09 November 2011

"NOCHTA"... dirty words!

(This was also posted in the forum on November 6)

"NOCHT": a NAUGHTY word in the OLB?

An example of subtle censorship by translators

The OLB has four different uses of the word.

The following translations are listed: Ottema and Sandbach (1872/1876), Jensma (2006) and De Heer (2008)

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I) Literally, with translations like: nut, corn, fruit, crop, grain

Dutch: noot (plur.: noten)
German: Nuss
Danish: nød
Swedish: nöt
Norwegian: nøtt
Icelandic: hneta
French: noix
Spanish: nuez
Portuguese: noz
Italian: noce
Latin: nux

Fragments in OLB and their translations:

[047/09]
ANDA BÁMA ÀND TRÉJON WAXTON FRÜGzDA ÁND NOCHTA THÉR NW VRLÉREN SEND
[O+S p.67]
Ottema, De Heer: "vruchten en ooft"; Jensma: "vruchten en genoten"
Sandbach: "fruits"

[136/04]
JRTHA HETH HJARA BLOD DRUNKEN. MITH THÀT BLOD FODE HJU FRÜCHDA ÀND NOCHTA
[O+S p.185]
Ottema: "vruchten en koorn"; Jensma: "vruchten en noten"; De Heer: "vruchten en planten (genoegen)"
Sandbach: "corn and fruits"

[167/11]
THÉR BLOJATH ÀND WAXATH THA SELVA FRUCHTA ÀND NOCHTA AS AN THA ÁST.SIDE
[O+S p.225]
Ottema: "vruchten en granen"; Jensma: "vruchten en genoten"; De Heer: "vruchten en noten"
Sandbach: "fruits and crops"

[167/29]
BY VS WERTHAT NOCHTA FONDEN LIK BERN HÁVEDA SA GRÁT
[O+S p.227]
Ottema, Jensma, De Heer: "noten"
Sandbach: "nuts"

[189/15]
JRTHA WARTH BIHWÍLA ÁK AL.FÉDSTRE HÉTEN. THRVCHDAM HJU ALLE FRÜCHD ÀND NOCHTA BÉRTH
[O+S p.229]
Ottema: "vruchten en granen"; Jensma: "vruchten en noten"; De Heer: "vruchten en genoegen"
Sandbach: "fruits and grains"

[189/19]
NE SKOLDE HJU NÉNE FRÜCHD NER NOCHT NAVT NE BÉRA BÍDAM WRALDA HJA NÉNE KREFTA NE JÉF
[O+S p.229]
Ottema: "geene vruchten en granen"; Jensma: "geen vruchten en noten"; De Heer: "geen vruchten noch genoegen"
Sandbach: "not any fruit or grain"

In all above cases NOCHT/NOCHTA can simply be translated as noot/noten (nut/nuts).

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II) Metaphorically, with translations like: pleasure, delight, diversion, cheerfulness, happiness, satisfaction

Dutch (related words): genot, geneugte, genoegen, genieting, neiging, neut, neuk
German: Genuss, Vergnügen
Danish: fornøjelse
Swedish: njutning
Finnish: nautinto
Icelandic: ánægja

[006/29]
RING AS HJA RIP WÉRON KRÉJON HJA FRÜCHDA ÀND NOCHTA ANDA DRÁMA
[O+S p.13]
Ottema: "vermaak en genoegen"; Jensma: "vreugde en genoten"; De Heer: "vreugde en genoegen"
Sandbach: "pleasure and delight"

[008/27]
SACH HJU HJRA BÀRN EN FRYA.S VRMORDE SÁ SWOL HJRA BOSM FON NOCHT
[O+S p.15]
Ottema, Jensma, De Heer: "genoegen"
Sandbach: "pleasure"

[092/10]
HJU WILDE RÉDER ENNEN BOSTA HA MITH ALL JOI ÀND NOCHTA THÉR ER ANEBONDEN SEND
[O+S p.129]
Ottema: "vreugde en genoegens"; Jensma: "vreugde en plezier"; De Heer: "vreugde en genoegen"
Sandbach just left this out! (joy and pleasure)

[093/22]
NINMAN NÉDE DIGER THAN TO ÁKANE SINA NOCHT
[O+S p.131]
Ottema: "vermaak"; Jensma, De Heer: "plezier"
Sandbach: "diversion"

[093/28]
NOCHT RUNDE WÉI. THA WÁKENDOM NILDE NAVT NE KÉRA
[O+S p.131]
Ottema: "vermaak"; Jensma: "plezier"; De Heer: "genoegen"
Sandbach: "Cheerfulness"

[094/06]
THAHWILA THÉR ALREK IN NOCHT BÁJADE WAS VRRÉD LÁND
[O+S p.131]
Ottema, De Heer: "in vreugde baadde"; Jensma: "in Plezier baadde"
Sandbach: "was intoxicated with pleasure"

[137/32]
THA MÀNNISKA [...] SA FÉLO NOCHT TO JÁN. AS TO BI NÁKA IS
[O+S p.187]
Ottema, De Heer: "genoegen te geven"; Jensma: "plezier te geven"
Sandbach: "make happy"

[139/11]
IN SIN KÉNINGKRIK [...] HWÉR FRÜ IS ÀND NOCHTA SEND
[O+S p.189]
Ottema, De Heer: "vreugde en genietingen"; Jensma: "vreugde en genot"
Sandbach: "joy and happiness"

[139/20]
THÀT THÉRA THÉR HÍR VP IRTHA THÀT MÁSTE LÉDEN HÉDE. NÉIMELS THA MÁSTA NOCHTA HÀVA SKOLDE
[O+S p.189]
Ottema, De Heer: "vreugde"; Jensma: "plezieren"
Sandbach: "happiness"

[149/18]
HO FRISO ALLE TO BIDOBBE WISTE TO NOCHT FON BÉDE PARTJA
[O+S p.203]
Ottema, Jensma, De Heer: "tot genoegen"
Sandbach: "to the satisfaction"

[153/28]
THÉR FON HÉDON THA WIVA NOCHT. THA FÁMNA NOCHT. THA MANGÉRTNE NOCHT. ÀND THÉROF HÉDON AL HJARA MÉGUM NOCHT
[O+S p.207]
Ottema: "hadden genoegen"; Jensma, De Heer: "hadden plezier"
Sandbach: "were pleased"

[162/17]
THA HÉINDE AND FÉRHÉMANDE SENDA.BODON HÉDON NOCHT FON VR THÀT SKRIFT
[O+S p.219]
Ottema: "hadden genoegen van"; Jensma: "hadden plezier over"; De Heer: "hadden voldoening van"
Sandbach: "were pleased with"

In all above cases NOCHT/NOCHTA can simply be translated as genot/genietingen or geneugte(n).
The Dutch words "genot" and "geneugte" associate more with (physical) pleasure, while the words "plezier" and "vermaak" are more about (innocent) fun.
The difference is subtle, but it explains why the translators (in many cases) avoid a more litteral translation.

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III) Derived from metaphor (I don't know a term for this), translated as: enough

Dutch: genoeg (note: "nokken" = slang for to stop/ quit)
German: genug
Danish, Norwegian: nok
Icelandic: nóg

[057/16]
INKA SÉIDE THAT.I SIN NOCHT HÉDE FON AL.ET FINDA.S.FOLK
[O+S p.81]
Ottema, Jensma: "zijn bekomst had van"; De Heer: "genoeg had van"
Sandbach: "had enough of"

[063/18]
AS HJU THÉR HJRA NOCHT FON HÉDE WERPTE HJU HJRA SELVA ANDA ÀRMA THÉRA GOLUM
[O+S p.89]
Ottema, Jensma: "haar bekomst van had"; De Heer: "haar genoegen van had"
Sandbach: "had enough of"

This beautifully shows where the expression comes from.
I would prefer the translations by De Heer.

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IV) As a personal name (not to be translated)

[133/32]
KONE.RÉD ALSA HÉT MIN FORMA [...] ÀND THA JONGESTE NOCHT
[O+S p.183]
Ottema, Sandbach, De Heer: "Nocht"; Jensma: "Plezier"

What to say?
It's typical for Jensma to interpret instead of translate...

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