sliding scale between O and A.


Many of the words listed above also occur spelled with a normal O. I only mentioned a few examples of that. The following list is of words from the two probe texts with the regular O.

1) ending -OD/-OL/-OK (stressed) >>> sound O, OE, U, OO
BOK- === (D/F) boek, (G) Buch, (E) book
FLOD === (D) vloed, (F) floed, (G) Flut, (E) flood
GOD === (D) goed/God, (G) gut/Gott, (E) good/God
JOL === (D) joel, (G) Jul, (E) yule

(elsewhere: MOD === (D/F) -moed, (G) mut, (E) mood >>> derived from this root:)
MODER === (D) moeder, (G) Mutter, (E) mother
OD === (old-D) ode/oede/hode/hoede?

2) ending -ON/-ONG/-OND/-OST (unstressed) >>> these O sounds have dissapeared!
BÀRDON === (D) baarden
GVNGON (GVNGEN) === (D/G) gingen, (F) gongen
KÉMON === (D) kwamen, (F/G) kamen, (E) came
KRÉION === (D) kregen, (F) krigen
KRÛDON === (D) kruiden, (F) krûden, (G) Kräuter
NJUGON === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RÉKNONG === (D) rekening, (G) Rechnung, (E) reckoning
THÛSOND === (D) duizend, (F) tûsen, (G) tausend, (E) thousand
-TIGOSTE === (D) -tigste, (F) -tichste, (G) -zigste, (E) -tiest
WERON === (D/G) waren, (E) were

3) followed by -CH or -GH (stressed)
BROCHT === (D) bracht, (F) brocht, (G) brachte, (E) brought
NOCHTA === (D) genoegens/geneugten/noten, (E) naught/nought
TOGHATER- === (D/F) dochter, (G) Tochter, (E) daughter
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought

4) short O sound
FOLK === (D/G) Volk, (E/F) folk
FON === (D) van, (F) fan, (G) von
-OF === (D) af, (F) ôf, (G) ab, (E) off
OKKE (name)

5) longer O sound
FORMA === (D/G) vorm-, (F) foarm-, (E) form-
FORTH === (D) voort, (F) fuort, (G) fort, (E) forth
OER === (D/E) over
MOT === (D) moet, (F) moat, (G) muss, (E) must
SKOLDE === (D) zoude, (F) soe, (G) sollte, (E) should
STOF === (D/F) stof, (G) Stoff/Staub, (E) stuff

TO (TOLIK: TO-LIK) === (D) te/toe, (G) zu, (E) to

6) long and sometimes spelled with Ô, Ó, Á
-NOMATH === (D) -noemd/-naamd

23 April 2018

How did it sound? #3: A, Á, À


These three varieties of A are not always clearly distinguishable. Sometimes words that are usually written with Á or À respectively seem to be written as a normal A and sometimes the copyist seems to have made a Á or À by mistake where it should simply have been a regular A.

Some rules of thumb:

1) A normal short or unstressed A (phonetically a short "ɐ" or "ä") is always used at the end of plurals, examples:
BOKA, THINGA, GÀRSA, BÔMA, MANGÉRTA, MÀNNESKA, FRÜCHDA, NOCHTA, DRÁMA, SVNA, TOGHATERA. (Note: some of these plurals also occur as ending with -UM in stead of -A.)

2) Infinitives of verbs also end with -A, examples:
WÁRJA, -DÀRVA, -LÍSA, -SKRÍVA, KVMA, WÉSA.
Also conjugations ending -ATH, -ADE, -ANDE, examples:
-BIFATTATH, -BINOMATH, MÁKADE, GLÍANDE.

3) The accentuated open A (phonetically "a") is spelled Á, examples:
WÁRJA, ÁK, THÁ, ÁT.LAND, WÁK, MÁKADE, DÁNA, KWÁD, BLÁT, ÁDAMA, DRÁMA.
The modern Dutch varieties of these words are often spelled/pronounced with long A or long O (ook, waak, maakte, daarna, kwaad, bloot, adem, dromen), German AU or O (auch, Traum/Träume, bloß)

4) The À (phonetically "æ" or "ɛ"; as in Englis "that") is often interchangeable with E:
ÀFTER / EFTER, -DÀRVA / -DERVA, BÀRN / BERN, THÀT / THET, GÀRS / GERS.

5) Many of the plain A's (mostly at the end of a word) have disappeared in our modern languages, indicating that they were probably not pronounced clearly, examples:
BOKA === (D/F) boeken (G) Bücher (E) books
KVMA === (D) komen, (F) komme, (G) kommen, (E) come
THISSA === (D) deze, (F) dizze, (G) diese, (E) these
VSA === (D) onze, (F) ús, (G) unsere, (E) our
THRJA === (D) drie, (G) drei, (E) three
NAVT === (D) niet, (F) net, (G) nicht, (E) not
and: THINRA, HJA, RA

6) Some words still exist more or less in the same form, examples:
AL- (as in ALLE, ALLET, ALHWAT) === (D/F/G) al-, (E) all-
AS === (D/G) als, (F/E) as
ANFANG === (D) aanvang, (G) Anfang

How did it sound? #2: the double V or W


From the same two texts as in part #1, the various words are listed as examples. Use as consonant, like V, is easy to reconstruct, as it is still mostly the same in our comparing languages Dutch, German, English and Frisian:

As consonant in text 1:

WÁRJA === (D) bewaren, (F) bewarje, (G) bewahren (E) beware
WÉRON === (D/G) waren, (E) were
WET === (F) wiet, (E) wet
WÉI === (D/G) weg, (F) wei, (E) away
WÁK === (D) waak, (G) wache, (E) wake/ watch
SAHWERSA = HWERSA: lit. where-so => when
SKRÉWEN - see #1 Text 1
FJVWER- - see #1 Text 1

As consonant in text 2:
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought
KWIK === (D) kwik/ kwiek, (E) quick
KWÁD === (D) kwaad, (F) kwea
TWILIF, TWÉN === (D) twaalf/ twee-, (G) zwölf/ zwei-, (E) twelve/twin
WARME === (D/G) warme, (F) waarm, (E) warm
WÀRTH === (D) werd
WÉRON (see above)
WÉSA === (D) wezen
ALHWAT === (D/F) -wat, (G) -was, (E) -what

Less clear is the situation where W is followed by -N or -L, in WRD- or as separate  word or prefix WR-:

In text 1:
WR- (as in WRLANDISK, WRSKRÉVEN, WRSKRÍVA) === (D) overlands, overschrijven; in English literally 'over-landish' (foreign), 'over-scribe' (copy): short for OVER/OVIR (*note below)
WRDEN === (D/G) -worden/ -werden, (F) waarden
stamp from 'Oermuseum'

In text 2:
WR- (as in WR.ALDA) === (D) oer-, (G) ur- (example: oertijd/ Urzeit, oerwould/ Urwald): short for OVER/OVIR (*note below)
NW === (D) nu, (F) no, (E) now

Elsewhere:
WN- (in WN-won/ WND-wound) === (D) won/wond, (F) wûn/wûne, (G) won/Wunde, (E) won/wound
WL === (D) vuil, (E) foul

My guess is that in these cases pronunciation will have been like a short (E) oowe, (G) uwe, (D) oewe: ooweRLANDISK, ooweR-ALDA, Noowe, ooweN, ooweND, ooweL.
However, there will probably have been many dialects/varieties, for example:
oeRLANDISK, oeR-ALDA, Noe, etc. or:
weRLANDISK, weR-ALDA, etc.
There is no clear difference, after all, and even today there are similar differences (mostly of pronouncing the vowels) between the many dialects.

=====================

* WR / VR short for OVER / OVIR

1) evidence from within OLB

a) varieties THÉR.OVIR, THÉR.WR, THÉR.VR
(the latter is most common; also without dot or space instead)
=== (D) daarover, (G) darüber (F) oer dat, (E) lit. 'there-over', meaning 'about that'.

b) varieties OVER SKRÍVA, WRSKRÍVA, VRSKRIVA
(see above)

c) varieties OVER.ET, VR.ET
for example:
PEST WAS OVER.ET LAND KVMEN - pest had come over the land
WELDICH SKOLDE WERTHA VR.ET ÉLLE LÁND - should become ruling over the whole land

d) OVIR / OVER is also shortened as OER / OR:
TONÔMATH OVIRA.LINDA
OVIR.A LINDA.WRDA
OERA.LINDA. THÀT WIL SEZA OVIR THA LINDA
OVERA LINDA ÀFTE HJARA NÔMUN
OVERA SKELDA
THÀT OR.A SKELDA FOLK
(also: THA ÔRE SÍDE THÉRE SKELDA - the other side of the Skelda)

e) specifically about WR.ALDA
a suggestion that WR means OVER:
[098/07]
WR.ALDA IS THET ALDER.ALDESTA JEFTHA OVER.ALDESTA
‘Wr-alda’ is the most-ancient ('oldest-of-all') or primordial (‘over-oldest’)

"ureldi" in 10th century psalm (copied in 18th century), translated as "oiroudte" (most-old-age) in 1842
~ ~ ~ note: Wralda is only spelled once with I as WR.ALDI.S in the manuscript

2) evidence from context
(only few of many examples):
WRA MERKA TO GA - to go over the markets
THÁ THI STORN WR WÉR - when the storm was over
WR BERG ÀND DÉLON - over mountain and valleys
JOMPADE WR BORD - jumped over board
WRA BERGA ÀND WRN SÉ - over mountains and over sea
VPPA SÉ. ÀND WRA STRÉTE - upon the sea and over the strait
WR.NE SÉ TO FÁRANE - to fare/sail over (a) sea
UT SJANDE WRA WOSTÉNE - looking out over the desert
GVNG WR ALLE KRÉKA.LANDA - went over all Greeklands
ALLERWÉIKES RUN HJU WRA STRÉTE - everywhere she ran over the streets
etc.

17 April 2018

How did it sound? #1: the single V

To reconstruct the sound of the 'Fryas' language, I will now present a study of the vowels based on similar words in Dutch, Frisian, German and English (when applicable), starting with single "V" (double-V or W will come later). I have selected two texts for this, the newest (p. [00a]: "Okke, my son") and one of the oldest (p. [006]: "Our Primal History"), consisting of 512 and 552 letters respectively. When these texts do not have enough examples of the vowel, I will choose other fragments.

p. [00a]: "Okke, my son"
p. [006]: "Our Primal History"


OKKE MIN SVN. THISSA BOKA MOT I MITH LIF ÀND SÉLE WÁRJA. SE VMBIFATTATH THJU SKÉDNISSE FON VS ÉLE FOLK ÁK FON VSA ÉTHLUM. VRLÉDEN JÉR HÀB IK THAM ÛT.ER FLOD HRED TOLIK MITH THI ÀND THINRA MODER. THA HJA WÉRON WET WRDEN. THÉRTHRVCH GVNGON HJA ÀFTERNÉI VRDÀRVA. VMBE HJA NAVT TO VRLÍSA HÀB IK RA VP WRLANDISK PAMPÍER WRSKRÉVEN. SAHWERSA THV SE ERVE. MOT THV SE ÁK WRSKRÍVA. THIN BÀRN ALSA TILTHJU HJA NIMMERTHE WÉI NAVT NE KVMA. SKRÉWEN TO LJUWERT. NÉI ÁTLAND SVNKEN IS. THÀT THRJA THÛSOND.FJVWER HVNDRED ÀND NJUGON ÀND FJVWERTIGOSTE JÉR. THAT IS NÉI KERSTEN RÉKNONG THAT TVELF.HVNDRED.SEX ÀND FIFTIGOSTE JÉR. HIDDE TOBINOMATH OER.A LINDA. WÁK. THAT IS VSA FORMA SKÉDNISE. WR.ALDA THAM ALLÉNA GOD ÀND ÉVG IS. MAKADE T.ANFANG. DANA KÉM TID. TID WROCHTE ALLE THINGA. ÁK JRTHA. JRTHA BÀRDE ALLE GÀRSA KRÛDON ÀND BÔMA. ALLET DJARA KWIK ÀND ALLE.T ÀRGE KWIK. ALHWAT GOD ÀND DJAR IS. BROCHT HJU BY DÉGUM ÀND ALHWAT KWÁD ÀND ÀRG IS. BROCHT HJU THES NACHTIS FORTH. ÀFTER.ET TWILIFTE JOL.FÉRSTE BÀRDE HJU THRJA MANGÉRTA LYDA WÀRTH UT GLÍANDE FINDA WÀRTH UT HÉTA. ÀND FRYA WÀRTH UT WARME STOF. THÁ HJA BLÁT KÉMON SPISDE WR.ALDA HJAM MITH SINA ÁDAMA. TILTHIU THA MÀNNESKA AN HIM SKOLDE BVNDEN WÉSA. RING AS HJA RIP WÉRON KRÉION HJA FRÜCHDA ÀND NOCHTA ANDA DRÁMA. WR.ALDA.S OD TRÀD TO RA BINNA. ÀND NW BÀRDON EK TWILIF SVNA ÀND TWILIF TOGHATERA. EK JOL.TID TWÉN.

Text 1

as vowel "o", "u", "ou":
SVN === (D) zoon, (F) soan, (G) Sohn, (E) son (plural in text 2, below)
VMBE/ VMBI- === (D/F) om/ om-, (G) um/ -um
VS/ VSA === (D) ons/ onze, (F) ús (sing. and plur.)
-THRVCH === (D) door, (F) -troch, (G) -durch, (E) -through
GVNGON* === (F) gongen
VP === (D/F) op, (E) up
THV === (F) do, (G) du, (E) thou
KVMA** === (D) komen, (F) komme, (G) kommen, (E) come
SVNKEN === (D) gezonken, (F) sonken, (E) sunk
FJVWER === (F) fjouwer, (E) four
HVNDRED === (D)honderd, (F) hûndert, (G) hundert, (E) hundred
[* elsewhere spelled GONGON]
[** varieties with "O": KOM.OF, OMKOMTH, KOMATH, ÀFTERKOMANDA]

in combination VR, now (D/G) "ver-", (F) "fer-":
VRLÉDEN === (D) verleden, (F) ferline
VRDÀRVA === (D) verderven, (F) ferdjerre, (G) verderben
VRLÍSA === (D) verliezen, (F) ferlieze, (G) verlieren
[note: VR can mean 'over' and 'for' and is often equal to OVIR, OVER, WR, OER, OR]

as consonant "v" or "w":
VRDÀRVA === (D) verderve
ERVE === (D) erve, (F) ervje
-SKRÉVEN/ -SKRÍVA* === (D) -schreven/ -schrijve, (F) -skreaun/ -skriuwe
TVELF** === (D) twaalf, (F) tolve, (G) zwölf, (E) twelve
[* also spelled SKRÉWEN, SKRÍWEN/ SKRÍWA, SKRIWA]
[** elsewhere spelled TWELIF, TWÉLIF, TWILIF (most common), TWILLIF, TWILF]

in combination AV:
NAVT === (D) niet, (F) net, (G) nicht, (E) not
(see elsewhere: LAVWA: (D) leeuw, (F) liuw, (G) Löwe, (E) lion)

Text 2:

as vowel:
VSA - as above
BVNDEN === (D) gebonden, (F) bûn, (G) gebunden, (E) bound
SVNA === (D) zonen, (F) soannen, (G) Söhne, (E) sons (singular in text 1, above)

in combination ÉV:
ÉVG === (D) eeuwig, (F) ivich, (D) ewig

[[[ conclusions and audio samples will be follow later]]]

About the new English translation


For two samples of the new translation, see here.

Below a few examples (of many) of the more significant differences between the new translation and the one by Sandbach, which was not based on the original text, but on Ottema's first Dutch translation of it:

page Transliteration Sandbach, 1876 Ott, 2018 (provisional)
S.13 - [006/28] RING AS HJA RIP WÉRON KRÉION HJA FRÜCHDA ÀND NOCHTA ANDA DRÁMA. WR.ALDA.S OD TRÀD TO RA BINNA. As soon as they were full grown they took pleasure and delight in the visions of Wr-alda. Hatred found its way among them. As they matured, they became fruitful and dreamed of pleasure. They received Wralda's ‘od’ into them,*
S. 21 - [012/26] ALLERA MÀNNALIK THÉR [...] MOT IK ANDA BÀRN.TAM ÉNER SLÁFINE FÁRA LÉTA. If any man [...] let him be to you as a vile slave; Anyone who [...] must be paraded with collar and leash like a slave girl.
S. 43 - [029/26] SAHWERSA THÉR SWETHNATA ET SÉMNE KYVA ÀND SANA VR ENZE SÉKA THA VR LÁND If any of our neighbours quarrel and fight about any matter except land, If neighbors should quarrel among each other and enter into a dispute over some cause or piece of land
S. 49 - [033/30] MINA ERVA DRÉG IK OM IN MINA BOSM. [Minerva:] I carry my possessions in my own bosom. [Minerva:] ‘I carry “min” — that is, my — “erva” in my heart.**
S.177 - [129/23] THACH NÉI THAT WI TWA DÉGA FORTH PILATH HÉDE but after two days' slow sailing However, after we had hurried on for two days,








* od’ — probably ‘life force’ or ‘Holy Spirit’ of the Christian tradition; compare German: ‘Gottes Odem’. Related to Middle-Dutch ‘(h)o(e)de’: testicle.
** erva explained in prior sentence as inherited estates.

16 April 2018

Kwartierstaat Ottema - van Heukelom


kinderportret Sara
KWARTIERSTAAT OTTEMA - VAN HEUKELOM

2) Jan Gerhardus Ottema, geb. 1-12-1804 Doetinchem (ged. 30-12 Hervormd), ovl. 19-3-1879 Leeuwarden, doctor in de wijsbegeerte en letteren (overzicht levensloop en publicaties, zie onder), z.v. Nicolaus Ottema en Minke Dirks;
tr. 28-7-1830 Utrecht
3) Sara van Heukelom, geb. 24-2-1805 Leiden (Doopsgezind), ovl. 25-12-1850 Leeuwarden, d.v.  Nicolaas van Heukelom en Sophia van Geuns.
Geen kinderen.


=== ouders


4) Nicolaus (Claas) Ottema, rector van de Latijnse school Doetinchem resp. Brielle (thans Venkelstraat 6), ged. 19-10-1779 Leeuwarden (geref.), ovl. 8-9-1808 Brielle (aan koortsen), z.v. Nanne Ottema en Hendrikje Geerts;
tr. 10-4-1803 Leeuwarden
5) Minke Jans Dirks, geb. 1781 Leeuwarden, ovl. 3-3-1857 Leeuwarden, won. Leeuwarden (1828), rentenierster, won. "onder de Linden binnen Utrecht", d.v. Jan Dirks en Akke Nolledes.
Kinderen:
  1. Jan Gerhardus Ottema, ged. 30-12-1804 Doetinchem (zie 2)
  2. Jan Dirks Ottema, ged. 23-7-1806 Doetinchem.
  3. Hendrik Ottema, geb. 1808, ovl. 14-10-1826 Utrecht.


lakenmerk fa. v. Heukelom
6) Nicolaas van Heukelom, geb. 18-6-1761 Leiden (ged. 8-4-1781 Dg.), ovl. 24-6-1809 Leiden (begr. Katwijk aan Zee), lakenfabrikant (zie alhier blz. 77); tr. (1) 3-6-1786 Utrecht Maria Schoongevel; tr. (2) 15-7-1792 Harlingen Fokje Huidekoper (ovl. 21-11-1796 Leiden), z.v. Jan van Heukelom en Petronella van Putten;
tr. (3) 23-6-1801 Utrecht
7) Sophia van Geuns, geb. 14-12-1771 Groningen, ovl. 12-10-1807 Leiden (wonende te Hogewoerd bij de Rijnstraat, begr. Katwijk aan Zee), d.v. Matthias van Geuns en Sara van Delden.
Kinderen uit (2):
  1. Jan Pieter van Heukelom, geb. 1793, ovl. 10-12-1815 Zoeterwoude (verdronk na val door ijs), student rechten.
  2. Folkert van Heukelom, geb. 11-10-1794 Leiden, ovl. 1848, advocaat, auteur "Dissertatio... de Aerario Romano", ambtenaar bij het Ministerie van Financiën, dichter.
uit (3):
  1. Petronella van Heukelom, geb. 1803, ovl. 31-10-1825 Utrecht
  2. Sara van Heukelom, geb. 21-2-1805 Leiden (zie 3)
  3. Matthias van Heukelom, geb. 7-9-1806 Leiden, ovl. 3-3-1865 Arnhem, wijnkoopman; tr. 6-5-1842 Leeuwarden Agatha de Clercq, geb. 1806 Amsterdam, ovl. 25-5-1887 Arnhem, d.v. Gijsbert de Clercq en Maria de Clercq, wed. Bernardus Brouwer (geen kinderen).
Portret van de kinderen van Nicolaas van Heukelom (1761-1809) door Christiaan van Geelen (1794-1826)


=== grootouders


8) Nanne Ottema, ged. 24-1-1745 Grouw, begr. 20-5-1812 Leeuwarden, commissaris van het Harlinger veer (tussen Harlingen en Amsterdam), belijdenis Leeuwarden 12-12-1766, z.v. Tjitse Ottema en Taetske Nannes;
tr. 1-10-1769 Beetsterzwaag (beide won. Leeuwarden alwaar otr.)
9) Hendrikje Geerts, geb. 1739, ovl. 22-12-1812 Leeuwarden (ouders niet vermeld), koopvrouw.
Kinderen:
  1. Engeltje Ottema, ged. 29-10-1769 Beets, begr. 18-12-1793 Leeuwarden; tr. 13-6-1790 Workum/Leeuwarden Lammert Roelofs.
  2. Tjitse Ottema, geb. 23-6, ged. 10-7-1772 Leeuwarden, ovl. 4-10-1809 Leeuwarden; tr. 17-5-1795 Leeuwarden/Blessum Jetske Appelhof, geb. 1771 Leeuwarden, ovl. 26-12-1833 Leeuwarden (5 kinderen in 1809), d.v. Oege Appelhof en Aafke van der Meulen.
  3. (Taetske Ottema, geb. 6-5, ged. 29-5-1774 Leeuwarden)
  4. Geerardus, ged. 17-7-1777 Leeuwarden.
  5. Claas Ottema, ged. 19-10-1779 Leeuwarden (zie 4)
  6. Taetske Ottema, ged. 12-1-1782 Leeuwarden.


10) Jan Dirks Dirkse, geb. 1741 Leeuwarden, ovl. 5-1-1817 Leeuwarden (ouders niet vermeld);
tr.
11) Akke Nollides/ Nolles, geb. 1746 Gorredijk, belijdenis 6-6-1794 Leeuwarden, ovl. 15-11-1831 Leeuwarden, d.v. Nolle Rinkes en Antje Alberts.
Kinderen:
  1. (Dirk, ged. 15-10-1766 Leeuwarden)
  2. (Nolle, ged. 2-12-1767 Leeuwarden)
  3. Tjamke, ged. 11-7-1770 Leeuwarden
  4. Dirk, ged. 28-9-1772 Leeuwarden
  5. (Antie, ged. 30-4-1775 Leeuwarden)
  6. Nolle Dirks, ged. 26-8-1776 Leeuwarden, won. Leeuwarden (1828)
  7. Antje Dirks, ged. 22-3-1879 Leeuwarden, ovl. 9-3-1837 Leeuwarden; tr. 15-4-1804 Leeuwarden Jan Reerink, geb. 1776 Lochum Duitsland, ovl. 20-2-1852 Leeuwarden.
  8. Minke Jans Dirks, ged. 13-6-1781 Leeuwarden (zie 5).
  9. Pietrik Dirks, ged. 27-9-1783 Leeuwarden, won. Haarlem (1828)
  10. Janke Dirks, ged. 17-5-1786 Leeuwarden, ovl. 1-5-1848 Beverwijk; tr. 31-10-1807 Sneek/Leeuwarden Steven Wybes Bleeker.
  11. Dirkje, ged. 7-9-1788 Leeuwarden


12) Jan (II) van Heukelom, geb. 7-5-1730 Leiden, begr. 22-2-1806 Leiden (won. Hogewoerd), lakenfabrikant, econoom, winnaar gouden medaille prijsvraag  van  het  Utrechts  Provinciaals  Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, z.v. Jan (I) van Heukelom en Geertruij Witkops;
Jan III van Heukelom
tr. 8-6-1757 Leiden
13) Petronella van Putten, geb. 16-11-1728 Leiden, begr. tussen 29-3 en 5-4-1766 Leiden, d.v. Johannes van Putten en Elisabeth Boutkan.
Kinderen:
  1. Jan (III) van Heukelom, ged. 15-4-1758 Leiden, ovl. 4-7-1835 Noordwijkerhout, lakenfabrikant, raadslid Leiden; tr. 15-2-1780 Elisabeth Goverts.
  2. Nicolaas van Heukelom, geb. 18-6-1761 Leiden (zie 6).
  3. Geertruida van Heukelom, geb. 13-7-1764, ovl. 7-1-1816 Amsterdam; tr. Jan van Geuns (zie 14-15)


Matthias van Geuns
14) Matthias van Geuns, hoogleraar geneeskunde Utrecht (doopsgezind, zie ook biografie), geb. 2-9-1735 Groningen, ovl. 9-12-1817 Utrecht, z.v. Steven Janszn van Geuns en Diewertje Roos;
tr. 6-11-1763 Groningen
15) Sara van Delden, geb. 3-10-1739 Groningen, ovl. 18-12-1809 Utrecht, d.v. Jan van Delden en Sophia de Booser.
Kinderen:
  1. Jan van Geuns, geb. 14-9-1764 Groningen, ovl. 25-1-1834 Nijmegen, doopsgezind predikant; tr. 24-7-1793 Leiden Geertruyda van Heukelom (zie 12-13).
  2. Debora Jozina van Geuns, geb. 27-10-1765 Groningen, ovl. 1854, ongehuwd.
  3. Steven Jan van Geuns, geb. 18-10-1767 Groningen, ovl. 16-5-1795 Utrecht, medicus, hoogleraar Utrecht; tr. 27-10-1794 Utrecht Klasina Johanna Jacoba de Vlieger (1768-1798).
  4. Jacob van Geuns, geb. 10-1-1769 Groningen, ovl. 7-12-1832 Amsterdam, medicus/ bankdirecteur; tr. 23-6-1801 's-Graveland Regina Christina Voombergh (1774-1821).
  5. Sophia van Geuns, geb. 14-12-1771 Groningen (zie 7).
  6. Isaak Matthias van Geuns, geb. 11-12-1772 Groningen, ovl. 19-4-1804 Den Haag, jurist, overheidsfunctionaris; tr. 18-1-1803 Den Haag Suzanna Elisabeth Boursse Wils (1780-1813).
  7. Josina Gepke van Geuns, geb. 26-5-1776 Groningen, ovl. 11-5-1852 Utrecht; tr. 16-8-1809 Utrecht medicus Dr. IJsbrand de Kock (1781-1868).


=== overgrootouders


16) Tjitse Rimmerts Ottema, executeur van Idaarderadeel, (hertr. 25-4-17621 Grouw Ynske Hylkama), won. Grouw 1740, ged. 13-12-1711 Balk, ovl. 19-8-1794 Grouw, z.v. Rimmer Eelkes Ottema en Ymk Lieuwes;
tr. 5-5-1743 Grouw (otr. 14-4-1740 Balk)
17) Taetske Nannes, ged. 19-3-1724 Balk (won. Balk 1740), d.v. Nanne Franses en Antje Innes.
Kinderen:
  1. Nanne Ottema, ged. 24-1-1745 Grouw (zie 8)


18) Geert/  Gerardus?
19)


20) Dirk
21)


22) Nolle Rinkes, geb. 1707 Kortezwaag, ovl. 15-12-1749 Gorredijk, tr. (2) 9-2-1749 Gorredijk Trijntje Stephanus (uit Bergum, wed. Claas Minnes, hertr. Freerk Perzijn);
tr. (1)
23) Antje Alberts, ged. 14-9-1710 Gorredijk, ovl. 9-1-1748 Gorredijk.
Kinderen:
  1. Rinke Nollides, geb. 18-7-1739 Gorredijk, ovl. 1-7-1810 Leeuwarden (begr. Gorredijk), molenaar, kalkbrander Ritsumazijl, jeneverstoker, gortmaker, pelmolenaar, koopman, armenvoogd , gemeentebestuurslid Leeuwarden; tr. Grietje Douwes.
  2. Akke Nollides/Nolles, geb. 1746 Gorredijk (zie 11)
uit (2):
(Nolle, ged. 1-3-1750 Gorredijk (vader is overleden), begr. 30-7-1753 Opsterland.)


24) Jan (I) van Heukelom, geb. 2-8-1693, ovl. 18-9-1762 Leiden, z.v. Matthijs van Heukelom (1663-1725) en Barbara;
tr.
25) Geertruij Witkops, geb. 9-4-1700 Zwolle, ovl. 26-2-1774 Leiden, d.v. Johannes Witkops en Elisabeth.
Kinderen:
  1. Matthijs van Heukelom, geb. 11-8-1725 Leiden.
  2. Geertruida van Heukelom, geb. 24-3-1727 Leiden.
  3. Jan (II) van Heukelom, geb. 7-5-1730 Leiden (zie 12).
  4. Hendrik van Heukelom, geb. 7-8-1736 Leiden.
  5. Frans van Heukelom, geb. 17-7-1738 Leiden.


26) Johannes van Putten, geb. 31-8-1698 Rotterdam (Oud Katholiek), ovl. 9-10-1760 Rottrerdam, later doopsgezind, z.v. Jacobus van Putten en Maria Foeck;
tr. 22-9-1723 Rotterdam
27) Elisabeth Boutkan, ovl. 22-10-1782 Leiden, d.v. Nicolaes Jacobus Boutkan en Maria Deckers.
Kinderen:
  1. Nicolaas van Putten, geb. 27-1-1727 Rotterdam
  2. Petronella van Putten, geb. 16-11-1728 Leiden (zie 13)
  3. Jacobus van Putten, geb. 9-4-1731 Rotterdam
  4. Maria van Putten, geb. 16-8-1733 Rotterdam
  5. Elisabeth van Putten


28) Steven Janszn van Geuns, geb. 1-7-1694, Neustadt-Gödens, ovl. 25-3-1757 Groningen lakenhandelaar uit Oost-Friesland, Doopsgezind, z.v. Jan Stevensz. en Gepke Lubberts Cremer;
tr. 12-1-1718 Groningen
29) Diewertje Roos, geb. 9-12-1696, ovl. 4-6-1737 Groningen, d.v. lakenkoopman Thijs Hiddes Roos en Jozina Denijs.
Kinderen:
  1. (Jan, geb en ovl. 1719)
  2. Jozina van Geuns (1720-1808); tr. 1747 Groningen Jacob Bezoet (1722-1779, koopman.
  3. Jan van Geuns (1722-1780), ijzerhandelaar; tr. 1746 Hiltje Bartels Terwisga.
  4. Gepke van Geuns (1724-1766)
  5. (Thijsia/ Sytske 1727-1737)
  6. (Matthias, geb. en ovl. 1730)
  7. Matthias van Geuns, geb. 2-9-1735 Groningen (zie 14).

Jan van Delden
Sophia de Booser
30) Jan van Delden, geb. 24-4-1700 Groningen, ovl. 15-1-1770 Groningen, graanhandelaar, z.v. Izaak Berends van Delden en Sara de Bozer;
tr. 28-5-1729 Groningen (geschilderde portretten in Gron. Museum)
31) Sophia de Booser, geb. 18-3-1704 Groningen, ovl. 30-12-1758 Groningen, d.v. Willem Jans de Booser (zilversmid) en Grietje Torringa.
Kinderen:
  1. Sara van Delden, geb. 3-10-1739 Groningen (zie (15).
  2. Margaretha van Delden, geb. 19-8-1744 Groningen; tr. 23-7-1771 Grijpskerk Melchior Willem de Raadt.


=== bet-overgrootouders


32) Rimmer Eelkes Ottema;
tr.
33) Ymk Lieuwes, ged. 12-3-1685 Balk, d.v. Lieuwe Gerrits en Ymk Reins.
Kinderen:
  1. Tjitse Rimmers Ottema, ged. 13-12-1711 Balk (zie 16).
  2. Lieuwe, ged. 12-8-1716 Balk.
  3. Ysk, ged. 13-3-1718 Balk.
  4. Rein Rimmers Ottema, ged. 29-8-1723 Balk; tr. Gertje Innes.
  5. Jelle, ged. 20-10-1726 Balk.

=========================================================


Overzicht levensloop Dr. J.G. Ottema
1804 geboren
candidaatsexamen Letteren in Groningen
1824 inschrijving universiteit Utrecht
1828 promotie "de Sophoclis Antigone"
1830 gehuwd
1830 - 1834 conrector te Harlingen
1834 aanstelling praeceptor gymnasium Leeuwarden
1850 echtgenote overleden
1855 aanstelling conrector gymnasium Leeuwarden
1870 (24 nov.) aanvang studie v.h. handschrift Over de Linden
1872 eervol ontslag gymnasium Leeuwarden / publicatie Thet Oera Linda Bok
1879 overleden
(N.B. secretaris van het Friesch Genootschap van geschied-, oudheid- en taalkunde: lid sinds 1832, bestuurslid sinds 1843, zie ook hier)

onvolledig overzicht der publicaties:
1844 Iets over de Friesche taal
1845 Verhandeling over den loop der rivieren door het land der Friezen en Batavieren
1845 Redevoering over het ontstaan der Zuiderzee
1850 Kores. Historisch-chronologisch onderzoek naar den tijd der Babylonische ballingschap
1853 Die olde Freesche chronike, met aanteekeningen van E. Epkema
1853 Gesta Frisiorum
1853 De jubelperiode aangewend bij de tijdrekening van de geschiedenis der Israëlieten
1855 Geschiedenis der Joden gedurende het tijdvak der Babyl. ballingschap onder de overheersching der Perzen
1859 Opschrift der grafzuil van Psamtik. Bijdrage tot de chronologie der Babyl. ballingschap
1860 Gelegenheidsrede bij de oprichting van het monument voor Dr. Simon Stijl te Harlingen
1865 De evangeliën van Mattheus en Markus in hunne oorspronkelijke overeenstemming hersteld
1872 Thet Oera Linda Bok
1873 Geschiedkundige aanteekeningen en ophelderingen bij Thet Oera Linda Bok
1874 De Koninklijke Akademie en het Oera Linda Bok
1876 De Deventer courant en het Oera Linda Bok
1876 Thet Oera Linda Bok (2e editie)
1878 Geschiedkundige aanteekeningen... (2e editie)

13 April 2018

Huijser en zijn oudoom Winkler ~ Parenteel

silhouet van J.G. Huijser,
vermoedelijk door hemzelf vervaardigd
Jan Gerard Huijser (1878-1962, III.1.2 sub 2 in parenteel), auteur van "Nieuw Licht in het Oera-Linda Mysterie", was een kleinzoon van de bekende Tiberius Cornelis Winkler (1822-1897, II.1 in parenteel) en (oud-) oomzegger van Johannes Winkler (1840-1916, II.7 in parenteel).

Nadat Eelco Verwijs aanvankelijk zeer enthousiast was over het handschrift (1867), maar er uiteindelijk geen harde uitspraken over durfde doen, noch een vertaling leverde, verklaarde Johannes Winkler het na een kennelijk oppervakkig 'onderzoek' voor vals (1869). Daarna nam Dr. Ottema het over en raakte al snel overtuigd van de authenticiteit van wat hij het "Oera Linda Bok" zou noemen. Winkler maakte posthuum zijn verdachten bekend: Haverschmidt, Verwijs en Over de Linden zouden samen het handschrift hebben gewrocht.

Huijser was 35 jaar oud toen zijn oudoom overleed. Het is opmerkelijk dat hij zelf een geheel andere theorie had over de vermeende maker(s) van het handschrift. Hieronder de gedeeltelijke parenteel van de gezamenlijke voorouders van Jan Gerard Huijser en Johannes Winkler: Lourens Winkler en Trijntje Spoelstra te Leeuwarden.




Twee fragmenten uit "Nieuw Licht in het Oera-Linda Mysterie" (1954), waarin zowel naar Huijser's grootvader T.C. Winkler, als deszelfs oudoom J. Winkler wordt verwezen


PARENTEEL WINKLER-SPOELSTRA (deel)

(I) Lourens Tjebbes Winkler, geb. 1797 Leeuwarden, ovl. 27-3-1874 Leeuwarden, koopman, z.v. Tiberius Cleyenburg Winkler en Elizabeth Margaretha Sontag;
tr. 9-5-1821 Leeuwarden:
Trijntje Spoelstra, geb. 1795 Leeuwarden, ovl. 23-12-1864 Leeuwarden, d.v. Cornelis Oedzes Spoelstra en Jeltje Schaap.
Kinderen:
  1. Tiberius Cornelis Winkler, geb. 28-5-1822 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (II.1)
  2. Elisabeth Margaretha Winkler, geb. 1-1-1824 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (II.2)
  3. Lourens Sontag Winkler, geb. 4-10-1825 Leeuwarden, ovl. 17-3-1864 aan boord schoenerschip, stuurman; tr. 19-8-1856 Haarlem Catharina Petronella Hübner, geb. 5-10-1831 Haarlem, ovl. 14-1-1913 Haarlem, d.v. Martinus Hübner en Petronella Scharringhuizen (geen kinderen).
  4. Jeltje Winkler, geb. 11-12-1826 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (II.4)
  5. Maaike Winkler, geb. 27-1-1833 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (II.5)
  6. (Doetje Winkler, geb. 6-10-1835 en ovl. 29-7-1838 Leeuwarden)
  7. Johannes Winkler, geb. 12-9-1840 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (II.7)

=== generatie II ===

Tiberius Winkler
nogmaals, op hogere leeftijd
(II.1) Tiberius Cornelis Winkler, geb. 28-5-1822 Leeuwarden, ovl. 18-7-1897 Haarlem, geneesheer, conservator Teylers Museum, z.v. Lourens Winkler en Trijntje Spoelstra;
tr. 4-11-1844 Leeuwarden:
Klaaske Kramer, geb. 24-9-1821 Leeuwarden, ovl. 11-11-1886 Haarlem, d.v. Lodewijk Hendrik Kramer en Hiltje Pieters van der Meer.
Kinderen:
  1. Hiltje Winkler, geb. 10-11-1845 Leeuwarden, ovl. 11-11-1911 Hilversum, ongehuwd en zonder beroep.
  2. Trijntje Winkler, geb. 30-1-1847 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.1.2)
  3. Dirkje Winkler, geb. 5-1-1849 Leeuwarden, ovl. 3-11-1926 Den Haag, ongehuwd en zonder beroep.
  4. Elisabeth Margaretha Winkler, geb. 29-7-1851 Leeuwarden, ovl. 20-5-1888 Haarlem, ongehuwd en zonder beroep.
  5. Alexandrina Petronella Winkler, geb. 8-1-1854 Den Helder, ovl. 22-4-1896 Haarlem, ongehuwd en zonder beroep.

--- broer/zus

(II.2) Elisabeth Margaretha Winkler, geb. 1-1-1824 Leeuwarden, ovl. 25-11-1881 Haarlem, d.v. Lourens Winkler en Trijntje Spoelstra;
tr. 2-9-1852 Leeuwarden
Binze Tjittes Stoffels, geb. 1826 Sint Jacobiparochie, kapitein, z.v. Tjitte Stoffels en Wobbeltje Binzes van der Werf.
Kinderen:
  1. Trijntje Elisabeth Margaretha Stoffels, geb. 7-12-1853 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.2.1)
  2. Laura Catharina Petronella Stoffels, geb. 6-7-1856 Leeuwarden, ovl. 27-3-1925 Soest.
  3. Tiete Stoffels, geb. 30-10-1858 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.2.3)

--- zussen

Jeltje Winkler
(II.4) Jeltje Winkler, geb. 11-12-1826 Leeuwarden, ovl. 2-2-1863 Dokkum, d.v. Lourens Winkler en Trijntje Spoelstra;
tr. 21-4-1853 Leeuwarden
Johannes Jacobus Hansma, geb. 27-2-1831 Dokkum, ovl. 29-11-1903 Hilversum, boekhandelaar en uitgever, z.v. Reitze Hansma en Martha Stelwagen, hertr. 1865 Murkje Blauw.
Kinderen:
  1. Martha Hansma, geb. 5-2-1854 Dokkum, ovl. 24-2-1883 Haarlem, ongehuwd hoofdonderwijzeres.
  2. Trijntje Hansma, geb. 13-4-1855 Dokkum, ovl. 22-7-1887 Dokkum, ongehuwd en zonder beroep.
  3. Sjoukje Hansma, geb. 28-6-1857 Dokkum, ovl. 16-3-1939 Hilversum.
  4. Laurens Hansma, geb. 26-1-1860 Dokkum, ovl. 10-5-1920 Renkum, uitgever; tr. 22-5-1888 Dokkum Dirkje IJpes, geb. 1861 Dokkum, ovl. 15-5-1914 Apeldoorn, d.v. Jan Ypes en Wilhelmina Petronella Henneman (geen kinderen).
  5. Leendert Hansma, geb. 20-8-1861 Dokkum ==>> zie (III.4.5)

--- zussen

(II.5) Maaike Winkler, geb. 27-1-1833 Leeuwarden, ovl. 31-12-1888 Leeuwarden, d.v. Lourens Winkler en Trijntje Spoelstra;
tr. 21-12-1853 Leeuwarden
Johannes Marcus, geb. 23-2-1828 Leeuwarden, ovl. 10-1-1903 Leeuwarden, koopman in manufacturen, z.v. Jacobus Marcus en Elisabeth Feddema.
Kinderen:
  1. Lijsbeth Jacoba Marcus, geb. 24-1-1855 Leeuwarden; tr. 5-9-1895 Leeuwarden Frederik Sjoerd Vening, geb. 1847 Leeuwarden (zonder beroep), ovl. 27-5-1915 Soest, z.v. Cornelis Sleeswijk Vening en Titia Louise le Maire.
  2. Laurens Marcus, geb. 10-5-1856 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.5.2)
  3. Jacobus Marcus, geb. 10-12-1857 Leeuwarden (geen nadere gegevens bekend)
  4. Henderikus Marcus, geb. 20-10-1859 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.5.4)
  5. Trijntje Marcus, geb. 10-5-1861 Leeuwarden, ovl. 25-12-1949 Ede.
  6. Catharina Marcus, geb. 10-5-1861 Leeuwarden, ovl. 17-5-1882 Leeuwarden, leerling apotheker, ongehuwd.
  7. Cornelis Johannes Marcus, geb. 25-8-1863 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.5.7)
  8. Jeltje Marcus, geb. 1-3-1865 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.5.8)
  9. Tiberius Cornelis Marcus, geb. 26-7-1866 Leeuwarden, ovl. 13-7-1847 Leeuwarden, koopman; tr. 8-5-1906 Leeuwarden Johanna Klaasen, geb. 1869 Leeuwarden, d.v. Arnoldus Klaasen en Baukje Johanna Kramer (geen knd.).
  10. Binse Marcus, geb. 31-10-1867 Leeuwarden, leerling photograaf Maastricht
  11. Andries Marcus, geb. 30-1-1869 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.5.11)
  12. (Laura Marcus, geb. 21-3-1871 en ovl. 11-12-1871 Leeuwarden)
  13. Willem Marius Marcus, geb. 13-3-1872 Leeuwarden ==>> zie (III.5.13)

--- zus/broer

Johannes Winkler
(II.7) Johannes Winkler, geb. 12-9-1840 Leeuwarden, ovl. 11-3-1916 Haarlem, z.v. Lourens Winkler en Trijntje Spoelstra;
tr. 27-5-1865 Idaarderadeel
Andrieske Tjallings Römer, geb. 1838 Grouw, ovl. 10-2-1866 Leeuwarden, d.v. Tjalling Johan Römer en Grietje Wybrens Epema.
Kind:
  1. Laurens/Andries Winkler, geb. 3-2-1866 Leeuwarden [27-2 Inschrijving van het vonnis van de rechtbank, waarbij de voornaam van het kind wordt gewijzigd van "Laurens" in die van "Andries"] ==>> zie (III.7.1)

=== generatie III ===

(III.1.2) Trijntje (Tine) Winkler, geb. 30-1-1847 Leeuwarden, d.v. Tiberius Cornelis Winkler en Klaaske Kramer;
tr. 29-3-1873 Haarlem
Jan Gerard Huijser, geb. 1831 Leeuwarden, tabaksfabrikant, won. Blitar op Java (1878), z.v. Hendrik Roelof Huijser en Adriana Maria Onnen
Kinderen:
  1. Clara Adriana Huijser, geb. 1876 Kediri (NL-Indië); tr. 15-9-1898 Haarlem Michiel Lugt, geb. 1873 Amsterdam, ovl. 12-6-1950 Haarlem, kassier, z.v. Dirk Cornelis Abraham Lugt en Anna Margareta Plemp (div. knd.).
  2. Jan Gerard Huijser, geb. 8-4-1878 te Blitar (Java, NL-Indië), ovl. 26-1-1962 Den Haag, rechter bij de arrondissementsrechtbank, adviseur genealogie en heraldiek, tekenaar, schilder, etser, auteur "Nieuw Licht in het Oera-Linda Mysterie" (1954); tr. 17-11-1910 Rotterdam Anna Maria Gasille, geb. 14-7-1884 Zierikzee, d.v. Jacob Marinus Gasille en Helena Johanna de Looze (1 dochter, ovl. op 19 jarige leeftijd, 1931 Amsterdam).

--- nichten

(III.2.1) Trijntje Elisabeth Margaretha Stoffels, geb. 7-12-1853 Leeuwarden, ovl. 9-8-1904 Velsen, d.v. Elisabeth Margaretha Winkler en Binze Tjittes Stoffels;
tr. 1-10-1880 Rheden  
Johannes Eekhof, geb. 1851, ovl. 23-1-1932 Brummen (hertr. Anna Susanna van den Honest), landmeter kadaster, z.v. Lourens Eekhof (letterzetter) en Beatrix Hoekstein
Kind:
  1. Beatrix Eekhof, geb. 20-7-1882 Arnhem, won. 1933 Brummen of omg.

--- zus/broer

(III.2.3) Tiete Stoffels, geb. 30-10-1858 Leeuwarden, ovl. 8-11-1920 Den Haag, assistent apotheker, z.v. Elisabeth Margaretha Winkler en Binze Tjittes Stoffels;
tr. 28-10-1890 Utrecht  
Dina Charlotta van den Berkhof, geb. 1868 Utrecht, d.v. Anthonie van den Berkhof en Johanna de Roos.
Kinderen:
  1. Elisabeth Margaretha Stoffels, geb. 1893; tr. 23-4-1919 Den Haag Berend Cornelis Rozenbeek, geb. 1888 Heerenveen, ovl. 22-2-1940 Hilversum, boekhandelaar, z.v. Hiebo Rozenbeek en Jancke Cats
  2. Anton Laurens Johan Stoffels, geb. 1896, kantoorbediende; tr. 27-11-1925 Den Haag Maria Anna Elisabeth Tillema, geb. 1900, d.v. Hendrik Jacobus Tillema en Maria Anna Elisabeth Reijmeringer.

--- neven

(III.4.5) Leendert Hansma, geb. 20-8-1861 Dokkum, ovl. 4-12-1940 Assen, boekhandelaar, z.v. Jeltje Winkler en Johannes Jacobus Hansma;
tr. 12-11-1886 Apeldoorn  
Gabriella Christina Francisca Brack, geb. 1858 Zwammerdam, ovl. 13-4-1926 Assen, d.v. Willem Cornelis Brack en Maria Christina Hees.
Kinderen:
  1. Maria Christina Hillegonda Adriana Hansma, geb. 14-4-1889 Apeldoorn, ovl. 16-2-1962 Assen; tr. Arie Dionijsius de Vroom, geb. 29-6-1891 Harderwijk, boekhandelaar, ovl. 21-12-1944 Hamburg-Neuengamme (Duitsland), z.v. Willem de Vroom en Engelina Verdonk (eerder gesch. van Elize Johanne Weijtingh)
  2. Line Christine Hansma, geb. 30-5-1892 Apeldoorn, ovl. 31-3-1960 Assen (won. Wonseradeel); tr. Gerrit Groenendaal.

---neven

(III.5.2) Laurens Marcus, geb. 10-5-1856 Leeuwarden, officier van gezondheid Haarlem, z.v. Maaike Winkler en Johannes Marcus;
tr. 26-7-1888 Breda  
Helena Antoinetta Henriette Lindman, geb. 31-7-1856 Batavia (NL-Indië), ovl. 2-8-1931 Utrecht, d.v. Lazarus Lindman en Louisa de Brouw.
Kind: 
  1. Helena Antoinette Henriette Marcus, geb. 11-3-1897 Haarlem

--- broers

(III.5.4) Henderikus Marcus, geb. 20-10-1859 Leeuwarden, ovl. 22-9-1945 Apeldoorn, koopman, z.v. Maaike Winkler en Johannes Marcus;
tr. 2-10-1894 Leeuwarden  
Johanna Nijland, geb. 17-8-1869 Leeuwarden, ovl. 27-1-1935 Apeldoorn, d.v. Hendriks Arends Nijland en Ariana Pieternella Johanna Molenaar.
Kinderen:
  1. Johannes Marcus, geb. 9-10-1896 Leeuwarden
  2. Hendrik Arend Marcus, geb. 23-4-1898 Leeuwarden, auteur "De kamers van koophandel en fabrieken in Nederland" (1927).

--- broers

(III.5.7) Cornelis Johannes Marcus, geb. 25-8-1863 Leeuwarden, geneesheer, z.v. Maaike Winkler en Johannes Marcus;
tr. (1) 19-3-1889 Breda  
Bertha Adolphine Lindman, geb. 16-7-1858 Batavia (NL-Indië), ovl. 2-6-1910 Vrijenban, d.v. Lazarus Lindman en Louisa de Brauw;
tr. (2) 4-1-1921 Apeldoorn  
Johanna Wilhelmina Marius, geb. 1878 (wed. Albertus Pull ter Gunne), d.v. Johan Christiaan Theodoor Marius en Jacoba Hendrika de Zaaijer.
Kind uit (1):
  1. Louise Laura Chimène Marcus, geb. 26-5-1891 Vrijenban; tr. 30-5-1912 Vrijenban Hendrik Johan Willem Verniers van der Loeff, geb. 21-1-1889 Nijmegen, won. Soerabaja 1915, z.v. Hendrik Joahn Willem Verniers van der Loeff en Carolina Cornelia Wolf (1 zoon ovl. op zee 1942 bij Gibraltar).

--- broer/zus

(III.5.8) Jeltje Marcus, geb. 1-3-1865 Leeuwarden, ovl. 10-4-1943 Apeldoorn, d.v. Maaike Winkler en Johannes Marcus;
tr. 16-4-1889 Leeuwarden
George Friedrich Willem Geill, geb. 11-2-1859 Krabbendijke, ovl. 19-1-1933 Apeldoorn, arts, z.v. Jan Adam Geill en Gerarda Berendina van Zadelhoff.
Kinderen:
  1. Gerharda Berendina Geill, geb. 20-9-1898 Krabbendijke, ovl. 1987; tr. 20-8-1924 Apeldoorn Mattheus Jacobus Christian Büchli,
  2. Eliza Jacobus Geill (♂), geb. 12-7-1902 Krabbendijke, ovl. 2-6-1943 Kinsayok, Thailand, (Burma Railway camp), suiker planter Java, sergeant infanterie; tr. Atje Gesiena de Vries.

--- zus/broer

(III.5.11) Andries Marcus, geb. 30-1-1869 Leeuwarden, ovl. 11-6-1951 Nijmegen, rijksveearts/ rijkskeurmeester, z.v. Maaike Winkler en Johannes Marcus;
tr. 21-11-1911 Sittard  
Maria Catharina Josephina Engelbertha Roefs, geb. 22-1-1881 Sittard, d.v. Joseph Roefs en Maria Christina Romans.
Kind:
  1. Erik Joost Andries Marcus, geb. 27-10-1912 Zevenaar, ovl. 15-9-1987 Nijmegen, notaris; tr. 30-11-1944 Nijmegen Marie Josephine Eugenie Antoinette Derks, geb. 4-11-1935 Nijmegen, ovl. 26-5-1993 Nijmegen, d.v. Antonius Johannes Derks en Marie Josephine Eugenie Corten.

--- broers


(III.5.13) Willem Marius Marcus, geb. 13-3-1872 Leeuwarden, meubelmaker/ politiecommissaris, z.v. Maaike Winkler en Johannes Marcus;
tr. 2-7-1903 Amsterdam  
Johanna Christina Maria Elizabeth van Westerhoven, geb. 1-8-1880 Delfshaven, d.v. Louis Franciscus Maria van Westerhoven (toneelspeler) en Pietertje de Heer (toneelspeelster)
Kind:
  1. Nelly Christine Elise Marcus, geb. 1904 Amsterdam; tr. 5-7-1929 George van den Bergh, geb. 25-4-1890 Oss, ovl. 3-10-1966 Oegstgeest, lid tweede kamer staten generaal SDAP, z.v. Samuel van den Bergh en Rebecca Willing, eerder gesch. van Jeannette Elizabeth van Dantzig.

--- neven

(III.7.1) Andries Winkler, geb. 3-2-1866 Leeuwarden , ovl. 6-8-1914 Haarlemmerliede (zonder beroep), z.v. Johannes Winkler en Andrieske Tjallings Römer;
tr. 29-7-1897 Haarlem
Alida van Blaaderen, geb. 1872 Nieuwer-Amstel, ovl. 5-1-1945 Haarlem, d.v. Hendrik van Blaaderen en Alida Knap.
Kinderen:
  1. Johan Winkler, geb. 6-10-1898 Haarlem, leraar middelbaar onderwijs; tr. 18-7-1923 Amsterdam (gesch. 24-4-1939) Klara Hedwig Charlotte Richter, geb. 29-8-1891 Berlijn (Duitsland), gescheiden van Pieter Oege Bakker, d.v. Christoph Adolf Paul Richter en Ferdinandine Caroline Agnes Laub
  2. Hendrik Winkler, geb. 13-5-1903 Haarlem, houtkoper; tr. 9-6-1925 Haarlem Alida Maria Stadt, geb. 1904 Haarlemmerliede, d.v. Klaas Stadt en Geertje de Jong
  3. Andries Laurens Winkler, geb. 18-1-1905 Haarlem, dienstplichtig 1925, inschr. Zandvoort.
  4. Gerrit Willem Winkler, geb. 27-5-1907 Haarlem, ovl. 2-7-1964 (begr. Haarlem); tr. Johanna Wilhelmina van Zee, geb. 2-11-1911, ovl. 6-2-2000 (begr. Haarlem) (dochter Alida Johanna Winkler, geb. 13-3-1943, ovl. 10-1-1973 begr. Haarlem)