28 July 2016

'wakedom' ~ watchfulness, wakefulness, vigilance

Allegory on Watchfulness and Straightforwardness, 1795 C.F. Bendorp

watchfulness, wakefulness, vigilance - English
Wachsamkeit - German
waakzaamheid - Dutch
vaksamhet - Swedish

Varieties in OLB:

WÁKANDOM - fragment 1
WÁKENDOM - 2,5
WÁKENDÛM - 3
WÁKANDON - 4

1 [050/15] on all burgs
THÁ WARTH WÁKANDOM VS DVBBELD BODEN
[Ottema/ Sandbach p.71]
Toen werd waakzaamheid ons dubbel geboden
Then watchfulness was doubly impressed upon us

2 [052/21] on the Waraburg
THAT VRSKALKTON VSA WÁKENDOM
[O-S p.75]
dat verschalkte onze waakzaamheid
that outwitted our watchfulness

Shield of Scheveningen with Vigilance and Minerva, 1704-1733 J. Schijnvoet


3 [063/02] on the burg Walhallagara
TILTHJU MÀN EN GRÁTE THÀNK OVIR HJRA WÁKENDÛM HÀVA SKOLDE
[O-S p.89]
Opdat men een grooten dunk van hare waakzaamheid zoude hebben
In order to give an impression of her great watchfulness

4 [080/31] on all burgs
THÁ FROST THJU BRIGGE RÉD HÉDE STOP WÁKANDON THÉR WR TO.T LAND UT
[O-S p.113]
Toen de vorst de brug gereed had, stapte de waakzaamheid daarover het land uit
When the frost had made the bridge, vigilance ceased in the land


5 [093/23-28] second writing of Brunno
WR.ALDA WILDVS WÍSA THÀT WÁKENDOM NAVT VRGAMLATH WRDE NE MÉI
(...) WÁKENDOM NILDE NAVT NE KÉRA

[O-S p.131]
Wralda wilde ons aantoonen, dat de waakzaamheid niet mag verflaauwen
(...) de waakzaamheid wilde niet terugkeeren
but Wr-alda wished to teach us that watchfulness should never be relaxed
(...) watchfulness did not take its place (return)


Committee of general vigilance 1795, caricature

08 July 2016

RONDDÉL - round yard, round-part, rampart

Artists impression of circular rampart
of Burg near Celle, Germany
A little one, just for the record:

ROND
round - English
rond - Dutch
rund - German, Danish, Swedish, Norse
rûn - Frisian

DÉL
deal, part - English
deel - Dutch
Teil - German
del - Danish, Swedish, Norse
diel - Frisian

Aggersborg Denmark
Trying to find a good translation for ROND.DÉL (see six fragments below), I stumbled upon "rampart", which seemed to fit pretty well and made me wonder if the words might be related, since "DÉL" means "part" and "ROND-" could have changed into "ram-).

The fact that ring-forts and circular ramparts were a common phenomenon in ancient Northern Europe, makes me wonder why the English language would have had to borrow from French: re-emparer (as is the official etymology). This is not impossible, but it does not make much sense to me. (Note the other word ráth for ring-fort may be related to German Rad - wheel)

Round-deal => round-part => rampart could be an alternative etymology.

[003/13]
THÉRA THÉR VMBE GODA DÉDUM EN FAR.DÉL TO RA HUS KRYEN HÉDE
VRLOVADON HJA FON SINANT WÉGUM JETA.N ÀFTER.DÉL BY.
HOKA THAM EN FAR ÀND ÀFTER.DÉL KRYEN HÉDE SÉIDON HJA EN ROND.DÉL TO
ÀND THAM EN ROND.DÉL HÉDE EN ÉLLE STÁT.

Those who had gained a front yard to their house for good deeds,
were promised a back yard on behalf of the Magus.
Who had gained a front- and back yard already, was promised a round yard*
and who had a round yard, a whole state.


[017/01]
ÀJDER BURCH MOT HIRI SELVA BIDRUPPA
ÀND GENÉRA FON HIRA ÀJN ROND.DÉL
ÀND FON THÀT DÉL THAT HJU FON THÀT MÀRK.JELD BÜRTH.

Every burg must be self sufficient
and nourish of (the farmland within) its own rampart
and of the share it earns from the market-profit.


[019/25]
ALLERA MANNALIK MOT MÀN EN ÀFTER DÉL AS WÀRF BY SINA HUS JÉVA.
THA NIMMAN NE MÉI EN FARDÉL BY SINA HUS NÀVA FÜL MIN EN ROND.DÉL.
ALLÉNA. JEF HWA EN DÁD DÉN HETH TO MÉNA NITHA
SÁ MÉI HIM THAT JÉVEN WRDE.
ÁK MÉI SIN JONGSTE SVN THAT ERVA.
AFTER THAM MOT THÀT THORP THAT WITHER NIMMA.

Everyone must be given an arable back yard behind his house,
but no one may have a front yard at his house let alone a round yard.
Only if one has done a deed serving the common good
that may be given him
and his youngest son may inherit it,
but after that the village must take it back.


[024/25]
WIL THENE KÉNING SA MÉJ ER VPPEN VNBIBVWADE STÉD EN PLÀK UTKJASA TO HUS ÀND ERV.
THAT ERV MÉI EN ROND.DÉL WÉSA SA GRAT
THÀT HI FON ALLE SIDUM SJVGUN HVNDRED TRÉDUN UT OF SINE HUS MÉI HLAPA
ÉR HI AN SINA RÉNA KVMTH.

If the king wants, he may choose a place on an uncultivated site for his house and domain.
That domain may be a round yard so large
that he can walk seven hundred steps from all sides out of his house
before he reaches his boundaries.


[082/08]
DRÉI ASET LJUCHT FONÉR TORE VPPET ROND.DÉL DEL FALDE
SA.R THAT AL FÉLO WÉPENDE MANNA WRA BURCHWAL WÉRON.

when the light of the tower fell down upon the rampart,
he saw that many armed men had already climbed over the burg wall.


[143/16]
LIK TÁT MELTH HETH SÁ SEND THA HÁVA.LÁSA MÀNNISKA TO GVNGEN
ÀND HÀVON HÛSKES BVWED BINNA THA HRING.DIK THÉRE BURCH.
THÉR.VMBE IS THÀT ROND.DÉL NW LJUD.WÉRD HÉTEN.

As dad has mentioned, the haveless people went
and built small houses within the ring-dike of the burg.
Therefore that rampart is now called Ljudwérd*.

(*ljud - people; wara - to guard, keep safe)