23 April 2018

How did it sound? #2: the double V or W


From the same two texts as in part #1, the various words are listed as examples. Use as consonant, like V, is easy to reconstruct, as it is still mostly the same in our comparing languages Dutch, German, English and Frisian:

As consonant in text 1:

WÁRJA === (D) bewaren, (F) bewarje, (G) bewahren (E) beware
WÉRON === (D/G) waren, (E) were
WET === (F) wiet, (E) wet
WÉI === (D/G) weg, (F) wei, (E) away
WÁK === (D) waak, (G) wache, (E) wake/ watch
SAHWERSA = HWERSA: lit. where-so => when
SKRÉWEN - see #1 Text 1
FJVWER- - see #1 Text 1

As consonant in text 2:
WROCHTE === (D) wrochtte, (E) wrought
KWIK === (D) kwik/ kwiek, (E) quick
KWÁD === (D) kwaad, (F) kwea
TWILIF, TWÉN === (D) twaalf/ twee-, (G) zwölf/ zwei-, (E) twelve/twin
WARME === (D/G) warme, (F) waarm, (E) warm
WÀRTH === (D) werd
WÉRON (see above)
WÉSA === (D) wezen
ALHWAT === (D/F) -wat, (G) -was, (E) -what

Less clear is the situation where W is followed by -N or -L, in WRD- or as separate  word or prefix WR-:

In text 1:
WR- (as in WRLANDISK, WRSKRÉVEN, WRSKRÍVA) === (D) overlands, overschrijven; in English literally 'over-landish' (foreign), 'over-scribe' (copy): short for OVER/OVIR (*note below)
WRDEN === (D/G) -worden/ -werden, (F) waarden
stamp from 'Oermuseum'

In text 2:
WR- (as in WR.ALDA) === (D) oer-, (G) ur- (example: oertijd/ Urzeit, oerwould/ Urwald): short for OVER/OVIR (*note below)
NW === (D) nu, (F) no, (E) now

Elsewhere:
WN- (in WN-won/ WND-wound) === (D) won/wond, (F) wûn/wûne, (G) won/Wunde, (E) won/wound
WL === (D) vuil, (E) foul

My guess is that in these cases pronunciation will have been like a short (E) oowe, (G) uwe, (D) oewe: ooweRLANDISK, ooweR-ALDA, Noowe, ooweN, ooweND, ooweL.
However, there will probably have been many dialects/varieties, for example:
oeRLANDISK, oeR-ALDA, Noe, etc. or:
weRLANDISK, weR-ALDA, etc.
There is no clear difference, after all, and even today there are similar differences (mostly of pronouncing the vowels) between the many dialects.

=====================

* WR / VR short for OVER / OVIR

1) evidence from within OLB

a) varieties THÉR.OVIR, THÉR.WR, THÉR.VR
(the latter is most common; also without dot or space instead)
=== (D) daarover, (G) darüber (F) oer dat, (E) lit. 'there-over', meaning 'about that'.

b) varieties OVER SKRÍVA, WRSKRÍVA, VRSKRIVA
(see above)

c) varieties OVER.ET, VR.ET
for example:
PEST WAS OVER.ET LAND KVMEN - pest had come over the land
WELDICH SKOLDE WERTHA VR.ET ÉLLE LÁND - should become ruling over the whole land

d) OVIR / OVER is also shortened as OER / OR:
TONÔMATH OVIRA.LINDA
OVIR.A LINDA.WRDA
OERA.LINDA. THÀT WIL SEZA OVIR THA LINDA
OVERA LINDA ÀFTE HJARA NÔMUN
OVERA SKELDA
THÀT OR.A SKELDA FOLK
(also: THA ÔRE SÍDE THÉRE SKELDA - the other side of the Skelda)

e) specifically about WR.ALDA
a suggestion that WR means OVER:
[098/07]
WR.ALDA IS THET ALDER.ALDESTA JEFTHA OVER.ALDESTA
‘Wr-alda’ is the most-ancient ('oldest-of-all') or primordial (‘over-oldest’)

"ureldi" in 10th century psalm (copied in 18th century), translated as "oiroudte" (most-old-age) in 1842
~ ~ ~ note: Wralda is only spelled once with I as WR.ALDI.S in the manuscript

2) evidence from context
(only few of many examples):
WRA MERKA TO GA - to go over the markets
THÁ THI STORN WR WÉR - when the storm was over
WR BERG ÀND DÉLON - over mountain and valleys
JOMPADE WR BORD - jumped over board
WRA BERGA ÀND WRN SÉ - over mountains and over sea
VPPA SÉ. ÀND WRA STRÉTE - upon the sea and over the strait
WR.NE SÉ TO FÁRANE - to fare/sail over (a) sea
UT SJANDE WRA WOSTÉNE - looking out over the desert
GVNG WR ALLE KRÉKA.LANDA - went over all Greeklands
ALLERWÉIKES RUN HJU WRA STRÉTE - everywhere she ran over the streets
etc.

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