29 May 2019

Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Old German etc. Texts

Traditionally, 'Old Frisian' is the term used for the language of Frisian texts until ca. 1550 CE. Frisian is assumed to have developped out of 'North Sea Germanic' or 'Ingvaeonic', together with Saxon and English.

Below I will create a list of Old Frisian and other texts (currently available to me), the language of which will be compared to that of the Oera Linda-book. This list will be updated whenever I have new sources.
NOTE: see new post 
My sources (books - physical copy or PDF):
  1. Old Frisian: Asega is het Dingtijd? - De hoogtepunten van de Oudfriese tekstoverlevering (2007)
  2. Old Frisian/ Middle Dutch: Thest Freske Riim / Tractatus Alvini - edited by Alistair Campbell (1952)
  3. Old Frisian: Het Rudolfsboek - proefschrift (1937 - PDF)
  4. Old High German: Das Hildebrandlied - Faksimile der Kasseler Handschrift mit einer Einführung von Hartmut Broszinski (1984)
  5. West Saxon dialect of Old English: Het Beowulf-epos - Angelsaksisch of Fries-Saksisch erfgoed van omstreeks 500 uit Frans-Vlaanderen (2006) see here newer tranliteration with English translation
  6. Middle English: Layamans Brut or Chronicle of Britain - A Poetical Semi-Saxon Paraphrase of The Brut of Wace (1847 - PDF) also see blog post
Original sources ('Asega is het Dingtijd?'/ 'Het Rudolfsboek'):
* Transcript available at tdb.fryske-akademy.eu
** Scans of original available at digicollectie.tresoar.nl

Note: when texts from source 1. are not dated here, dating in book was "Graventijd"

Note: it would be good to know which texts were available to whom before 1867 - I will try to add this info. At least D ('Oude Druk') and the content of Richthofen's Friesische Rechtsquellen (1840) will have been available.
UNDER CONSTRUCTION!
name original source my source
#1 De Sage van Karel en Redbad (c. 1200-1300) U (also J , D) (see here) 1
#2 Proloog op de Keuren en Landrechten R1 (also E1, F, H, J, U, D) 1
#3 De Zeventien Keuren R1 (also E1, F, H, J, U, D) 1
#4 De uitzonderingen op de Zestiende Keur E1 (also F, H) 1
#5 De uitzonderingen op de Zeventiende Keur R1 (also E1, F, H, J, U, D) 1
#6 De Vierentwintig Landrechten F (also R1, E1, H, J, U, D) 1
#7 De Overkeuren (c. 1200) H (also E1, F) 1
#8 De Willekeuren van de Opstalboom (dated 18-9-1323 CE) U (also D) 1
#9 Het Algemene (Oosterlauwerse) Boeteregister H (also R1, E1, F) 1
#10 Dit is ook Fries Recht (I en II) (c. 1150-1300) R1 (also R2) 1
#11 De Brookmerbrief (c. 1250-1300) B2 (also B1) 1
#12 De Hunsingoër Keuren van 1252 (1252 CE) H (ook F, Fs) 1
#13 Het Landrecht van Westergo (Oudere Schoutenrecht) J (also U, D) 1
#14 Het Jongere Schoutenrecht J (also U, D) 1
#15 Het Westerlauwers Zeendrecht J (also F, U, D) 1
#16 De Acht Doemen J (also F, U, D) 1
#17 De Keuren van Wininge (c. 1290?) Fs 1
#18 Het Asegarecht F 1
#19 De Vredeseed J 1
#20 De Magnuskeuren (c. 1200-1300?) U (also F, J, D) 1
#21 Van de oorsprong der Friese Vrijheid (c. 1300-1350) H 1
#22 Hoe de Friezen tot vrijheid kwamen (c. 1300-1400?) J (also A) 1
#23 Het Traktaat van de Zeven Zeelanden (1416 CE) D 1
#24 De vijftien tekenen voor de dag des oordeels R1 1



rijmkroniek 'Thet Freske Riim' (c. 1509-1515) MS II b 28 2
its adaptation: 'Tractatus Alvini' (between 1399-1512) MS Gabbema 9056 Hs D 2



Het Rudolfsboek J, D, U 3



epic poem: 'Hildebrandslied' (c. 830-840) Codex Casselanus 4



epic poem 'Beowulf' (c. 975-1025) Nowell Codex 5



Layaman's Brut / Chronicle of Britain (c. 1190-1215) MS Cott. Calig A IX / MS Cott. Otho C XIII 6




















































Preliminary note:
I do not believe every age had its own particular variety, but rather, different varieties existed alongside each other: various authors and copyists may have their own style and preference. Even within texts, often several varieties can be found.

28 May 2019

Auxiliary verb ÁCHA

The Old Frisian syntactic construct aga te (ought to, shall, must) + gerund has been subject of a study by Jelka Schilt, published in Aspects of Old Frisian philology (1990, p.391), edited by Rolf H. Bremmer et al. I intend to discuss this study, after an inventory of the use of this construct in the Oera Linda-book (not only in the samples).

Considering the exceptional use in 2d. [012/07], the best fitting Dutch translation of the word would be 'behoren' (allegedly dreived from 'horen'; to hear), which can be used in two ways:
1) 'behoren aan': belong to/ be owned by;
2) 'behoren te + inf.': ought to + inf.

Note the similarity with ÁGON - eyes, HÁCH - high.

Infinite form is not used, but might have been ÁCHA*/ HAGA (ought to, shall, must): no present-past variety.
* either with or without the accent; it is sometimes hardly distinguishable
singular:
IK/ ER ÁCH (10x)/ ER ÁGATH (1x)
THV ACHST(-E/-V) (4x)
plural:
WI/ HJA AGON (8x)/ ACHON (3x)/ HAGON (2x)/ HJA HAGATH (1x)
J HAGATH/ AGHAT (both only one)

The verb ÁCHA is used 31 times, once as a main verb and 30 times as an auxiliary verb, twice of the latter in combination with more than one main verb (fragments 20: 2 and 26: 3). The number of main verbs supported by ÁCHA, therefore, is 33.

Exceptional uses, in order frequency:

1) Verb ACHA
  • 1/31 fragment 3 (Frya's Tex): as main verb, meaning 'belong to'.
  • 1/31 fragment 4 (Frya's Tex): spelling -GH- (AGHAT); -AT instead of -ATH is also unusual..
  • 4/31 fragments 1, 2 (Adela), 20a (Helpers Adela), 21 (Primal Teachings): verb starts with H- (2x HAGATH, 2x HAGON).
  • 4/31 fragments 1, 2 (Adela), 3, 4 (Frya's Tex): conjugation ending -ath (1x -at), both for plural and singular.
  • 3/13 fragments 7 (Laws 1), 18, (Laws 2), 25 (Liudgert 1): plural form ending -ON is spelled with -CH-: ACHON; the more common form is (H)AGON.

2) Supported main verb
  • 1/33 fragment 9 (Minno): without 'TO': MÀN ACH WÉIZARJA. (In fragment 20b. LÉTA also lacks 'TO', but borrows from 20a. TO TELLA.)
  • 5/33 fragments 9 (Minno), 16, 18 (Laws 2), 20a, 20b (Helpers Adela): verb does not end with -NDE (found 7x), -NA (found 4x) or -NE (found 17x), rather it is a basic infinitive: WÉIZARJA, SÉKA, FORMYDA, TELLA, LÉTA.
The verbs more than once supported by ACHA are:
  • TO LÉTA(NE) (4x), 
  • TO WÉRANE/-A (3x) and 
  • TO NVDANDE/ NJODANE/ NJVDANE (3x.)

Fragments in the Oera Linda-book

1. [004/26] 1b. Adela
SA HAGATH J TO NVDANDE THAT (...) / you [formal or plural] ought to urge

2. [005/02] 1b
AL THISSA TÀLLINGA HAGATH DÉN TO WERTHANDE / tellings ought to be done

3. [012/07] 2d. Frya's Tex
THJUS ÁGATH WRALDAS GÁST / this belongs to (...)

4. [013/12] 2d.
ALSA AGHAT J TO HELPANE HJAM / you [formal or plural] ought to help

5. [018/10] 3a. Laws 1
SA ÁCH HJU THAM BY STONDA TO JÉWANE / she ought to give

6. [025/18] 3c3. ,,
SA ACH THA MÉNA MÉNTA (...) THAT WITHER TO HÉLÉNA / community ought to repair

7. [025/27] 3c3.
BY THA FÉSTUM ACHON HJA FORÁNA TO SITTANA / they ought to sit

8. [029/29] 4c1. Minno
SA ACH MAN THÀT RÉDER ÀFTERWÉJA TO LÉTANE / one ought to leave/let

9. [030/06] 4c1.
SA ACH MÀN THAT WÉIZARJA / one ought (to) refuse


10. [030/18] 4c1.
SA ACH MAN ALLÉNA ALDVLKERA TO KJASANE / one ought to choose/elect

11. [030/23] 4c1.
SA AGON THA ÔRA THAT TO WÉRANE / others ought to repel

12. [030/31] 4c1. ,,
AGON WY MITH HASTE HÉI TO TO SLANA / we ought to strike

13.[030/32] 4c1.
AFSKÉN WI ÉLLA AGON TO DVANDE / we ought to do

14. [037/14] 4d. ,,
THÉRVMBE ACHSTV TO BIJINNANDE / you ought to begin

15. [041/10] 5a2. Laws 2
THÉRVMBE ÁCH MÀN TO WÉRANA THÀM / one ought to repel

16. [041/13] 5a2.
JAHWÉDER JONG KERDEL ÁCH EN BRUD TO SÉKA / youngh-man ought to seek

17. [041/18] 5a2.
ACH EK MAN HIM UT SIN HUS TO WÉRANE / man ought to repel

18. [041/20] 5a2.
THA KNÁPA ACHON HIN TO FORMYDA / boys ought to avoid

19. [070/27] 9b. Walhallagara
THA AFTERKVMAND AGON TO WÉTANE THAT (...) / later generations ought to know

20a/b. [087/15] 11c. Helpers Adela
THA FÁMNA HAGON THAM NÉI HJARA WÍSA TO TELLA ÀND WEL BISKRIVE LÉTA / maidens ought to narrate and (to) have described

21. [101/18] 13c2. Primal Teachings
ALSA HÁGON THA FÁMNA HJAM FON BUTA TO LÉRANDE / maidens ought to teach

22. [111/22] 13e2. Apollonia
HO THA MÀNNISKA AN THÉRE MINNE AGON TO LÉVANE / men ought to live

23. [118/03] 14b. Frethorik
THÀN ÁCHSTE SPOD TO MÁKJANDE / you ought to make

24. [119/23] 14c. ,,
NW WI N MODER HÀVE AGON WI HJRA RÉD TO FRÉJANDE / we ought to ask

25. [128/20] 14d2. Liudgert 1
WI ACHON AL FLJUCHTANDE TO FJUCHTANE / we ought to flee

26a/b/c. [137/15] 15b2. Dela a.k.a. Hellenia
THÀT MÀN THÉR IN ÁCH TO DELVANE TO ERANE ÀND TO SÉJANE / one ought to dig, (to) plow and (to) sow

27. [144/30] 16b1. Konered
VMBE (...) ÁCH IK DUBBEL TO WAKANE THAT (...) / I ought to beware

28. [161/08] 16c. Gosa
ALSA ACHST THV (...) NÉN ÔRE TÁLE OVIR THINA WÉRA NI KVMA TO LÉTANE / you ought to let come

29. [161/11] 16c.
THÀN ACHST THV TO NJODANE TILTHJU (...) / you ought to urge

30. [195/12] 19a. unknown abt. Askar
THÉRVMBE ÁGON WI TO NJVDANE THAT (...) / we ought to urge

31. [197/16] 19a.
ALSA ÁGON THA KNÁPA (...) ÀFTERWÉIN TO LÉTANE / young-men ought to leave/let

26 May 2019

Auxiliary verbs GÁ, LÉTA, KUNNA

In earlier posts, the conjugations of the following auxiliary verbs have been explored:
  1. (post) HÀVA (have), WÉSA (be: active voice), WRDA (be: passive voice/ become),  
  2. (post) SKILLE (shall/ will),  
  3. (post) MOTA (must), MÜGE (may/ can/ be able or allowed to), WILLA (will/ desire).
Now we will look at three auxiliary verbs that are less frequently used, but still each occur 20 to 30 times each in the samples, analysed so far:

1) GÁ (go, begin, proceed to); note inf. also GÁN (1x), GVNGGA (1x), GÁNA (3x), GÁNE (1x)
Conjugations found in samples:
present sing. GA; plur. GAN (both once only)/ past sing. GVNG; plur. GVNGON/ perfect GVNGEN (10x), GVNGON (2x), GUNGON (2x), GONGGEN (1x)
  • English: all forms present: go/ past: went/ perfect: gone
  • Dutch: present sing. ga, gaat, gaat; plur. gaan/ past sing. ging; plur. gingen/ perfect gegaan
  • German: present sing. gehe, gehst, geht; plur. gehen, geht, gehen/ past sing. ging, gingst, ging; plur. gingen, gingt, gingen/ perfect gegangen
  • Frisian: present sing. gean, giest, giet; plur. geane/ past sing. gie, giest, gie or gong, gongst, gong or gyng, gyngst, gyng; plur. giene(n) or gongen or  gyngen/ perfect gien or gongen
 
2) LÉTA (let, allow): no separate forms to distinguish present from past
Conjugations found in samples:
IK LÉT (once only); ER LÉT; HJA LÉTON/ LÉTA (each once only)/ perfect: LÉTEN
  • English: all forms present, past and perfect: let
  • Dutch: present sing. laat; plur. laten/ past sing. liet; plur. lieten/ perfect gelaten
  • German: present sing. lasse, lässt, lässt; plur. lassen, lasst, lassen/ past sing. ließ, ließest, ließ; plur. ließen, ließt, ließen/ perfect gelassen
  • Frisian: present sing. lit, litst, lit; plur. litte/ past sing. liet, lietst, liet; plur. lieten/ perfect litten

3) KUNNA (can/ be able to; sometimes 'know')
Conjugations found in samples: 
present sing. IK KÀN (4x)/ KEN (1x), THV KÀNST (3x), ER KÀN (1x); plur. HJA KÀNNATH/ KENNATH/ KÀNATH (all 1x);
past sing. IK KV (1x), THV KOSTE (1x), ER KVSTE/ KOSTE (both 1x)/ KVN (1x)/ KV (6x) [note: KVNDE only in text 9c: 3x]; plur. WI KVSTE (1x); HJA KVNDON (1x)/ KOSTE (2x);
No perfect, nor infinitive in samples.
  • English: all forms present can, past could and perfect does not exist (in stead been able to is used)
  • Dutch: present sing. kan, kunt, kan; plur. kunnen/ past sing. kon; plur. konden/ perfect gekund (note kennen 'to know' is a different verb in standardised Dutch; not in some of the dialects!)
  • German: present sing. kann, kanst, kann; plur. können, könnt, können/ past sing. konnte, konntest, konnte; plur. konnten, konntet, konnten/ perfect gekonnt
  • Frisian: present sing. kin, kinst, kin; plur. kinne/ past sing. koe, koest, koe; plur. koene(n)/ perfect kinnen/ kind (note kenne 'to know' is a different verb in standardised Frisian, but its past tense is the same as that of kinne!)
= = =

Observations and conclusions to be added.

25 May 2019

Auxiliary verbs MOTA, MÜGE, WILLA

As is the case with most auxiliary verbs, the various modern cognates can have (somewhat) different meanings and uses. The verb 'may', for example means 'to be able' and can be used as auxiliary of prediction; 'will' is a future auxiliary; the Dutch 'mogen' means 'to be allowed' (archaic 'vermogen' is as 'may'), and 'willen'/ 'wollen' means 'to wish/ desire', etc.

English
German
Dutch
Frisian
Danish
Norse
Swedish
must
müssen
moeten
moatte
måtte
måtte
måste
may
mögen
mogen
meie
maj
mai
maj
will
wollen
willen
wolle
ville
ville
vilja

= = = 

1a. MOTA present
FRYAS** English German Dutch* Frisian*
IK MOT all conjug.: ich muss sing.: ik moat
THV MOST must du musst moet do moatst
ER MOT
er muss
hy moat
WI MOTON
wir müssen plur.: plur.:
-
ihr müsst moeten moatte
HJA MOTON
sie müssen


* in Dutch, 2nd person sing. je/jij and plur. jullie are informal, formal is u/U with verb conjug. as in sing.; in Frisian do (sing.) and jim (plur.) are informal (like German du and ihr), formal is jo (like German Sie, with capital and verb conjug. as 3rd person plural) with verb conjug. as plur.; other Dutch personal pronouns are: ik (I), hij/zij/ze (he/she), wij/we (we), zij/ze (they); other Frisian pers. pronouns plur.: se/sy/hja/hju (she), wy (we) and hja/sy (they).
** ER and HI are both used for 'he', HJU for 'she'; in text 16d (almost exclusively), SE is used for 'she' and 'they'; TE is used besides the more common THV (2nd pers. sing.), J, I and JO(W) is used for 2nd person singular and plural; whether sing. or plur. is ment, is not always clear, as is the case with Dutch and Frisian polite/formal forms 'u'/ 'U' and 'jo'.

1b. MOTA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
- - ich musste sing.: sing.:
- - du musstest moest moast
ER MOST(E) - er musste

WI MOSTON* - wir mussten plur.: plur.:
J MOSTE** - ihr musstet moesten moasten
HJA MOSTON*** - sie mussten


* 1 out of 4: MOSTE/ ** 1 out of 4: MOSTEN/ 2 out of 11: MOSTE 

2a. MÚGE present
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK MÉI all conjug.: ich mag sing.: ik mei
THV MÉI* may du magst mag do meist
ER MÉI**
er mag
hy mei
WI MÜGEN
wir mögen plur.: plur.:
I MÜGE***
ihr mögt mogen meie
HJA MÜGE****
sie mögen


* 1 out of 5: MÜGTH/ ** 2/17 MACH/ *** only once/ **** 1/7 MÜGATH, 1/7 MÜGON

2b. MÚGE past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK MACHT all conjug.: ich mochte sing.: ik mocht
- might du mochtest mocht do mochtst
ER MACHT(E)*
er mochte
hy mocht
WI MACHTON
wir mochten plur.: plur.:
-
ihr mochtet mochten mochten
HJA MACHTON**
sie mochten


* 6 out of 18: MACHT, 9/18 MACHTE, 3/18 MOCHT/ ** 4/11 MACHTE

3a. WILLA present
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK WIL all conjug.: ich will ik wil ik wol
THV WILST will du willst jij wilt do wolst
HI WIL
er will hij wil hy wol
WI WILLATH
plur.: plur.:
J WILLE*
willen wolle
HJA WILLE/ -ATH


* only once

3b. WILLA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK WILDE all conjug.: ich wollte sing.: ik woe
- would du wolltest wilde do woest
HI WILDE
er wollte
hy woe
WI WILDON*
wir wollten plur.: plur.:
-
ihr wolltet wilden woene(n)
HJA WILDON**
sie wollten


* 1 out of 3: WILDE/ ** 4/12 WILDE

= = =

Observations and conclusions to be added.

22 May 2019

Auxiliary verb SKILLE

(Note: infininitve 'SKILLA' or 'SKILLE' is a reconstruction based on other verbs; it does not appear in the OLB.)
Although the following N-European varieties are all obviously cognates, they are not all used in the same way:
  • shall - English (mostly deontic modality; in past tense also epistemic)
  • sille - Frisian (mostly future tense; English: will)
  • zullen - Dutch (mostly future tense)
  • sollen - German (mostly deontic modality; also epistemic?)
  • skola - Swedish (presens all 'skall'; preteritum all 'skulle'; perfect 'skolat'; can also mean to school)

FRYAS* English German Dutch* Frisian*
IK SKIL all conjug.: ich soll ik zal ik sil
THV SKILST shall du sollst jij zult do silst
ER SKIL
er soll hij zal hy sil
WI SKILUN
wir sollen plur.: plur.:
I SKILE**
ihr sollt zullen sille
HJA SKILUN
sie sollen


* see notes about personal pronouns and formal/polite 2nd person in next post/ **only once in samples

FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK SKOL(D(E)) all conjug.: ich sollte sing.: ik soe
- should du solltest zou do soest
ER SKOLDE*
er sollte
hy soe
WI SKOLDON
wir sollten plur.: plur.:
I SKOLDE**
ihr solltet zouden soene(n)
HJA SKOLDE***
sie sollten


* SKOLD in 4 out of 31 cases
** only once
*** SKOLDON in 3 out of 17 cases

In the samples, some of the verbs most often supported by SKILUN are:
  • 16x WERTHA (become, be: passive voice)
  • 14x KVMA (come)
  • 8x HÀVA (have) 
  • 8x WÉSA (be: active voice)
  • 6x LÉTA (let)
  • 4x BILÍWA (remain, stay; Dutch/ German: blijven/ bleiben)
  • 4x NIMMA (take; Dutch/ German: nemen/ nehmen)

21 May 2019

Sample definition for database noun-verb units

In order to study verbs, grammar and syntax of the various texts within the Oera Linda-book, a database is being created, consisting of all basic sentences (incl. dependent clauses) in various samples (currently together 41% of the whole OLB). All samples have a length between 4,200 and 5,900 characters (spaces and periods excluded).

The current samples in the database are:
sample from to
1ab 001/02 THRITTICH JÉR ÀFTERE... 005/07 ... RÉD IS VPFOLGATH
4d 033/22 THÁ NYHELLÉNJA... 039/05 ... AS VNFRÁNA UT
8b12 053/15 ANDA ALDERGÁMVDE... 057/32 ... NÉF INKA NINMER
9a 062/08 563 JÉR NÉI ALDLAND... 068/18 ... NÔSE OMME LÉID
11ab 079/12 HO VSA DÉNAMARKA... 085/11 ... WÁK WÁK WÁK
13e2 108/28 ÉR EN BURCHFÁM... 113/21 ... BY THA STJURAR FÁRE
14ab 113/22 MIN NÔM IS FRÉTHORIK... 118/31 ... LIF TO BIHALDANE
14d1 120/15 NEI THÀT WI... 125/05 ... ÀND WÉPNE FÁRA
14d2 125/05 AMONG THA FÉLO... 130/20 ...N SÉEN HROPA
15b2 136/08 16 WÁRA 100 JÉR... 141/23 ... TVANG VP JRTHA SA
16b1 144/17 NV WIL IK... 150/19 ... IN SIN STÉD KOREN
16c 158/11 THÁ WRALDA BERN... 163/9 ...ÔTHER MANHIS STÁT
16d 163/15 PANGAB THAT IS... 168/19 ... JOW LJUDGÉRT
19bc 198/19 ANT NORTHENDE FON... 204/32 ... ÀND NÉDLIK WÉRE


Example (1) of selecting noun-verb units (noun bold, verb underlined, perfect/infinitive italic):
NÉAN (ANDERE HELLÉNJA). HI HELPTH MY HÜGJA (THAT ER EN SLACH FON MÀNNISKA OVIR JRTHA OMME DWÁLTH. (THÉR EVEN LIK HI IN KÀRKA ÀND HOLA HÉMA.) (THÉR AN TJUSTER FROTA). THACH NAVT AS HI. VMB VS FON MÛSA ÀND ÔRA PLÀGA TO HELPANE. MEN RENKA TO FORSINA. THA ÔRA MÀNNISKA HJARA WITSKIP TO RÁWÁNE (TILTHJU HJA THAM TO BÉTRE MÜGE FÁTA) VMB ER SLÁVONA FON TO MÁKJANDE ÀND HJARA BLOD UT TO SÛGANE. (ÉVEN AS VAMPÍRA DVA)).
Noun-verb units:
hellénja andere (Hellénja answered) : sing. past
hi helpth hügja (he helps to remember) : sing. present / inf.
hja müge fáta (they may/ can seize/ catch) : plur. present / inf.
en slach dwálth (a kind wanders) : sing. present
thér frota (who gnaw) : plur. present
thér héma (who live/ have their home) : plur. present
vampíra dva (leaches do) : plur. present
Infinites, not part of of noun-verb unit (added in database, but not counted):
forsina, helpane, mákjande, ráwane, sûgane
Example (2)
IN HJARA TSJODIS HÉD SEND HJA TOGVNGEN ÀND HÀVON ÔTHERA TÁLA FORSVNNEN (TILTHJU HJA HÉMLIK MACHTE SPRÉKA IN ÀJENWARTHA FON ALREK ÔTHERUM). VR ALLE BOSA THINGA ÀND VR ALLE VNWÉRTHLIKA THINGA (SVNDER THÀT STEMLÉTH HJAM VRRÉDA MOCHT NACH SKÁMRÁD HJARA GELÁT VRDERVA).
 Noun-verb units:
hja send togvngen (they have proceeded) : plur. present / perfect
(hja) hàvon forsvnnen (they have invented) : plur. present / perfect
hja machte spréka (they could speak) : plur. past / inf.
stemléth mocht vrréda (stammer could betray) : sing. past / inf.
skámrád (mocht) vrderva (blush could taint) : sing. past / inf.

(note: only the pers. prons. in noun-verb units)
(note: only counted when part of noun-verb unit)

20 May 2019

Different spelling and style of Pangab report

On page 120, Fréthorik Oera Linda introduces the report of Ljudgért, describing how king Alexander hired the service of Frya navigators and how a fleet eventually migrated back from India and Greece to the land of their forefathers (paragraphs 14d1-d2): "Liudgerd, the rear admiral of Wichard, became my ally and later my friend. From his diary I got the following history";

Later, on page 163, Fréthorik's son Koneréd adds a text (par. 16d), suggesting it was written by the same Ljudgért: "Among my father's papers, I found a letter, written by Liudgerd the Gerdman. Omitting some parts which only concern my father, I put the rest to good use here."
However, style and spelling of the two texts are significantly different, which will be demonstrated below.

In the following analysis four samples of text will be compared:
I.  'Pangab' (16d) without introduction: [163/15 PANGAB THAT IS... – 168/19 ... JOW LJUDGÉRT]
II.  'Fleet' (14d1-d2) without introduction: [120/15 NEI THÀT WI... – 130/20 ...N SÉEN HROPA]
III. 'Other': everything else
IV. 'Samples': total of other samples 1ab, 4d, 8b12, 9a, 11ab, 13e2, 14ab, 15b2, 16b1, 16c, 19bc

1) spelling differences and sometimes a common word that does not exist anywhere else in the OLB (WELKE/-A):


2) relative to number of basic sentences (units), I. 'Pangab' has of all samples:
  • lowest nr. of personal pronouns: 24% (II. 'Fleet': 46%; IV. 'Samples': 36%)
  • lowest nr. verbs in past tense: 1,6% (II: 84%; IV: 61%)
  • lowest nr. verbs in singular: 34% (II: 68%; IV: 61%)
  • lowest nr. verb + infinitive: 13% (II: 28%; 24%)
[graphics showing deviation from average of samples will be added]
[discussion will be added]

Perfect WÉSA varieties

table with number of occurrances in the whole manuscript
The new database of verbs in the Oera Linda-book makes possible stylistic varieties between its various texts more easily distinguishable. The following is an example of an exploration that was inspired by such a variety.

The perfect of WÉSA (to be) has two varieties in the Oera Linda-book: WÉST (as in Dutch and Frisian is geweest/ haw west) and WÉSEN (as in German: ist gewesen) and is combined with a conjugation of WÉSA (as in Dutch and German: ist gewesen/ is geweest) in 25/37 = 68% of the cases, with a conjugation of HÀVA (as in English and Frisian: has been/ haw west) in 12/37 = 32% of the cases.

Summary use of perfect-WÉSA:

Authors who (deliberately?) used a different perfect for singular vs. plural:
  • 13e1/e2 - Apollonia: sing. IS WÉST (2x) vs. plur. SEND WÉSEN; however, she was inconsequent twice: sing. HÉD WÉST and plur. WÉRON WÉST
  • 14d1/d2 - Liudgerd 1*: sing. HÉDE WÉST (2x) vs. plur. HÉDE WÉSEN
  • 16b1/b2/b3 - Conrad: sing. WAS WÉST(3x) vs. plur. WÉRON WÉSEN; however, he was inconsequent once: plur. HÉDE WÉST

* the other text attributed to Liudgerd (16d) was clearly written in a different style.

Authors with more than one, and consequent use:
  • 1b/c - Adela and helpers: (2x), WÉRE, WAS, IS (3x) WÉSEN (all sing.)

Authors with inconsequent use:
  • 8b1/c - Treasureburg: WAS, WÉRE WÉST vs. HÉDE WÉST (all sing.)
  • 13b1 - Bruno: HÉDE, IS WÉST / HÉDED, IS WÉSEN (all sing.)
  • 13e2 - Apollonia (see above)
  • 16b3 - Conrad (see above)

Authors with only one use:
  • B. Liko: HÀV WÉST
  • 9a1 - Walhallagara: IS WÉST
  • 12 - Adelbrost: IS WÉST
  • 13b3 - ode (by Bruno?): IS WÉST
  • 13d - on writing felt: IS WÉST
  • 14a - Frederick: HÉDE WÉST
  • 16c-1 - intro by unknown: HÉDE WÉST
  • 16c-2 - Gosa: SEND WÉST (plur.)
  • 18 - RikaHÀVON WÉST (plur.)
  • 19b - unknown: WAS WÉST
  
Oera Linda fragments (in order of appearance )

[00b] B - Liko
IK HÀV BI THAM ET HOVE WÉST
[001] 1b - Adela
THÀT IK THRJV JÉR BURCHFÁM WÉSEN
[001] 1b - Adela
AS IK EN WRENTLIKE FOLKSMODER WÉSEN WÉRE
[003] 1b - Adela
THÉR WAS HÍR WÉSEN EN HÀRDE LVNGSÍAKTE
[004] 1b - Adela
HO GRAT VS LÁND ÉR WÉSEN
[005] 1c - helpers Adela
THRJA IS ER SÉKENING WÉSEN
[005] 1c - helpers Adela
FJVWERS IS ER HYRMAN WÉSEN
[005] 1c - helpers Adela
FIF MEL IS ER SÉKENING WÉSEN
[053] 8b1 - Treasureburg
ÉNES WAS ER HÉRMAN WÉST
[055] 8b1 - Treasureburg
THA WODIN EN STÛT WÉI WÉST HÉDE
[060] 8c - Treasureburg
THAT WÉRE BÉTRE WÉST
[064] 9a1 - Walhallagara
NÉIDAM THÀT ... VS GRÁTESTE BIDRIV WÉST IS
[089] 12 - Adelbrost
THJU FÉRE THÉRA IS WÉST
[091] 13b1 - Bruno
THER SKRÍWER WÉSEN IS
[091] 13b1 - Bruno
HJU HÉDE IMMERTHE WÉNICH WÉST
[092] 13b1 - Bruno
IS HJU TOFARA HÍR BURCHFÁM WÉST
[092] 13b1 - Bruno
TIL HJUDDÉGA HÉDED ER FROD WÉSEN
[095] 13b3 - ode (by Bruno?)
HJU IS IMMER THJU [FORSTE] WÉST
[105] 13d - on writing felt
NIS THIN HUS THUS NAVT STERK NOCH WÉST
[108] 13e1 - Apollonia
SEND HJA SJVGUN JÉR WÁKANDA WÉSEN
[108] 13e1 - Apollonia
IS HWA THRJU JÉR FÁM WÉST
[109] 13e2 - Apollonia
MIN FÁRT IS ALINGEN THÉRE RÉNE WÉST
[109] 13e2 - Apollonia
ÉR WÉRON THÉR MÁR WÉST
[111] 13e2 - Apollonia
ÉR HÉD IK ... TO THÉRE BURCH ... WÉST
[116] 14a - Frederick
THÉR THA LJUDGARDA WÉST HÉDE
[123] 14d1 - Liudgerd 1*
HWÉR THJU STRÉTE ÉR WÉST HÉDE
[124] 14d1 - Liudgerd 1*
SÁ THA KÉNINGGAR FON THIRIS ÉR WÉSEN HÉDE
[127] 14d2 - Liudgerd 1*
THÉR I ÉR WÉST HÉDE
[145] 16b1 - Conrad
GOSA (SÉIDER) WAS FÉRSJANDE WÉST
[146] 16b1 - Conrad
BI SIN LÉVE WAS ER VRSTE GRÉVA ... WÉST
[148] 16b1 - Conrad
DÁNÁ WÉRON HJA NÉI FRISO WÉSEN
[154] 16b2 - Conrad
NAS THÉR NIMMAN SÁ BIFÁMED ... WÉST
[156] 16b3 - Conrad
THA HJA THÉR EN STÛT WÉST HÉDE
[157] 16c-1 - intro by unknown
SIN WIF (SÉIDER) THÉR FÁM WÉST HÉDE
[161] 16c-2 - Gosa
NV SEND WI ALSA MILD WÉST
[190] 18 - Rika
HÀVON HJA THET FORMA NAVT FVLDÉN WÉST
[201] 19b - unknown (Askar age)
ÁSKAR WAS OFTEN MITH WÉST

19 May 2019

Auxiliary verbs HÀVE, WÉSA, WRDA

The three main verbs used as auxiliaries to support a perfect are (with English/ German/ Dutch/ Frisian version):
  • 44% HÀVA* - have/ haben/ hebben/ hawwe
  • 42% WÉSA - be/ sein/ zijn/ wêze
  • 14% WRDANE/ WERTHANE - (no English cognate?)/ werden/ worden/ wurde (meaning: become/ be in passive voice)
* infinitive also HÀVE, HÁ, HÀ

This is only a first exploration. More details and conclusions will be provided later.
Notes about personal pronouns: ER and HI are both used for 'he', often shortened as R aresp. I; K is short for IK. HJU is used for 'she'. Next to THV and J, also I and JO(W) are used; WI is also spelled WY. THV is often left out or merged, for example: HETHSTE, WILSTV, MOSTV, ACHSTV, SKILSTV etc.

1. HÀVA 
a) conjugation (present):
FRYAS^ English German Dutch^ Frisian^
IK HÀV all conjug.: ich habe ik heb ik haw
THV HÀST* have du hast jij hebt do hast
ER HETH
er hat hij heeft hy hat
WI HÀVE**
wir haben plur.: plur.:
J HÀWETH***
ihr habt hebben hawwe
HJA HÀVON****
sie haben


^ see notes about personal pronouns and formal/ polite 2nd person in next post
* or HÀSTE/ HESTE
** also HÀVATH, HÀVON
*** only once / possibly, there is no separate plural of 2nd person: sing. and plur. are the same?
**** also HÀVE


b) conjugation (past):
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK HÉD(E)* all conjug.: ich hatte sing.: ik hie
THV -** had du hattest had do hiest
ER HÉDE
er hatte
hy hie
WI HÉDE***
wir hatten plur.: plur.:
J - **
ihr hattet hadden hienen
HJA HÉDE****
sie hatten


* only once in combination HÉD.IK which may be short for HÉDE IK.
** no data available, see note at a)
*** sometimes HÉDON
**** HÉDE 59%, HÉDON 41%


c) perfect:
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
HÉDE HÁN/ HAT* has had hat gehabt heeft gehad haw hân

* both only once


d) imperative:
Not in samples (English: have/ German: hab(t)/ Dutch: heb(t)/ Frisian: ha)


2. WÉSA 
a) conjugation (present):
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK BEN* I am ich bin ik ben ik bin
THV BIST** you are du bist jij bent do bist
ER IS he is er ist hij is hy is
WI SEND plur.: wir sind plur.: plur.:
- are ihr seid zijn binne
HJA SEND***
sie sind


* also BIN, SÍ (both 2 out of 8)
** or BISTE (3 out of 6)
*** SIND in text 16d
italic: archaic


b) conjugation (past):
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK WAS/ WÉRE I was ich war sing.: ik wie
- * you were du warst was do wiest
ER WAS/ WÉRE he was er war
hy wie
WI WÉRON** plur.: wir waren plur.: plur.:
- * were ihr wart waren wienen
HJA WÉRON**
sie waren


* no data
** sometimes WÉRE


c) perfect:
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
WAS/ HÉDE
WÉST/ WÉSEN*
has been ist gewesen is geweest haw west

* WÉSEN (6 out of 19) /conj. HÀVE: (6 out of 19)


d) imperative:
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian

WÉS
be sei(d) wees(t) wês


3. WRDANE/ WERTHANE
a) conjugation (no clear distiction between present and past?):
FRYAS English German* Dutch* Frisian*
IK WRD - ich werde/ wurde ik word/ werd ik wurd/ waard
- - du werdest/ wurdest 2nd and 3rd. person: do wurdst/ ,,
ER WÀRTH/ WRDE - er wird/ wurde wordt/werd hy wurdt/ ,,
WI - wir werden/ wurden plur.: plur.:
- - ihr werdet/ wurdet worden/ werden wurde/ waarden

HJA WÀRTH(AT)/ WRDE/ WRDON
- sie werden/ wurden


* present/ past

b) perfect: 
IS WRDEN (German: ist geworden/ Dutch: is geworden/ Frisian: is wurden)

~ ~ ~

Variety of conjugation between the samples will later be explored.