28 October 2011

Words ending with -HÉD or -NES / -NIS

(this was also posted on the forum on 25 October 2011)

FRYA THÉR SJUGUN SKÉNHÉDE HÉDE [096/13]
study of the OLB language

In my post about DEL-TA, I gave some examples of how some adjectives can be turned into nouns by adding:

-te (Dutch),
-de (Scandinavian languages),
-th (English); here I forgot the even more obvious -ity (example: oddity)

Quote
diep (-te) = deep/ depth
droog (-te) = dry (-ness)
groen (-te) = green/ vegetable
hoog (-te, -heid) = high (-ness)
laag (-te) = low (-ness)
lang/ lengte = long/ length
leeg (-te) = empty (-ness)
lief (-de) = dear/ love
sterk (-te) = strong/ strength
stil (-te) = silent/ silence, stil (-ness)
ver (-te) = far/ distance
warm (-te) = warm (-th)
wijd (-te) = wide/ width


More common is the use of:

-heid (Dutch)
-heit (German)
-het (Swedish, Norwegian)
-hed (Danish)

Some examples in Dutch:

glad (-heid) = slippery (-ness)
goed (-heid) = good (-ness)
hard (-heid) = hard (-ness)
plechtig (-heid) = formal (-ity)
schoon (-heid) = beautiful/ beauty
snel (-heid) = fast/ speed
vrij (-heid) = free (-dom)
... etcetera

The OLB suggests that this -HÉD is derived from the verb "to have" (see title of this post), which would make sense.

When a noun is based on an adjective (like "hardness" is based on "hard"), the noun represents a property that has the quality of the adjective.
(I don't know how to explain this, I hope it's understandable.)
Examples:
Slipperyness => something has/is slippery
goodness => something that has/is good
hardness => something having/being hard
etc.

The Dutch, German and Scandinavian -heid/ -heit/ -het/ -hed can be used for almost anything, like the English -ness.

The OLB contains the following varieties of this construction, that are often hard to translate:

ÀJENDOMLIKHÉD [p.158/25-26]
NL: eigendommelijkheid => eigenschap
E: 'owndomlikeness' => property, characteristic

BIGÍRLIKHÉD [p.160/21]
NL: begeerlijkheid
E: 'wannahaveness' => covetousness?

BLODHÉD [p.166/01]
NL: blootheid or bloedheid? (uncommon) => 'blooheid', verlegenheid, schroom?
E: timidity, shyness?

BOSHÉD [pp.099/03-04,158/24]
NL: boosheid
E: angryness, wickedness

DERTENHÉD [p.079/15]
NL: dartelheid?
E: wantonness?

DROKHÉD [p.086/15]
NL: drukheid, drukte
E: busyness

DOMHÉD [099/]; DVMHÉD [pp.13,33,35,36]
NL: domheid
E: dumbness, stupidity

DWÉSHÉD [pp.190,191,203], DWÁSHÉDE [plur. 206]
NL: dwaasheid
E: crazyness, stupidity

ÉVGHÉD [p.158]
NL: eeuwigheid
E: eternity

FINDINGRIKHÉD [p.141], OVER.FINDINGRIKHÉD [p.100]
NL: (over-) vindingrijkheid
E: (over-) inventivity

FONSELVHÉD [p.32]
NL: vanzelfheid (uncommon)
E: 'ofcourseness'?

FORMÉTENHÉD [p.190], VRMÉTENHÉD [p.161]
NL: vermetenheid, vermetelheid
E: audacity

FRYHÉD [pp.134.141,142(3x)]
NL: vrijheid
E: freeness

FVLKVMENLIKHÉD [p.103], FVLKVMINHÉD [p.139]
NL: volkomen(lijk)heid
E: perfect(like)ness

GODHÉD [p.134]
NL: goedheid
E: goodness

GRÁTHÉD [p.151]
NL: grootheid
E: greatness

HÁCHFÁRENHÉD [pp.63,100]
NL: hoogvarendheid
E: (high-faringness) 'pompousness'?

HÉRICHHÉD [p.87], OVERHÉRICHHÉD [p.136]
NL: horigheid => gehoorzaamheid
E: 'hearingness'; obedience

KOSTELIKHÉD [p.207]
NL: kostelijkheid
E: preciousness

KLÁRHÉD [p.145]
NL: klaarheid (helderheid)
E: clearness, clarity

KLÁRSJANHÉD [pp.35,134]
NL: klaarziendheid (helderziendheid)
E: 'clearseeingness'; clearvoyance

LEFHÉD [p.203]
NL: lafheid
E: cowardice

LÔMHÉD [p.099/04]
NL: loomheid
E: heaviness, languidness

OVERBILÁWICHHÉD [p.132]
NL: bijgelovigheid?
E: superstition?

OVERFLODALIKHÉD [p.135]
NL: overvloedelijkheid -> overvloedigheid
E: abundantness

OVIRMODICHHÉD [p.124]
NL: overmoed(igheid)
E: 'overcourageousness'; hubris

RJUCHTFÉRDICHHÉD [pp.32,160]
NL: rechtvaardigheid
E: justice

SALICHHÉD [36], SÉLIGHÉD [pp.158(3x),159]
NL: zaligheid
E: delight, blissfulness

SKALKHÉD [p.17]
NL: schalksheid?
E: roguishness

SKÁMELHÉD [p.112]
NL: schamelheid
E: shabbyness?

SKÉNHÉD [pp.95,96,163]
NL: schoonheid
E: 'shineness'; beauty

SÍRHÉD (name) [p.62,etc]
litterally: "Sierheid"; beauty(ness)

SYRHÉDON [pp.61,75,79,80,etc.], SJARHÉDA [p.118]
NL: sieraden (litt. "sierheden")
E: jewelry ('beautynesses')

SNÔDHÉD [p.115]
NL: snoodheid
E: baseness, wickedness

TSJODISHÉD [p.159]
NL: slechtheid (Jensma), ondeugendheid (Ottema)
E: evilness, badness?

VNDIGERHÉD [4x]
[p.099/04] Jensma: onzorgvuldigheid, Ottema: zorgeloosheid, Sandbach: carelessness
[p.152/11] Jensma and Ottema: onvoorzichtigheid, Sandbach: imprudence
[pp.161/2,203/19] Jensma: onoplettendheid, Ottema: onbezonnenheid, Sandbach: inconsiderateness, thoughtlessness

WELHÉD [p.26]
NL: welheid, goedheid
E: wellness, goodness

WENHÉD [pp.65,147], WÉNHÉD [p.113]
NL: wenheid (not used) => gewoonte
E: habit

WÉRHÉD [pp.118,140(2x),141]
NL: waarheid
E: truth

WISHÉD [p.96,etc.]
NL: wijsheid
E: wiseness, wisdom

######

PART 2

Posted 25 October 2011 - 11:05 AM

Otharus, on 25 October 2011 - 08:34 AM, said:
In my post about DEL-TA, I gave some examples of how some adjectives can be turned into nouns by adding:
-te (Dutch),
-de (Scandinavian languages),
-th (English); here I forgot the even more obvious -ity (example: oddity)

More common is the use of:
-heid (Dutch)
-heit (German)
-het (Swedish, Norwegian)
-hed (Danish)

The OLB suggest that this -HÉD is derived from the verb "to have" (see title of this post), which would make sense.
The Dutch, German and Scandinavian -heid/ -heit/ -het/ -hed can be used for almost anything, like the English -ness.


In Dutch, besides "-heid", "-nes" (or "-nis") is also used in the same way, just like the English "-ness":

bekend/ bekentenis = known, confessed/ confession
bemoeien (-is) = to meddle (in)/ meddling
gebeurd/ gebeurtenis = happened/ 'happenedness' => event (in the past)
geschied (-enis) = same, but now it means history
gevangen (-is) = caught (trapped)/ 'caughtness' => prison
treur (-nis) = mourn/ 'mournness' => misery
verdommen (-is) = to damn/ damnation
getuigen (-is) = to testify/ testimonial
herdenken/ nagedachtenis = to rethink/ memorial
deren/ deernis = to harm or to hurt/ pity

While "-heid" (OLB: -HÉD) seems to be derived from the verb "to have", "-is" (OLB: -IS or -ES) could be derived from the verb "to be".

Here's the OLB words made with this construction.

Note the many spelling varieties (seven for SKÉDNESE; history!).

ÀRGENESE [041/24; 138/06], ÀRGNISSE [069/05], ÀRGENISSE [076/06], ÀRGNISE [157/13] = annoyance, irritation (dutch: ergernis)

BÉRTNISA [001/21] BÉRTNISSA [087/13], BÉRTNESA [143/04] = events, occurrences, incidents (dutch: gebeurtenissen)

BITJVTENISE [035/01], BITJUDNESE [045/27], BITHJUTNESSE [142/23] = meaning(-s) (dutch: betekenis(-sen))

BYLDNESE [038/08], BYLDNISSE [072/29] = 'buildnesses'; statues (dutch: beeltenissen)

DROVENESE [137/01 = sadness (dutch: droefenis)

ÉR.BJADENESSE [071/15], ÉRBIDENESE [121/06], ÉRBÉDENESE [136/26], ÉR.BÍDNESSE [189/05] = respect; 'honor-offering-ness' (dutch: eerbied)

FANGNISA [037/04,6] = ??? Ottema: "booze lusten", Sandbach: "wicked passions", Jensma: "bevangenissen; gewoonten waardoor men bevangen is (?), eventueel 'gevangenissen'"

HÉMNESA [046/04], HEMNISSA [210/31] = secrets (dutch: geheimen)

LIKNESS [072/30] = likeness (dutch: gelijkenis)

SKÉDNISSE [Hidde/04], SKÍDNISA [004/15], SKÉDNISE [006/11-12], SKÉDNESA [040/05; 108/22] SKÉDNESSE [050/31; 062/06; 065/15; 071/13], SKÉDNESE [053/13; 056/21; 114/01; 119/19; 120/13; 146/16], SKIDNESE [154/19] = histories, history (dutch: geschiedenis(-sen))

STILNISE [009/05; 049/19; 140/23; 163/31], STILNESSE [201/05] = stillness, silence (dutch: stilnis, stilte)

THJUSTERNESSE [084/05], THJUSTERNISE [093/27], THJUSTERNISSE [094/10], THJUSTRENESSE [142/14,26; 159/32] = dusk, darkness (dutch: duisternis)

YDLENISE [009/16] = vanity (dutch: ijdelheid)

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