29 August 2019

A note about this blog

Holandia as an island in the Rhenus-delta, between Flandria and Frisia;
fragment of page 36 in Lafreri Atlas (ca. 1565-1570)

Much of what I wrote earlier (and of the illustrations I added), I would now delete or change, if I would take the time to revise it all. Today I revised a seven year old post about TOCHTA.

My style and way of thinking has evolved and sometimes changed significantly.

Because some of it still has value, I will keep it for now.

The most current version of my new English translation (straight from the original language) is here: www.oeralinda.be. Often I decided for a different solution (with the help of my proofreaders!) than I suggested earlier on this blog.

Some of the posts were rather personal meditations or entertainment than relevant for study of the Oera Linda-book.

So far I have always managed to post at least once every month. Today I do not have much to say, but at least you will know that I am still here.

Important news and developments can be expected in the coming months, so stay tuned.

28 July 2019

Rutger Hauer was of Frisian seaman's blood

Because it is summer holiday, because I like making genealogies and because Rutger Hauer deserves a tribute.

as navy admiral Tromp in Michiel de Ruyter film 2015
 
The Frisian ancestors of Rutger Hauer (mother's side - details below)
48.
Willem Jacobus Mellema
1770 - 1852
kapitein
49.
Catharina Remts Koerkamp
1774 - 1828
50.
Tijs Wybes Bock
1761 - 1840
kapitein
51.
Tietje Tomas Kuiper
1765 - 1846
52.
Pieter Jeppes Teensma
1778 - 1842 
schipper
53.
Aafke Teunis Kerkstra
1782 - 1866
54.
Ytje Jans Post
1761 - 1838
schipper
55.
Antje Ennes Dijkstra
1771 - 1821
56.
Teen Jans Orre
1760 - 1831 
schipper
57.
Trijntje Jeppes Teensma
1767 - 1860
58.
Ede Jeppes Carst
1761 - 1832
schipper
59.
Meins Frederiks Schultze
1774 - 1840
60. 
=
52.
61.
=
53.
62.
Eise Jans Carst
1784 - 1835 
kapitein
63.
Wietske Pieters Carst
1790 - 1828
Remt Mellema
1803 - 1845
kapitein
Theunke Kuiper
1802 - 1845
Teunis Teensma
1804 - 1859
kapitein
Dieuwke Post
1808 - 1886
Jeppe Orre
1798 - 1847
zeeman
Fenne Carst
1804 - 1848
Jeppe Teensma
1806 - 1884
kapitein
Aukje Carst
1811 - 1900
Remt Mellema
1843 - 1879
kapitein
Louise Teensma
1843 - 1874
Tein Orré
1833 - 1877
stuurman
Teuneke Teensma
1843 - 1874
Theunis Mellema
1870 - 1948
stuurman, havenmeester, sluismeester, inspecteur schepenwet
Fenna Orré
1871 - 1951
Teunke Mellema
1906 - 1979

Rutger Hauer on his sailing yacht in documentary Blond, Blue Eyes, 2006

(2018 - source)


1. Rutger Oelsen Hauer
ᛉ 23-1-1944 Breukelen ᛦ 19-7-2019 Beetsterzwaag

===ouders===gen. 1

2. Arend Hauer
ᛉ 14-9-1909 Utrecht ᛦ 27-1-1985 Amsterdam;
acteur, toneelspeler
X 31-10-1934 Amsterdam (begr. Schiermonnikoog) 
3. Teunke Mellema
ᛉ 22-11-1906 Zoutkamp, gem. Ulrum ᛦ 17-7-1979 Schiermonnikoog (begr. aldaar)

===grootouders===gen. 2
echtpaar Hauer-van Winkoop

4. Marinus Hauer (“Ries”)
ᛉ 8-5-1880 Utrecht ᛦ 4-11-1945 Utrecht;
winkelier, meubelmaker
X 20-7-1906 Utrecht
5. Louise Antonia van Winkoop ᛉ 2-1-1880 Utrecht ᛦ 10-1-1939 Utrecht

T.L. Mellema
6. Theunis Lourens Mellema (*1) 
ᛉ 23-8-1870 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 4-11-1948 Groningen;
stuurman, havenmeester Urk, sluismeester Zoutkamp, inspecteur schepenwet Groningen
X 4-1-1896 Schiermonnikoog
7. Fenna Orré ᛉ 17-9-1871 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 24-6-1951 Schiermonnikoog

===overgrootouders===gen. 3
echtpaar Hauer-Verbeek

8. Marinus Hauer ᛉ 20-10-1835 Utrecht ᛦ 29-3-1920 Dinxperloo, Utrecht;
winkelier, uitdrager
X 16-4-1874 Utrecht
9. Christina Helena Verbeek ᛉ 21-12-1844 Utrecht ᛦ 1-8-1916 Dinxperloo

10. Arend van Winkoop ᛉ 1854 Arnhem ᛦ 25-2-1923 Utrecht;
kantoorbediende
X 12-6-1878 Utrecht
11. Zijtje van Daalen ᛉ 7-9-1854 Rhenen ᛦ 22-12-1919 Utrecht

12. Remt Remts Mellema (*2) ᛉ 13-3-1843 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ feb. 1879 Atlantische Oceaan;
scheepsgezagvoerder 
X 16-12-1869 Schiermonnikoog
13. Louwise Teunis Teensma ᛉ 19-5-1843 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 21-4-1874 Schiermonnikoog

14. Teen Jeppes Orre (ook: Tein, Orré) ᛉ 15-11-1833 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 17-2-1877 Schiermonnikoog;
stuurman
X 6-12-1866 Schiermonnikoog
15. Teuneke Jeppes Teensma ᛉ 28-6-1841 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 30-3-1925 Schiermonnikoog

===bet-overgrootoders===gen. 4

16. Hendrik Adriaan Hauer ᛉ 21-1-1801 Amsterdam ᛦ 15-8-1860 Utrecht;
timmermansknecht, uitdrager, witwerker (Luthers)
X 9-2-1825 Utrecht
17. Johanna Vernee dp. 25-9-1803 Utrecht ᛦ 20-12-1880 Utrecht

18. Gerrit Verbeek ᛉ 3-5-1797 Montfoort ᛦ 25-1-1854 Utrecht;
bakker, diaken, deurwaarder
X 16-5-1838 Utrecht
19. Helena Sophia Wilhelmina Klesman ᛉ ged. 10-7-1801 Amsterdam (Luthers) ᛦ 15-1-1890 Utrecht;
bakkerin

20. Hendrik van Winkoop ᛉ 1823 Nijkerk ᛦ 18-4-1881 Zwolle;
winkelier/ commissionair
X 21-4-1847 Arnhem
21. Louise Antonia van Ommeren ᛉ 1822 ᛦ 17-5-1897 Utrecht

22. Johannes Cornelis van Daalen/ Dalen ᛉ 28-12-1812 Rhenen ᛦ ;
wagenmaker
X 24-5-1834 Rhenen
23. Gertje Keijman ᛉ 1-12-1811 Lienden, Aalst ᛦ 21-4-1888 Rhenen

24. Remt Willems Mellema ᛉ 29-11-1803 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 16-3-1845 Schiermonnikoog; 
zeeman, kapitein
X 8-6-1827 Schiermonnikoog
25. Theunke Tijssen Kuiper ᛉ 12-9-1802 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 14-6-1845 Schiermonnikoog

26. Teunis Lourens Pieters Teensma ᛉ 24-8-1804, ged. 16-9 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 30-10-1859 Amsterdam (akte Lemsterland 25-2-1860); 
scheepsgezagvoerder/ boekhouder en schipper
X 8-1-1835 Schiermonnikoog
27. Dieuwke Ytjes Post ᛉ 16-6-1808, ged. 3-7 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 10-3-1886 Schiermonnikoog

28. Jeppe Teens Orre ᛉ 25-8-1798, ged. 30-9 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 1847 op zee bij Texel (over boord geslagen);
zeeman: kok/ matroos (1847)
X 27-11-1828 Schiermonnikoog
29. Fenne Edes Carst ᛉ 9-12-1803, ged. 8-1-1804 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 8-4-1848 Schiermonnikoog

30. Jeppe Pieters Teensma ᛉ 2-9-1806, ged. 28-9 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 2-10-1884 Schiermonnikoog;
scheepsgezagvoerder/ kapitein en reder
X 28-3-1833 Schiermonnikoog
31. Aukje Eises Carst ᛉ 28-10-1811 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 9-5-1900 Schiermonnikoog

===generatie 5===

32. Johannes Hauer ᛉ 17-9-1768 Amsterdam ᛦ 23-11-1812 Amsterdam;
boekhouder (Luthers)
X 6-1-1799 Amsterdam
33. Lucretia Aletta Fisler ᛉ ged. 20-11-1776 Amsterdam (Geref) ᛦ begr. 22-1-1811 Amsterdam Eilands kerk

34. Abraham Vernee ᛉ ged. 20-6-1771 ᛦ 6-2-1819 Utrecht;
timmerman
X 14-5-1801 Utrecht
35. Hendrica Ockeloen ᛉ ged. 9-12-1772 Utrecht ᛦ12-1-1848 Utrecht

36. Gerardus Johannes Verbeek ged. 1-2-1756 Veen N-Br, ᛦ 23-5-1847 Utrecht;
meester broodbakker, deurwaarder, diaken
Ondertr. 17-10-1796 Montfoort
37. Lijsje den Bruinen ged. 14-2-1768 Kamerik ᛦ 19-3-1835 Montfoort

38. Jacobus Klesman ᛉ 1773 Amsterdam (Luth.) ᛦ 20-5-1809 begr. 24-5 Amsterdam Wester kerkhof
won. Elandstraat
X otr. 10-8-1798 Amsterdam
39. Christina Richter (Rigter, Regter) ᛉ 1772 Amsterdam (Geref.) ᛦ

40. Melis van Winkoop ᛉ ged. 31-10-1792 Nijkerk ᛦ
houtzaagmolenaar
X 11-8-1819 Nijkerk
41. Evertje Schouten ᛉ 1798 ᛦ

42. Walrave van Ommeren ᛉ ca. 1774, ᛦ 12-6-1856 Arnhem;
landbouwer
43. Johanna Paltzer ᛉ ca. 1791, ᛦ 29-6-1874 Nijkerk (ouders niet vermeld)

44. Johannes van Dalen ᛉ ged. 29-10-1788 Rhenen ᛦ 2-6-1858 Rhenen;
tabakker
45. Dorotea Keijzer ᛉ ged. 22-8-1788 Amsterdam Oude Kerk 1788 ᛦ10-2-1865 Rhenen

46. Jan Hendrik Keijman ᛉ 1788 Aalst ᛦ 25-2-1849 Rhenen;
timmerman
X 14-7-1811 Veenendaal
47. Hendrina Alberts/ Doornenbal (Hendrika, Dorenbal) ᛉ ged. 31-7-1791 Rhenen ᛦ 24-3-1849 Rhenen

48. Willem Jacobus Mellema ᛉ 26-3-1770, ged. 1-4 Schiermonnikoog, 13-9-1852 Schiermonnikoog
schipper op de grote zeekust, koopvaardijschipper (woonachtig aan boord), kapitein (1815, 1828)
X 10-12-1797 Schiermonnikoog
49. Catharina Maria Remts Koerkamp ged. 13-3-1774 Schiermonnikoog, 24-1-1828 Martenshoek gem. Hoogezand

50. Tijs Wybes Bock (bij ovl. 'Kuiper') ᛉ ged. 8-3-1761 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 18-4-1840 Schiermonnikoog;
schipper, zeekapitein
X (toestemming) 25-3-1791 Schiermonnikoog
51. Tietje Tomas Kuiper ᛉ ged. 20-10-1765 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ21-10-1846 Schiermonnikoog

52. Pieter Jeppes Teensma ᛉ 25-1-1778, ged. 1-2 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 11-11-1842 Schiermonnikoog;
schipper/ matroos
X 4-12-1803 Schiermonnikoog
53. Aafke Teunis Kerkstra ᛉ 4-3-1782, ged. 31-3 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 14-12-1866 Schiermonnikoog

54. Ytje Jans Post ᛉ ged. 24-5-1761 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 4-6-1838 Schiermonnikoog;
koopvaardijschipper
X 8-4-1798 Nes, Ameland
55. Antje Ennes Dijkstra ᛉ 16-9-1771 Nes, Ameland ᛦ4-3-1821 Schiermonnikoog

56. Teen Jans Orre ᛉ ged. 20-4-1760 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ19-1-1831 Schiermonnikoog;
schipper
X 4-8-1793 Schiermonnikoog
57. Trijntje Jeppes Teensma ᛉ ged. 27-9-1767 Schiermonnikoog 9-5-1860 Schiermonnikoog

58. Ede Jeppes Carst ᛉ ged. 9-8-1761 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ mei 1832 op zee bij Bergen (over boord geslagen);
koopvaardijschipper
59. Meins Frederiks Schultze ᛉ 16-3-1774, ged. 27-3 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ26-11-1840 Schiermonnikoog

60. t/m 61. = 52. t/m 53.

62. Eise Jans Carst ᛉ 26-7-1784, ged. 15-8 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 12-9-1835 Rensburg Denemarken;
schipper, kapitein
63. Wietske Pieters Carst ᛉ 23-7-1790, ged. 22-8 Schiermonnikoog ᛦ 26-2-1828 Schiermonnikoog

===generatie 6===

64. Hendrik Hauer (1739 Amsterdam - 1798 Amsterdam) makelaar
65. Adriana Omzeele (1749 Amsterdam - 1797 Amsterdam)

66. Frederik Augustus Fisler (1747 Zutphen - 1807 Amsterdam) tweede meester VOC
67. Aletta Hillegonda Calleree (1750 Amsterdam - 1784 Amsterdam)

68. Evert Vernee
69. Johanna van Doorn (c.1729-1774)

70. Jacobus Ockeloen (1735-1805) Utrecht
71. Mechteldje Vreeswijk (Mekje) (1734- na 1805)

72. Gerrit Verbeek (?-1800)
73. Maria van Vliet (1728-1783)

74. Gijsbert den Bruinen
75. Janna Nap

76. ovl. voor 1798
77. ovl. voor 1798

78.
79. Helena Versteeg

80. Wulfert van Winkoop (Wenkop), tabaksplanter; X 27-5-1785 Nijkerk
81. Neeltje van Staveren, ovl. 30-7-1831 Nijkerk, d.v. Jacob van Staveren en Evertje de Flier

82. Arend Schouten, tabaksplanter
83. Margrietje van Steenler

84. Laurens van Ommeren
85. Anna Duijs

88. Evert van Daalen, geb. Rhenen; X 25-7-1784 Rhenen
89. Seijgje Gerritse, geb. Agterberg

90. Johannes Keijzer (Jan) ovl. vóór 1800; ondertr. 20-9-1787 Amsterdam
91. Johanna Cornelia van den Hespel

92. Arend Otto Keijman
93. Gerritje Koeman

94. Peter Alberts; X 4-4-1784 Rhenen (beide geb. en won. Agterberg)
95. Teuntje Hendriks

[NB meer info en voorouders 96. t/m 128. hier]

96. Jacobus Teunis Mellema (1729-1819); zeeman, koopman
97. Neeltje Willems (1745-1831)

98. Remt Feyes (1731-1800)
99. Catryna Marya Koerkamp (1738-1816)

100. Wiebe Wiebes (1719- na 1797)
101. Trijntje Pieters (c.1725-1809)

102. Thomas Jans Kuiper (1733- vóór 1803)
103. Liefke Jans Schaap (1739-c.1777)

104. Jeppe Jans Teensma (1739-1828)
105. Trijn Pieters (1742-1820)

106. Teunis Louwerens Kerkstra (1753-1834)
107. Anna Cornelia Coldewey (1754-1795)

108. Jan Roelofs (c.1709- vóór 1787)
109. Grietje Lammerts van Helm (1726- na 1787)

110. Enne Hendrik Dijkstra (?-?)
111. Dieuwke Jans (1754-?)

112. Jan Teunis Orre (1724-c.1778)
113. Aukje Jacobs (1728-c.1778)

114. t/m 115. = 104. t/m 105.

116. Jeppe Pieters Carst (1726-c.1777)
117. Fennigje Edes (1736-1815)

118. Frederik Willems (1750-1808)
119. Reintje Lammerts Drayer (1751- vóór 1790)

120. t/m 123. = 104. t/m 107.

124. Jan Jacobs Carst (1743-1814)
125. Auktje Eyses (1751-1824) 

126. Pieter Gerrits Carst (1759-1834)
127. Trijntje Teunis Hitman (1762-1839)

======================

*1) De drijvende kracht achter het Groninger Museum was Theunis Mellema die op Schiermonnikoog werd geboren en reeds op 14 jarige leeftijd in 1884 ging varen op een schoener van zijn oom die kapitein/eigenaar was. Van 1890 tot 1898 was Theunis stuurman op diverse schepen. Daarna kwam hij aan wal. Eerst als havenmeester in Urk en later als sluismeester in Zoutkamp. In 1919 werd hij inspecteur van de schepenwet in Groningen, die het rijkstoezicht had over de scheepvaart met onder anderen als doel verhoging van de veiligheid. Mellema was ook de man die in de jaren twintig er voor zorgde dat binnenschepen zonder diploma de Oostzeevaart mochten doen. Juist daardoor is de band tussen de Oostzeehavens en Groningen van zo'n grote betekenis geworden. Typen schepen waren "kogge, smak, galjoot, kof, hoeker en schoener". Ze zijn in het museum te zien, deels als afbeelding, maar ook al mooie exemplaren uit de modelbouw. (http://www.filatelieonline.com/philatelist/scheepv.htm)

*2) Nederlandsche Staatscourant 4 augustus 1882: ten verzoeke van Jeppe Pieters Teensma, zonder beroep, wonende te Schiermonnikoog, in hoedanigheid als toeziende Voogd over Theunis Mellema, minderjarigen zoon van Remt Remts Mellema hierna te noemen en diens wijlen Huisvrouw Louwisa Teensma (..) wordt ten tweeden male Gedagvaard Remt Remts Mellema, Scheepsgezagvoerder, laatst gedomiliceerd te Schiermonnikoog, doch thans afwezig; hij was 'Gezagvoerder van het Nederlandsche Schoonerschip Enne & Catrine, tusschen den vijfden en tienden Januarij 1800 negen en zeventig met dat schip van Paramaribo (is) vertrokken met bestemming naar Amsterdam; aangezien na het uitvaren uit gemelde zeehaven niets meer van genoemd schip of de bemanning is vernomen, en dat het schip vermoedelijk bij den storm, welke in Februarij 1800 negen en zeventig op den Atlantischen Oceaan heeft gewoed, met man en muis vergaan en gezonken is'

11 July 2019

Old-Frisian publications 1782-1851

Petrus Wierdsma (1729-1811)
(see earlier post: Old Frisian etc. texts)

The following  
books with Old-Frisian texts
were published between 1782 and 1851:

Wierdsma (anonymously, publisher Chalmot & Seydel)
1782 - Oude Friesche Wetten
(first eleven parts of the OF Laws: 404 pages, Frisian in Gothic script with Dutch translation and notes)

Wiarda (with German translation in Gothic script, Frisian in normal script, notes)
1805 - Asegabuch - ein Alt-friesisches Gesetzbuch der Rüstringer (365 pages)



1820 - Willküren der Brockmänner - eines freyen friesischen Volkes (182 pages)



de Haan Hettema
1830 - Het Emsiger Landregt van het jaar 1312
(publ. Schierbeek) 132 pages



1834 - Jurisprudentia Frisica of Friesche Regtkennis I - Een handschrift uit de vijftiende eeuw
(publ. Schetsberg) 257 pages



1835 Jurisprudentia Frisica of Friesche Regtkennis II
(publ. Schetsberg) 315 pages

1835 Jurisprudentia Frisica of Friesche Regtkennis III
(publ. Schetsberg) 160 pages


1841 Het Fivelingoër en Oldampster Landregt - Een Oudfriesch handschrift uit de 14e eeuw
(with translation, 272 pages) downloadable HD color scan here



1846 Oude Friesche Wetten - eerste deel (part I)
(Hunsingoër regt., Rustringer regt., Broekmer regt., Emsiger regt: codex 1-2)
Only transcriptions, no translation. Publisher Suringar, 283 pages.



1847 Oude Friesche Wetten - tweede deel, eerste stuk (part IIa)
(Jus municipale Frisonum)
Publisher Suringar, 181 pages



1851 Oude Friesche Wetten - tweede deel, tweede stuk (part IIb)
(Boetregisters. Geestelijke regten. Willekeuren. Lex Frisionum)
Publisher Suringar, 95 pages



Richthofen
1840 - Friesische Rechtsquellen
Publ. Nicolaische Buchhandlung, Berlin (582 pages)



Old-Frisian dictionaries

1786 Wiarda - Alt friesisches Wörterbuch (German)
Publ. Winter, Aurich (435 pages)



1832 Hettema - (Proeve van een) Friesch en Nederlandsch Woordenboek (Dutch)
Publ. Schierbeek (107 pages)



1840 Richthofen - Altfriesisches Wörterbuch (German)
Publ. Dieterische Buchhandlung, Göttingen (1165 pages)

02 July 2019

LING.SIDE GÍRA ~ approach alongside diagonally

There are still words in the original language of the Oera Linda-book that had to be translated through the context, as they were not found yet in known languages or dialects. One example was GÍRDE in the following fragment:


[114/13] IK GÍRDE HJA LING.SÍDE. HJU STRIK MI OMME KIN TO.

The second part is clear and has no significant variety in the translations: she stroked my chin. Below I will list the various translations of the first sentence only.


Ottema (1872/1876):
Ik draaide haar op zijde. 

Sandbach (1876):
I came to her;

Wirth (1933):
Ich drehte ihr längsseits bei*.
(*Seemannsausdruck »ich ging an ihre Seite«, »ich geselle mich ihr zu«)

Overwijn (1941/1951):
Ik trok haar opzij. 

Jensma (2006):
Ik kwam naast haar lopen.* 
(* ?? snellen)

Menkens (2013):
Ich näherte (mich) ihr von der Seite.

Although it was already recognised as a naval term, this did not seem to quite fit well.

A 'Netherdutch' dictionary (Weiland, 1802) and the Westfrisian dictionary by Jan Pannekeet (1984) provide clarity:
Weiland 1802
Pannekeet 1984
Provisional translation?

English: I approached her diagonally

Dutch: Ik liep haar schuin langszij

18 June 2019

Initiation in Bad Times (English / German/ Dutch)

books by Barthélémy d'Eyck, c. 1445

From Oera Linda-book, paragraph 14a) Frethorik: Fryasland Swamped
with my provisional English translation and the German translation by Harm Menkens (2013, somewhat adapted by me). For a word-for-word translation guide, see below.


[113/23] MIN NÔM IS FRÉTHO.RIK. TONOMATH OERA.LINDA. [...] My name is Frethorik, surnamed Oera Linda [...] Mein Name ist Frethorik, mit Zunamen Oera-Linda [...] Mijn naam is Frethorik, toegenaamd Oera Linda [...]
[114/04] IN MIN JÜGED HÉRD.IK GRÉDWIRD AL.OMME. In my youth, all I heard was grievance: In meiner Jugend hörte ich Klage überall herum: In mijn jeugd hoorde ik klachten alom:
ÀRGE TID KÉM ÀRGE TID WAS KVMEN Bad times would come or had come, Arge Zeit käme, arge Zeit war gekommen. Erge Tijd kwam, Erge Tijd was gekomen;


FRYA HÉD.VS LÉTEN. HJRA WÁK.FÁMKES HÉDE HJU ABEFTA HALDEN. Frya had left us, she had withheld her watch maidens, Frya hätte uns verlassen, ihre Wachmaiden hätte sie von uns fern gehalten, Frya had ons verlaten, haar waakmaagden had ze teruggehouden,
HWAND DROCHTEN LIKANDA BYLDA WÉRON BINNA VSA LÁND.PÀLA FVNDEN. because idolatrous images had been found within our landmarks. denn götzenähnliche Bildnisse wurden innerhalb unserer Landesgrenzen gefunden. want afgodsbeelden waren binnen onze landpalen gevonden.
IK BRÔNDE FON NYS.GÍR. VMBE THI BYLDA TO BISJAN. I was burning with curiosity to see these images. Ich brannte von Neugier, um die Bildnisse anzusehen. Ik brandde van nieuwsgier om die beelden te bezien.
IN VSA BÛRT STROMPELE EN ÔLD.FÁMKE TO THA HUSA UTA IN. In our neighborhood, an old spinster stumbled in and out of the houses, In unserer Nachbarschaft ging mühsam eine Alt-Maid in den Häusern aus und ein, In onze buurt strompelde een oud-maagd de huizen in en uit,
IMMER TO KÉTHANDE VR ÀRGE TID. always heralding bad times. immer klagend über die arge Zeit immer de Erge Tijd aankondigend.
IK GÍRDE HJA LING.SÍDE. HJU STRIK MI OMME KIN TO. I approached her diagonally, she stroked my chin. Ich näherte mich ihr von der Seite. Sie strich mir um das Kinn herum. Ik liep schuin op haar toe,* ze streek me om de kin.
NW WRD.IK DRIST ÀND FRÉJE JEF HJU MI ÀRGE TID ÀND THA BYLDA RÉIS WISA WILDE. Now I dared to ask her about the bad times and the images. Nun wurde ich dreist und fragte, ob sie mir die arge Zeit und die Bildnisse wohl zeigen würde. Nu werd ik driest en vroeg of ze mij Erge Tijd en de beelden eens wijzen wilde.
HJU LAKTE GODLIK ÀND BROCHT MI VPPER BURCH. She smiled in a most friendly manner and brought me to the burg. Sie lachte gutmütig und brachte mich auf die Burg. Ze lachte goedig en bracht me op de burg.
EN GRÉVA.­MAN FRÉJE MY JEF IK AL LÉSA ÀND SKRÍVA KV. NÉ SÉID.IK. An alderman asked me if I could read and write. ‘No’, I said. Ein Obergraf fragte mich, ob ich schon lesen und schreiben könne. Een olderman vroeg me of ik al lezen en schrijven kon. 'Nee', zei ik.

* giere: slingeren, zwaaien, schuin toelopen (Westfries woordenboek, Pannekeet 1984)/ also Weiland 1802 Nederduits woordenboek 'gieren' [approach diagonally]


THAN MOST ÉROST TO GA ÀND LÉRA SÉIDER ‘Then you must first go and learn’, he replied, "Nein", sagte ich. "Dann mußt Du erst zugehen und es lernen", sagte er, 'Dan moet je dat eerst gaan leren', zei hij,
OWERS NE MÉI.T JOW NAVT WYSEN NI WRDE. ‘or else you cannot be shown.’ "anders kann es Dir nicht gezeigt werden." 'anders mag het jou niet gewezen worden.'
DYSTIK GVNG IK BI THA SKRIWER LÉRA. So daily I went to the scribe and studied. Täglich ging ich zum Schreiber lernen. Dagelijks ging ik bij de schrijver leren.
ACHT JÉR LÉTTER HÉRD.IK VSA BURCH.FÁM HÉDE HORDOM BIDRYVEN Eight years later, I heard that our burg maiden had been promiscuous, Acht Jahre später hörte ich, unsere Burgfrau hätte Hurerei betrieben Acht jaar later hoorde ik, onze burgmaagd had hoerdom bedreven,
ÀND SVME BURCH.HÉRA HÉDON VRRÉD PLÉGAD MITH THA MÁGÍ. that some burg masters had collaborated with the magus, und einige Burgherren hätten Verrat geübt mit dem Magy, sommige burgheren hadden verraad gepleegd met de mágí
ÀND FÉLO MÀNNISKA WÉRON VP HJARA SIDA. and that many people were on their side. und viele Menschen wären auf ihrer Seite. en veel mensen waren op hun zijde.
WRAL KÉM TWISPALT. Division was everywhere. Überall kam Zwiespalt. Overal kwam tweespalt.
THÉR WÉRON BERN THÉR VPSTANDON AJEN HJARA ELDRUM. Children revolted against their parents. Es gab Kinder, die gegen ihre Eltern aufstanden. Er waren kinderen die opstonden tegen hun ouders.
INNA GLUPPA WRDON THA FRODA MÀNNISKA MORTH. Righteous folk were murdered in cowardly fashion. In ihren Verstecken wurden die getreuen Menschen ermordet. In gloppen werden de vroede mensen vermoord.
THET ALDE FÁMK THÉR ELLA BÁR MÁKADE The old spinster who revealed it all Die alte maid, die alles offenbar machte, De oude maagd die alles bekend maakte
[115/01] WÀRTH DÁD FVNDEN IN.EN GRUPE. was found dead in a ditch. wurde tot in einer Grube gefunden. werd dood gevonden in een greppel.
MIN TÁT THÉR RJUCHTER WÉRE WILDE HJA WRÉKEN HÀ. My father, who was judge, wanted her avenged. Mein Vater, der Richter war, wollte sie gerächt haben. Mijn taat [vader], die rechter was, wilde haar gewroken hebben.
NACHTIS WÀRTH.ER IN SIN HUS VRMORTH. Soon thereafter, at night, he was murdered in his home. Des Nachts wurde er in seinem Hause ermordet. 's Nachts werd hij in zijn huis vermoord.
THRJU JÉR LÉTTER WÉR THENE MÁGÍ BÁS. SVNDER STRID. Three years later, the magus ruled without resistance. Drei Jahre später war der Magy Herr, ohne Kampf. Drie jaar later was de mágí baas, zonder strijd.


THA SAXMÀNNA WÉRON FROME ÀND FROD BILYWEN. The Saxmen had remained faithful and wise. Die Sachsmannensind fromm und treu geblieben; De Saxmannen waren vroom en vroed gebleven.
NÉI THAM FLJUCHTON ALLE GODE MÀNNISKA. To them all good people fled. zu ihnen flüchteten alle guten Menschen. Naar hen vluchtten alle goede mensen
MIN MÀM BISTURV.ET. My mother died in the midst of it. Meine Mutter starb darüber. Mijn mem [moeder] bestierf het.
NW DÉD IK LIK THA ÔTHERA. Then, I fled to the Saxmen like the others.* Nun tat ich gleich den anderen. Nu deed ik gelijk de anderen.

* The text only says ‘Now I did like the others’; changed ‘did’ into ‘fled to the Saxmen’ for clarity.

word-for-word translation guide

MIN NÔM IS FRÉTHO.RIK. (my name is Frétho-rik) TONOMATH OERA.LINDA (to-named Oera-Linda). [...] IN MIN JÜGED (in my youth) HÉRD.IK GRÉDWIRD* AL.OMME (heard-I grievance all-around). ÀRGE TID KÉM (bad time came) ÀRGE TID WAS KVMEN (bad time was come) FRYA HÉD.VS LÉTEN (Frya had-us left). HJRA WÁK.FÁMKES HÉDE HJU ABEFTA HALDEN (her wake-maidens had she behind held). HWAND DROCHTEN.LIKANDA BYLDA (because idol-alike images) WÉRON BINNA VSA LÁND.PÀLA FVNDEN (were within our land-poles found). IK BRÔNDE FON NYS.GÍR (I burnt of news-desire). VMBE THI BYLDA TO BISJAN (for these images to observe). IN VSA BÛRT (in our neighborhood) STROMPELE EN ÔLD.FÁMKE (stumbled an old-maiden) TO THA HUSA UTA IN (to the houses out-of in). IMMER TO KÉTHANDE VR ÀRGE TID (always proclaiming about bad time). IK GÍRDE HJA LING.SÍDE (I [approached diagonally] her along-side). HJU STRIK MI OMME KIN TO (she stroked me around chin to). NW WRD.IK DRIST (now became-I bold) ÀND FRÉJE JEF HJU (and asked if she) MI ÀRGE TID (me bad time) ÀND THA BYLDA RÉIS WISA WILDE (and the images once show would). HJU LAKTE GODLIK (she laughed goodlike) ÀND BROCHT MI VPPER BURCH (and brought me up-the burgh). EN GRÉVA.MAN FRÉJE MY (an alderman asked me) JEF IK AL LÉSA ÀND SKRÍVA KV (if I already read and write could). NÉ SÉID.IK (no said-I). THAN MOST ÉROST TO GA (then you-must first to go) ÀND LÉRA SÉIDER (and learn said-he) OWERS NE MÉI.T JOW (otherwise not may-it you) NAVT WYSEN NI WRDE (not shown not be). DYSTIK GVNG IK (daily went I) BI THA SKRIWER LÉRA (with the scribe learn). ACHT JÉR LÉTTER HÉRD.IK (eight year later heard-I) VSA BURCH.FÁM HÉDE HORDOM BIDRYVEN (our burgh-maiden had whoredom committed) ÀND SVME BURCH.HÉRA (and some burgh-masters) HÉDON VRRÉD PLÉGAD MITH THA MÁGÍ (had treason committed with the magus). ÀND FÉLO MÀNNISKA WÉRON VP HJARA SIDA (and many people were up their side). WRAL KÉM TWISPALT (everywhere came two-split). THÉR WÉRON BERN (there were children) THÉR VPSTANDON AJEN HJARA ELDRUM (that stood-up against their parents). INNA GLUPPA WRDON THA FRODA MÀNNISKA MORTH (in alleys were the virtuous people murdered). THET ALDE FÁMK THÉR ELLA BÁR MÁKADE (the old maiden who all bare made) WÀRTH DÁD FVNDEN IN.EN GRUPE (was dead found in a ditch). MIN TÁT THÉR RJUCHTER WÉRE (my dad who judge were) WILDE HJA WRÉKEN HÀ (wished her avenged have). NACHTIS WÀRTH.ER IN SIN HUS VRMORTH (at-night was-he in his house murdered). THRJU JÉR LÉTTER WÉR THENE MÁGÍ BÁS. SVNDER STRID (three year later were the magus boss without conflict). THA SAXMÀNNA WÉRON FROME ÀND FROD BILYWEN (the Saxmen were devout and virtuous remained). NÉI THAM FLJUCHTON ALLE GODE MÀNNISKA (to them fleed all good people). MIN MÀM BISTURV.ET (my mom died [of] it). NW DÉD IK LIK THA ÔTHERA (now did I like the others).

* Hettema (1832) - Gredwird: klagten [complaints]

17 June 2019

Varieties in use of second person

The Oera Linda-book consists of various texts, many of which written by different authors and in different times. Varieties in spelling and style have already been explored. In the following report, use of the second person ('you', 'your', singular/ plural/ pluralis reverentia [formal or polite]) is analysed.

Again a clear variety is found between the various texts (see table below).

Variety distribution addressing
group
addressing
 individual
THV-/THI(N)-form only 16c 11b, 13e2
,, mostly - A, 4d-2, 13d
mixed 4d-1, 9b, 14b 8b1
J-/ JO(W)-form mostly 14d -
,, only 1b, 2d, 18 -

fragments in table above


nr. of units page(s)
A Hidde to Okke 6 00a
1b Adela to audience 20 001-004
2d Frya to descendants 28 011-014
4d-1 Minerva to priests 13 034-037
4d-2 priests to Minerva 14 034-037
8b1 Magi to Wodin 10 054
9b Minerva to princes 7 071
11b Frana to Jrtha 6 084
13d Traest to man 11 104-106
13e2 girl to young man 8 112-113
14b Gosa to steersmen 9 118
14d Friso to his children 8 127
16c Gosa to audience 11 160-162
18 Rika to audience 22 189-192

second person according to Hettema's trial Old Frisian dictionary

Some (of many) examples of remarkable 'mistakes' (in our perception):
8b3) p.59 THV BIST .. SWÀRVAR (sing / plur)
14b) p. 118 I MOSTE, JOW BISTE
14d2) p. 127 twice JOW as nominative

=========== data analysis ===========

In the following chapters/ paragraphs, 2nd person is not used: 1a, c / 2b, c1, e / 3 (laws and regulations) / 4a, b, c2, e / 5 (justice) / 6 (yule, script, numbers) / 7 (before Bad Times, how Aldland sank) / 8b2, c / 9a2 / 10a / 12 (Adelbrost) / 13b2, c, e1 / 14ef / 15a, b1 / 16a, b3 / 17 (Beden) / 19b, def
The following parts, only have sporadic or scattered use of the 2nd person, too little for analysis: B (Liko) / 4c1, c3 / 10b / 13b1, b3 / 15c,d 

The following samples may were analysed (with number of units):
  • 6 --- A (Hidde)
  • 20 --- 1b (Adela-helpers)
  • 8 --- 2a, c2, c3 (three burgs, oldest history)
  • 28 --- 2d (Tex Fryas)
  • 28 --- 4d (Minno)
  • 13 --- 8a, b1, b3 (Treasureburg: 2090 bce)
  • 19 --- 9a1, a3, b, c (Walhallagara: 1630 bce)
  • 19 --- 11abc (all burgs: 590 bce)
  • 11 --- 13d (unknown on writing felt)
  • 8 --- 13e2 (Apollanja)
  • 12 --- 14a, b, c (Frethorik)
  • 18 --- 14d (Ljudgert 1)
  • 6 --- 15b2 (Dela/ Hellenja)
  • 11 --- 16b1, b2 (Konered)
  • 11 --- 16c (Gosa)
  • 5 --- 16d (Ljudgert 2)
  • 22 --- 18 (Rika)
  • 5 --- 19a, c (unkown about Askar)
Inventory of the largest samples of at least 20 units, the ones of between 10 and 20 units and between 6 and 10 (excl. various short)

1b) Adela to her audience (meeting, council)
only J-form, 20 units


2d) Frya to her descendants
only J-form, 28 units

4d) Dialogue between Minerva and the princes-priests; author Minno
both forms: little J (4), many THV (23);
ca. 1/2 Minerva to priests (mixed), 1/2 priests to Minerva (mostly THV)

8) mostly 8b1 - Magi to Wodin
8a is (2x) author to mountains (plur!) and to Frya, both: THIN(NA).
8b3 is (1x) Sidonese coast dwellers to Tunis group (THV BIST sing.!).
8b1 - Magi to Wodin: mixed inconsequent (10 units): JE, JVW, I, JV vs. THV, TE, THIN(RE).

9) various short addresses (longest is Minerva to princes); a: Walhallagara; b: Texland; c: ?
  • 9a1 - Kelta to followers (4x I/J verbs inconsequent, 1x THI)
  • 9a3 - Kelta to Britne (4: THV, THI(NA))
  • 9b - Minerva to princes (7 units, mixed: THINA SLÁVONA, BIST, WILST vs. JVW BERN, J SKOLDE, MOT.I)
  • 9c - navigators to mercinaries (3: TE, THV, THINA)
11) various short (longest is Frana to Jrtha); on all burgs ca. 590 bce
  • 11a - author to reader(s): JVWA
  • 11b - Fin to Frana (NILST/SKILST), Magi to Frana (MOST/ I BISTE), Frana to Jrtha (6 units: THV, THI(N(RA))), Frana to Magi (THIN)
  • 11c - Dane to Magi (THV, THIN)
13d) Traest to the unsociable man
mostly (9x) THV, THIN, (THAT)STE, however also (2x) MOT I, IS I THISSA RÉD...

14abc) mostly 14b - Gosa to steersmen
14a is veteran to Frethorik (2x: MOST, JOW mixed use!)
14c is dignitary from Friso's fleet to people of Staveren (1x J SKOLDE)
14b - mixed inconsequent use (4x KANST, ÁCHSTE, THI(N) vs. 5x I MOSTE!, JOW BISTE!, JOW)

14d) various short (longest is Friso to children); author Ljudgért 2
  • 14d1 - Wichhirte to Alexander & army (JOW(A) = your plur. deads/ weapons; THINA = your sing. intellect); Alexander to Wichhirte (THIN/ STV); Nearchus to Wichhirte & fleet (I, JOW)
  • 14d2 - wife Friso to random people (1x N.AST, 1x TO JOW); Friso writes his children (8 units, inconsequent, mixed: 2x JOW as nominative!, also as dative and genetive/  SKILSTV and THIN LIF next to JOW SÉLE); 1x Friso to Wichhirte & Gértmen (FON JOW)
16b) various short addresses (max. 3 units)

16c) Gosa to audience about language
consequently only THV-form: verbs WILST, ACHST.THV (2x), BIST.THV, WILSTE/ WILST.THV, DVATH.STV; 2x genitive THIN(A), 2x dative MIT THI, FON THI

18) Rika to her audience (descendants of Friso followers at Staveren Yulefeast)
very consequent, only J-form, 22 units
JY - 1e nom./ JOW(E(R)) 2e gen./ JO 3e dat./ 4e acc.
verbs plural:
SEND
SKILUN
WÁNATH, VRJETTATH, WETATH, KÉRATH
MÉNE, BVWE
1x sing.: MÉI

04 June 2019

Main verbs KVMA and SEZA

Now that we have examined the auxiliary verbs most frequently used in the samples, we will continue with the two most frequently used main verbs: KVMA (to come, 92x) and SEZA (to say, 60x). Note these are frequencies in the samples (defined earlier) only.

1a. KVMA present 
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK KVME all conjug.: ich komme ik kom ik kom
THV - come du kommst 2nd/3rd: do komst
ER KVMTH* er kommt komt hy komt
WI KVMA** wir kommen plur.: plur.:
J - ihr kommt komen komme
HJA KVMA(TH)*** sie kommen

* 3 out of 13 KVMATH, 1/13 KVM
** 1/3 KVMATH
*** KVMA and KVMATH both 2/5, 1/5 KVME

1b. KVMA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK KÉM (2) all conjug.: ich kam sing.: ik kaam
THV - came du kamst kwam do kaamst
ER KÉM (38) er kam hy kaam
WI KÉMON (9) wir kamen plur.: plur.:
J - ihr kamt kwamen kamen
HJA KÉMON (28) sie kamen

perfect: KVMEN (18x), KÉMEN (1x), KÉMON (1x), KOMTH (1x), KVMA (1x)
gerund: KVMANDE, KVMANE
used as auxiliary verb 7x, supporting BIFÁRA (2x), BJADA, FALLA, HÁLJA, MÉRA, RÁWANE (all 1x)

2a. SEZA present
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK SEZ (1) all conjug.: ich sage ik zeg ik sis
THV - say du sagst 2nd/3rd.: do seist
ER SÉITH (1) er sagt zegt er seit
WI - wir sagen plur.: plur.:
J - ihr sagt zeggen sizze
HJA SEZA (1)/ SEZATH (1) sie sagen

2b. SEZA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK SÉID (1) all conjug.: ich sagte sing.: ik sei
THV - said du sagtest zei do seist(e)
ER SÉIDE* er sagte hy sei
WI SÉIDE (1) wir sagten plur.: plur.:
J - ihr sagtet zeiden seine(n)
HJA SÉIDON** sie sagten

* in 15 out of 38 cases without the ending -E, because it is followed by a vowel (mostly -ER).
** SÉIDON 11x, SÉDON and SÉIDE both 1x

perfect: SÉID (3), SÉITH (2), SÉIT (1)
gerund: SEZANDE (2)
infinitive: SEDSA (3), SEZA (2), SEZE (1)
imperative: SEG (2), SEZ (1)


other main verbs sorted by frequency (>10) in samples:
22 DVA
21 LÉIA19 SJA
17 STÁ
16 WÉTA
15 KÉTHA
14 NÉMA
14 HALDA
13 JÉVA
11 ANDERA
11 FRÉJA
11 HÉTA
11 MÁKJA

02 June 2019

Old Frisian specialists' opinion?

Jacob Grimm
Old Frisian is an Old Germanic language, most closely related to Old English. Whereas Old English is taught and studied widely, Old Frisian seems to be a well-hidden secret, studied and taught by a just a handful of experts. (course intro Universities Oxford-Groningen)

Old Frisian has been a field of study particularly since the linguistic publications by Jacob Grimm (1785–1863). It would have been interesting to hear the opinion of an Old Frisian specialist about the language of the Oera Linda-book, but the silence has been deafening. This would not make much sense, unless the topic is taboo amongst them. For if they consider the manuscript to be obviously fake, it should be easy to explain why that is so, and it would still be a worthy topic, as there is no comparable work of creative art which has Old Frisian language varieties as one of its main sources of inspiration. Not only is it not discussed, it is not even referred to (unless I have missed it).

This post will be an inventory of the most prominent specialists Old Frisian. It can be used to search for possible publications or mentions that I have missed and perhaps some of them can at some point be motivated to share their thoughts on the OLB.

(random provisional order)

Rolf H. Bremmer jr. (1950), professor of Old and Middle English, and extraordinary professor of Old Frisian, at Leiden University. Author of 'An Introduction to Old Frisian: History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary' (2009).

Oebele Vries (1947), professor Old Frisian, at Groningen University (1978-2012). Editor of several publications with Old Frisian texts, notably, 'Asega, is het dingtijd?' (2007).

Henk D. Meijering (), emeritus professor Old Frisian and Old Saxon, at Amsterdam Vrije Universiteit.

Pieter Gerbenzon (1920-2009), professor (Old) Frisian language and O-F laws, at Universities Utrecht and Groningen.

still under construction

Auxiliary verb THVRA

entry for the word in De Haan-Hettema prov. dictionary 1832 ~ assuming OLB would be a 19th century creation, one would expect the varieties in it more to resemble those as suggested in the contemporary dictionaries
in Richthofen dictionary 1840
In previous posts we have taken a closer look at the auxiliary verbs most frequently used in the defined samples. Now it is time for the next in line: THVRA (modern cognates English - dare, German - dürfen*, Dutch - durven, Frisian - doarre, Swedish - tordas, Danish - turde, Icelandic - þora, Norse - tore).
*German 'dürfen' has a different meaning than the other cognates: to be allowed. While 'to dare' could be interpreted as 'to allow oneself', in the German word the one or the thing that allows lies outside of the self.

a. THVRA present
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK THVR (1) all conjug.: ich darf ik durf ik doar
THV THVRATH (1)* dare du darfst 2nd / 3rd p.: do doarst
ER - er darf durft hy doar(t)
WI THVRA (1) wir dürfen plur.: plur.:
J - ihr dürft durven doar(r)e
HJA - sie dürfen

* Considering the conjugations of the other verbs, examined so far, 2nd person sing. present would be expected to end -ST (for example THVRST, THVREST).

b. THVRA past
FRYAS English German Dutch Frisian
IK - all conjug.: ich durfte sing.: ik doarst
THV - dared du durftest durfde do doarst(e)
ER THVRADE (6)* er durfte hy doarst
WI - wir durften plur.:plur.:
J - ihr durftet durfden doarsten
HJA THVRADON (5) sie durften

* Also 1x THURADE, 1x THURVATH

Used in negative: 13 out of 16 = 81%.

Fragments in the Oera Linda-book (not only the samples)

1 [00b/12] B. Liko
THRVCHDA WI HJARA LJUDA TO SPRÉKE THVRA

2 [037/25] 4d. Minno
THÉRTHRVCH NE THVRADON HJA NÉN STRID WITHER AN TO SPINNANDE.

3 [047/21] 7a. all burgs
HWÉRTHRVCH THÀT FINDAS FOLK NAVT KVMA NE THVRADON.

4 [055/14] 8b1. Treasureburg
MEN LIK EN TWÍRNEWIND WENDON HJA OMME ÀND NE THVRADON NA WITHER FORSKINA.

5 [055/21] 8b1. Treasureburg
THAT I FRYA ÀND WRALDAS GÁST MISKÀNA ÀND SPOTA THVRADE.

6 [079/17] 11a. all burgs
WR A BERGA ÀND WR N SÉ NE THVRADE HI NAVT NE KVMA.

7 [122/25] 14d1. Liudgeart 1
THA HI NE THVRADE SIN TOCHT NAVT VRFATA.

8 [126/11] 14d2. Liudgeart 1
THJU MODER NE THVRADE HJRA JOI NAVT WACHTJA.

9 [126/18] 14d2. Liudgeart 1
THRVCHDAM HJU HJRA MAN NAVT WACHTJA THURADE.

10 [128/02] 14d2. Liudgeart 1
HJUD NE KV NI THVRADE NINMAN NE BILÍWA.

11 [136/31] 15b2. Dela-Hellenia
MEN HJA NE THVRADON HIM NAVT AVBÉR BIKÀNÁ AS HJARA ÀJNE BLOD.

12 [151/22] 16b2. Konered
ASTE THVRATH THENE MÉNA FJAND TO BIKÀMPANE

13 [154/03] 16b2. Konered
THACH JEF WI THÉRTHRVCH BÉTER WRDE THVR IK NAVT BIJECHTA.

14 [164/12] 16d. Liudgeart 2
THÉRVMBE NE THURVATH SE FAR HJARA SÉK NIT ÔPENTLIK UT NI KVMA.

15 [198/04] 19a. unknown about Askar
THA RIKA NE THVRADON HJARA MULA NAVT ÉPEN NE DVA.

16 [206/28] 19d. unknown about Askar
SÁ THAT THÉR AFTERNÉI NÉN MÀNNISK MÁRA KVMA NE THVRADE.

noun derived from the verb:
INNER WINNA JEFTHA MINNA MÔNATH GVNG AIDER THURVAR (one who dares) WITHER HÉMFÁRA.