24 April 2018

How did it sound? #4: O, Ô and ʘ

On the page that shows how the various letters are derived from the Wheel, the ʘ (O with central dot, transliterated by me as Ó) is not listed, but it is used 23 times in the manuscript for words, many of which also occur spelled with Ô (O with two lowest spokes or A inside). I think it is not actually a separate letter, but rather another way of making the Ô or OA. In the following list some varieties (bolded) and modern versions (Dutch, Frisian, German, English) are added (not all). It would be interesting to see how the varieties are distributed among the various authors or parts of the manuscript. To artificially create this non-random spelling variety (in order to create the 'illusion of authenticity', as the hoax-conspiracy theorists call it) would have been a hell of a job.

BÓSMA === (D) boezems, (G) Busen, (E) bosoms
BÓT- (also BÔT) === (D/G) boot, (E/F) boat
FÓ === (D) fout (French: faux)
HÓLA === (D) holen, (F) hoalen, (G) Höhlen, (E) holes
LÓFT === (D) lucht, (F) loft, (G) Luft
MÓN (MÔN, MAN, MÀN) === (D) men, (G) man
MÓNATH/ -A (also with Ô) === (D) maand, (F) moanne, (D) Monat, (E) month
NÓM- (more common with Ô) === (D) naam-/noem-, (F) namme, (E/G) name
NÓS (also NÔS) === (D) neus, (F) noas, (G) Nase, (E) nose
ÓL- (ÔL-, AL-, ÁL-)
ÓN- (ÔN)
ÓNI === (G) ohne
ÓRA (mostly Ô) === (F) oare, (D/G) andere, (E) other
ÓWERS (mostly Ô)
SNÓRANE (also with Ô or Á) === (D) snoeren
TÓNGAR === (D) donder, (F) tonger, (G) Donner, (E) thunder
WÓLKA  === (D/F/G) wolken

The list above already has examples of words that also occur with A, Á or À in stead of Ó or Ô. The same variety is common in the list of words with Ô (again, list may not be complete):

BLÔS- === (D) bloos-, (E) blush-
-BÔGE === (D) boog, (F) bôge, (E) bow, (G) Bogen
BÔM- (BÁM-) === (D) boom, (F) beam, (G) Baum
BÔT- === (D/G) boot, (E/F) boat
BRÔND === (D) brand, (F) brân
FÔNE (FÁNE) === (D) vaan, (F) fane, (G) Fahne
FÔR- === (D) voor-, (F) foar-, (G) vor-, (E) for-
HÔND- (HÁND) === (D/G/E) hand, (F) hân
HÔNE/ -A === (D) haan, (F) hoanne, (G) Hahn
"JON. JÔN. JHON ÀND JÁN" (varieties of name John, Jan, Jon)
KRÔN- === (D) kroon, (F) kroan, (G) krone
LÔMERA (LÀMKES) === (D) lammeren, (F) lammen, (G) Lämmer, (E) lams
-LÔN- (-LÁN-) === (D) laan, (F) leane/loane, (E) lane
LÔNG- (LANG) === (D/G/F) lang, (E) long
LÔS (LÁS) === (D) los/loos, (F) los/loas, (G) los/lose, (E) loose
-MÔN- (-MÀN-/-MAN-) === (D/E/F) man, (G) Mann
MÔNE/MÔNATH === (D) maan/maand, (F) moanne, (G) Mond/Monat, (E) moon/month
MÔRNE (MORNE) === (D/G) morgen, (F) moarn, (E) morning
-NÔM-, (-NÁM-, NOM) === (D) naam-/noem-, (F) namme, (E/G) name
NÔSE === (D) neus, (F) noas, (G) Nase, (E) nose
ÔGON, ÔGNUM (ÁGNUM/ÁGNE/ÁGA) === (D) ogen, (F) eagen, (G) Augen, (E) eyes
ÔL- (AL-, ÁL-) [note: ÔLLERWECHS, ÔLLERLÉJA only on pp. 164-166 by Ljudgeart the Geartman; elsewhere: ALLERWÉIKES, ALLERLÉJA]
ÔLD- (ALD-, OLD) === (D) oud-, (F) âld, (G) alt-, (E) old-
ÔN (only 1x) (AN) === (D) aan, (F) oan, (G) an, (E) on
-ÔR-, -E, -A, -UM, ÔTHER-, ÔWERS === (F) oare, (D/G) andere, (E) other
PLÔNK (PLANK-) === (D/E) plank, (F) planke
RÔS- === (D) roos, (F) roas, (E/G) rose
SKÔNDA (SKANTHA) === (D/G) schande, (F) skande
SNÔRA- (SNÁRA) === (D) snoeren
VNTHÔNKES === (D) ondanks

This variety of spelling suggest that also in the distant past there already was a variety of pronunciation. The Ó or Ô wil have been a long, open sound somewhere on the sliding scale between O and A.


Many of the words listed above also occur spelled with a normal O. I only mentioned a few examples of that. The following list is of words from the two probe texts with the regular O.

1) ending -OD/-OL/-OK (stressed) >>> sound O, OE, U, OO
BOK- === (D/F) boek, (G) Buch, (E) book
FLOD === (D) vloed, (F) floed, (G) Flut, (E) flood
GOD === (D) goed/God, (G) gut/Gott, (E) good/God
JOL === (D) joel, (G) Jul, (E) yule

(elsewhere: MOD === (D/F) -moed, (G) mut, (E) mood >>> derived from this root:)
MODER === (D) moeder, (G) Mutter, (E) mother
OD === (old-D) ode/oede/hode/hoede?

2) ending -ON/-ONG/-OND/-OST (unstressed) >>> these O sounds have dissapeared!
BÀRDON === (D) baarden
GVNGON (GVNGEN) === (D/G) gingen, (F) gongen
KÉMON === (D) kwamen, (F/G) kamen, (E) came
KRÉION === (D) kregen, (F) krigen
KRÛDON === (D) kruiden, (F) krûden, (G) Kräuter
NJUGON === (D) negen, (F) njoggen, (G) neun, (E) nine
RÉKNONG === (D) rekening, (G) Rechnung, (E) reckoning
THÛSOND === (D) duizend, (F) tûsen, (G) tausend, (E) thousand
-TIGOSTE === (D) -tigste, (F) -tichste, (G) -zigste, (E) -tiest
WERON === (D/G) waren, (E) were

3) followed by -CH or -GH (stressed)
BROCHT === (D) bracht, (F) brocht, (G) brachte, (E) brought
NOCHTA === (D) genoegens/geneugten/noten, (E) naught/nought
TOGHATER- === (D/F) dochter, (G) Tochter, (E) daughter
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought

4) short O sound
FOLK === (D/G) Volk, (E/F) folk
FON === (D) van, (F) fan, (G) von
-OF === (D) af, (F) ôf, (G) ab, (E) off
OKKE (name)

5) longer O sound
FORMA === (D/G) vorm-, (F) foarm-, (E) form-
FORTH === (D) voort, (F) fuort, (G) fort, (E) forth
OER === (D/E) over
MOT === (D) moet, (F) moat, (G) muss, (E) must
SKOLDE === (D) zoude, (F) soe, (G) sollte, (E) should
STOF === (D/F) stof, (G) Stoff/Staub, (E) stuff

TO (TOLIK: TO-LIK) === (D) te/toe, (G) zu, (E) to

6) long and sometimes spelled with Ô, Ó, Á
-NOMATH === (D) -noemd/-naamd

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